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Full text of "Report"

1938 



LIBRARY-COLLEGE PARK 




Maryland i; „ m 
«pity of Maryland Libron 
Caiie^c Park, Md. 



* WOT PJHCOLWI 



Digitized 


by the Internet Arch 






■ 


n2013 







http://archive.org/details/report00mary_67 



STATE OF MARYLAND 

DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION 



Seventy-second Annual Report 

OF THE 

State Board of Education 

SHOWING CONDITION 

OF THE 

Public Schools of Maryland 

FOR THE 
YEAR ENDING JULY 31, 1938 




BALTIMORE, MD. 



.B/7 

19 



5/ 



n 

STATE OF MARYLAND 
STATE BOARD OF EDUCATION— 1939 

Name Address Name Address 

TASKER G. LOWNDES, Pres Cumberland MRS. ALVIN THALHEIMER Baltimore 

DR. J. M. T. FINNEY, Vice-Pres Baltimore CHARLES A. WEAGLEY Hagerstown 

WENDELL D. ALLEN Baltimore HENRY C. WHITEFORD Whiteford 

EDWARD H. SHARPE Frederick 

ALBERT S. COOK, Secretary-Treasurer, Towson 

OFFICE OF THE STATE SUPERINTENDENT OF SCHOOLS 

1111 Lexington Building, Baltimore, Md. 

Name Office 

ALBERT S. COOK State Superintendent of Schools 

I. JEWELL SIMPSON Assistant State Superintendent in Charge of Elementary Instruction 

T. G. PULLEN, Jr Asst. Supt. in Administration and Supervisor of High Schools 

E. CLARKE FONTAINE (Chestertown) Supervisor of High Schools 

JAMES E. SPITZNAS (Cumberland) Supervisor of High Schools 

EARLE T. HAWKINS Supervisor of High Schools 

J. WALTER HUFFINGTON Supervisor of Colored Schools 

JOHN J. SEIDEL Director of Vocational Education and Supervisor of Industrial Education 

ELISABETH AMERY Supervisor of Home Economics Education 

H. F. COTTERMAN (College Park) Supervisor of Agriculture 

R. FLOYD CROMWELL Supervisor of Educational and Vocational Guidance 

R. C. THOMPSON (910 Lexington Bldg.) Supervisor of Vocational Rehabilitation 

and Special Education 

THOMAS D. BRAUN (910 Lexington Bldg.) Rehabilitation Assistant 

ROGER E. MARTZ (Boonsboro) Rehabilitation Assistant 

THOMAS C. FERGUSON Supervisor of Physical Education and Recreation 

ADELENE J. PRATT (400 Cathedral St.) State Director of Public Libraries 

BESSIE C. STERN Statistician 

MERLE S. BATEMAN Credential Secretary 

GRACE STEELE TRAVERS Financial Secretary 

E. SUE WALTER Clerk 

RUTH E. HOBBS Stenographer 

ELIZABETH McGINNITY Stenographer 

MINDELL SCHAFF Statistical Assistant 

HELEN BUCHER BANDIERE Stenographer 

RUTH O. KNAUSS (910 Lexington Bldg.) Stenographer 

FRANCES O. KANN Statistical Assistant 

MARY E. VOLZ Stenographer 

MARGARET L. MILLER Stenographer 

PRESIDENTS OF STATE TEACHERS COLLEGES 

M. THERESA WIEDEFELD State Teachers College. Towson 

JOHN L. DUNKLE State Teachers College. Frostburg 

J. D. BLACKWELL State Teachers College. Salisbury 

LEONIDAS S. JAMES State Teachers College (For Colored Youth), Bowie 

BOARD OF TRUSTEES 
MARYLAND TEACHERS' RETIREMENT SYSTEM 

911 Lexington Building, Baltimore, Md. 

J. MILLARD TAWES State Comptroller and Chairman 

HOOPER S. MILES State Treasurer 

ALBERT S. COOK State Superintendent of Schools 

EDWIN W. BROOME Superintendent of Montgomery County Schools, Vice-Chairman 

MRS. MARGARET S. UPHAM Principal, Allegany County 

MILDRED MEDINGER Secretary 

MINNIE M. HAMILTON Stenographer 

HELEN KIRKMAN ; Clerk 

SEP 2 8 1939 : _ 



MARYLAND COUNTY SUPERINTENDENTS AND SUPERVISORS 

1938-1939 



County Address 
ALLEGANY— Cumberland 
Charles L. Kopp, Supt. 
Lillian Compton, Asst. Supt. 
Winifred Greene 
Mildred Willison 
Richard T. Rizer (High School) 

ANNE ARUNDEL — Annapolis 
George Fox, Supt. 
Ruth Parker Eason 
Vera Pickard 

Howard A. Kinhart (High School) 

BALTIMORE— Towson 
C. G. Cooper, Supt. 
Edward G. Stapleton. Asst. Supt. 
Viola K. Almony 1 
Amy C. Crewe 2 
Myrtle Eckhardt- 
M. Annie Grace- 
Nellie Gray 3 
C. James Velie- (Music) 
M. Lucetta Sisk- (High School) 

CALVERT— Prince Frederick 
Harry R. Hughes, Supt. 
Mattie V. Hardesty 

CAROLINE Denton 
B. C. Willis, Supt. 
A. May Thompson 

CARROLL— Westminster 

Raymond S. Hyson, Supt. 
Ruth Devore 
Charles E. Reck 

Samuel M. Jenness (High School) 

CECIL— Elkton 

H. E. McBride. Supt. 
Olive L. Reynolds 

CHARLES La Plata 

F. Bernard Gwynn, Supt. 
Jane Bowie 

DORCHESTER— Cambridge 
W. Theodore Boston, Supt. 
Evelyn E. Johnson 

FREDERICK— Frederick 
E. W. Pruitt. Supt. 
Hal Lee T. Ott 
Helen Jane Woodley 
A. Drucilla Worthington 

GARRETT Oakland 

Franklin E. Rathbun, Supt. 
Kate Bannatyne 4 
Caroline Wilson 



County Address 
HARFORD— Bel Air 

C. Milton Wright, Supt. 
Hazel L. Fisher 
Mary L. Grau"' 

HOWARD— Ellicott City 
H. C. Brown, Supt. 
Gail W. Chadwick 

KENT— Chestertown 

Louis C. Robinson, Supt. 
Esta V. Harrison 

MONTGOMERY— Rockville 
E. W. Broome, Supt. 
Grace Alder 

Mary Gertrude Cross (Music) 
Marjorie Billows (Art) 
Elizabeth Meany 

Fern D. Schneider (High School) 

PRINCE GEORGE'S— Upper Marlboro 
Nicholas Orem, Supt. 
Louise R. Colip 
Maude Gibbs Hyle 
Mary Kemp 6 
Kathryn Reidy G 

QUEEN ANNE'S— Centreville 
Franklin D. Day, Supt. 
Tempe H. Dameron 

ST. MARY'S— Leonardtown 
Lettie M. Dent, Supt. 
E. Violette Young 

SOMERSET— Princess Anne 

W. Stewart Fitzgerald, Supt. 
Jane D. Wilson 

TALBOT— Easton 

J. Willard Davis, Supt. 
William R. Phipps 

WASHINGTON— Hagerstown 
B. J. Grimes, Supt. 
Pauline Blackford 
Mary Helen Chrissinger (Art) 
Grace B. Downin 
Katherine L. Healy 
Anne Richardson 

WICOMICO— Salisbury 

James M. Bennett, Supt. 
Hazel Jenkins Hearne 
Leah M. Phillips 

WORCESTER— Snow Hill 

Arthur C. Humphreys, Supt. 
Elizabeth Mundy 



1 Sparrows Point 

2 200 W. Saratoga St., Balto. 



3 Catonsville 

4 Grantsville 



5 Havre de Grace 

6 Hyattsville 



71)908 



CONTENTS 

Page 

Letter of Transmittal 5 

The State Public School Budgets for 1938 and 1939 6 

White Elementary Schools: 

Enrollment in Public and Non-Public Schools, Decline in Birth Ratt, 

Length of Session, Attendance, Late Entrants, Withdrawals 7 
Grade Enrollment, Graduates, Non-Promoted and Over-age Pupils 17 
Tests; Education for Handicapped Children in Counties and City 32 
Teacher Certification, Summer School Attendance, Resignation-. 

Turnover 39 

Men Teaching, Size of Class, Teachers' Salaries 42 

Per Pupil Costs, Transportation, Libraries, Health, Capital Outlay 48 

Size of Schools and Consolidation 65 

Supervision 67 

White High Schools : 

Enrollment in Public and Non-Public Schools, Length of Session, 

Attendance, Graduates and Their Occupations 70 

Enrollment by Year; Distribution by Subject of Enrollment, Fail- 
ures, Withdrawals; Standard Tests 88 

Teachers by Subjects; Teacher Resignations, Turnover, Sex Ill 

Number and Size of High Schools 119 

Ratio of Pupils to Teachers, Salaries of Teachers 125 

Per Pupil Costs, Vocational Education and Guidance, Transporta- 
tion, Libraries, Health, Capital Outlay 131 

Supervision 144 

Colored Schools: 

Enrollment in Public and Non-Public Schools, Decline in Birth Rate. 

Length of Session, Attendance, Late Entrants, Withdrawals 146 
Grade Enrollment, Graduates, Non-Promoted and Over-age Pupils, 

Tests 155 

High Schools; Schools in Baltimore 169 

Teacher Certification, Summer School Attendance, Resignations, 

Turnover, Men Teachers, Size of Class, Salaries 179 

Cost per Pupil, Transportation, Libraries, Capital Outlay, Value of 

School Property 191 

Size of Schools, Number of Approved High Schools, Physical Edu- 
cation, Health and Cleanliness Contests, P.-T. A.'s 199 

Receipts and Expenditures from Other Than County Funds; Super- 
vision 209 

Bowie Normal School 211 

The Physical Education Program in Maryland Counties 214 

Summer Schools, Evening Schools, Emergency Adult Education Pr - 

gram, Vocational Rehabilitation 217 

Costs of Maryland Schools, Total and per Pupil 226 

Financing the Vocational Education Program 240 

Work Relief Projects for Sanitation and School Buildings 244 

Transportation of Pupils, W. P. A. Library Projects 245 

Capital Outlay, Bonds Outstanding, Value of School Property 252 

County Residents Attending School Outside County 258 

1938-39 County Levies; Per Cent of Levies Used for Schools; Assess- 
ments; Tax Rates 257 

Parent-Teacher Associations; Receipts and Expenditures from Other 

Than County Funds— White Schools; Federal NYA Aid 267 

State Certification of Teachers 271 

County School Administration 274 

The Maryland State Teachers Colleges — Towson, Frostburg, Salisbury 275 
County Teachers' Contributions to the State Teachers' Retirement 

System 287 

List of Financial Statements ; Statistical Tables 289 

Index 332 



4 



Baltimore, Md., June 1, 1939. 
Honorable Herbert R. O'Conor, 
Governor of Maryland, 
Annapolis, Maryland. 

Dear Governor O'Conor: 

In accordance with Section 24 of Article 77, of the Laws of 
Maryland, the seventy-second "annual report, covering all opera- 
tions of the State Department of Education and the support, con- 
dition, progress, and needs of education throughout the State" for 
the school year ending in June, 1938, is herewith presented to you. 

The excellent law which governs the Maryland school pro- 
gram, its simple and efficient plan for organization, administra- 
tion, supervision, and financing, as well as the enthusiastic coop- 
eration received from all county teachers, clerks, attendance offi- 
cers, supervisors, and superintendents, who have in most cases 
been given the whole-hearted moral and financial support of their 
patrons, county boards of education and county commissioners 
have made possible the conditions shown in this report. 

Respectfully submitted, 

Albert S. Cook, 

Secretary -Treasurer. 

State Board of Education. 
Tasker G. Lowndes, President 
Wendell D. Allen 
J. M. T. Finney, M. D. 
Fannie Thalheimer 
Robert E. Vining 
Charles A. Weagly 
Henry C. Whiteford 



5 



THE STATE PUBLIC SCHOOL BUDGETS FOR 1938 AND 1939 

The State Public School Budget for 1938 totalled $6,177,685.50, 
exclusive of $600,000 from the State Bond Issue for the Retire- 
ment System. This total included $158,080 estimated as receipts 
from fees from students at the State Teachers Colleges and Bowie 
Normal School. (See Table 1.) 



TABLE 1 



State Public School Budget for 1939 Compared With 1938 



Purpose 



Amounts Contributed to Retirement Sys- 
tem, Counties and Baltimore City: 
Retirement System: 

1. County Teachers 

2. Baltimore City Teachers 

3. Expense Fund 

Sub-Total Items 1-3 

4. High School Aid 

5. Colored Industrial Fund 

6. Part-Payment of Salaries 

7. Books and Materials 

8. Fund Distributed on Basis of Census and 

Attendance 

9. Equalization Fund 

10. Reduction of County Taxation 

11. Physically Handicapped Children 

Sub-Total Items 4-11 

12. State Board of Education 

13. Vocational Education 

14. Physical Education and Recreation 

15. Bureau of Educational Measurements. . . 

16. Publications and Printing 

17. Medical Examinations 

18. Vocational Rehabilitation 

19. Consultant Architect 

20. State Department of Education 

Sub-Total Items 12-20 

21. State Teachers College, Towson 

22. State Teachers College, Salisbury 

23. State Teachers College, Frostburg 

24. State Teachers College, Bowie 

Sub-Total Items 21-24 

Grand Total 

Fees Teachers Colleges 

Total from State 



1938 



a$2, 533.00 
b422,355.00 
11,450.00 



c$436,338.00 

560,829.00 
27,000.00 
183,479.00 
250,000.00 

1,800,000.00 
1,103,111.75 
1,250,000.00 
15,000.00 



$5,189,419.75 

800.00 
11,840.25 
15,000.00 
10,491.50 
4,500.00 
1,700.00 
15,293.50 
750.00 
63,683.00 



$124,058.25 

d217,542.50 
e87,987.00 
f 72, 130.00 
g50,210.00 



h$427,869.50 



$6,177,685.50 
158,080.00 



$6,019,605.50 



1939 



a$16,623.00 
b443,383.00 
11,450.00 



$471,456.00 

570,602.00 
25,500.00 
183,647.00 
250,000.00 

1,800,000.00 
1,177,171.75 
1,250,000.00 
15,000.00 



$5,271,920.75 

1,000.00 
12,240.25 
15,000.00 
10,491.50 
4,500.00 
1,700.00 
15,293.50 
750.00 
65,848.00 

$126,823.25 

d224,702.50 
e90,992.00 
f 79, 900. 00 
g58,280.00 



h$453,874.50 



$6,324,074.50 
178,170.00 



$6,145,904.50 



a Excludes bond issue for Retirement System $500 , 000 . 00 $500 , 000 . 00 
b Excludes bond issue for Retirement System 1 00 , 000 .00 100,000.00 



c Excludes bond issue for Retirement System $600 , 000 . 00 $600 , 000 . 00 

d» e, f, g, Includes receipts from fees from 
students: 

d Towson $80,580.00 $87,740.00 $7,160.00 

e Salisbury 40,500.00 43,660.00 3,160.00 

f Frostburg 24,000.00 31,770.00 7,770.00 

g Bowie 13,000.00 15,000.00 2,000.00 



h Total Fees, Teachers Colleges $158,080.00 $178,170.00 $20,090.00 



*Decrease 



6 



1938 and 1939 State School Budgets; White Elementary 7 
Enrollment 

The 1939 Public School Budget, which totalled $6,324,074.50, 
excluded $600,000 from the State Bond Issue for the Retirement 
System, but included an estimate of $178,170 for student's fees. 
(See Table 1.) 

The increases from 1938 to 1939 were made up of $74,060 in 
the Equalization Fund to take care of regular salary increments 
due to experience, additional teachers and additional transporta- 
tion; $35,118 in the appropriation to the State Teachers' and Bal- 
timore City Retirement Systems on account of teachers ; $26,005 
for the State Teachers Colleges; $9,773 for State aid to high 
schools, and $2,165 to the State Department of Education. There 
was a $1,500 decrease in the colored industrial fund because of 
consolidation of schools in two counties, which reduced the number 
of schools below ten. (See Table 1.) 

The amount for vocational education was increased in 1938 by 
$2,400 for one-half of the year to provide for the supervisor of vo- 
cational guidance appointed after the Maryland survey of the 
American Youth Commission. The cost of the guidance program 
was taken over by the State in March, 1938. The State Director 
of Vocational Education secured approval for the payment for 
the year 1938-39 of one-half of the salary and expenses of the 
State supervisor of vocational guidance from Federal funds. 

WHITE ELEMENTARY SCHOOLS 
WHITE ENROLLMENT IN ELEMENTARY SCHOOLS 

The enrollment in the county public elementary schools for 
white pupils for 1938 totaled 109,636, a decrease of 1,319 under 
the year preceding. Except for a slight gain in 1937, there has 
been a small decrease in white enrollment in public elementary 
schools each year since 1933, the decrease in the five years total- 
ling 2,873. (See Tables 2 and 3.) 

The counties are arranged in Table 2 in order of size of public 
white elementary school enrollment in 1938. Only three of the 
counties showed increases in white enrollment in public elemen- 
tary schools from 1937 to 1938, and only six had a larger enroll- 
ment in 1938 than in 1923. 

The Baltimore City drop of 2,054 in enrollment from 1937 to 
1938 brought the total white enrollment in public elementary and 
vocational schools and in the first two years of junior high schools 
to 73,064 in 1938. Except for the increase which appeared in 
1936, the white enrollment in these Baltimore City schools has 
shown a steady decrease since 1930. The decrease in Baltimore 
City white public school enrollment between 1930 and 1938 to- 
talled 5,174, nearly 1.8 times the drop in county white elementary 
school enrollment. 



8 



1938 Report of Maryland S*ate Department of Education 



The county white enrollment in public elementary schools to- 
talled, 109,636 in contrast with a comparable enrollment in Balti- 
more City of 73,064, giving an excess of 36,572 for the counties. 
(See Tables 2 and 3.) 

TABLE 2 

Total Enrollment in Maryland White Elementary Schools, for Years Ending 
June, 1923, 1937 and 1938 



County 



Total Counties. . . 

Baltimore 

Allegany 

Washington 

Prince George's. . 

Montgomery 

Frederick 

Anne Arundel .... 

Carroll 

Harford 

Garrett 

Wicomico 

Cecil 



Number Enrolled in 
White Elementary Schools 



1923 



*106,069 

13,333 
11,107 
10,859 
6,421 
4,524 
8,505 
4,947 
5,902 
4,290 
5,373 
3,986 
3,405 



1937 



110,955 

17,490 
12,706 
11,111 

9,538 
9,039 
7,261 
6,313 
4,975 
4,269 
4.040 
3,607 
3,297 



1938 



■-109,636 

17,337 
12,552 
11,064 
9,923 
9,098 
7,105 
6,353 
4,869 
4,121 
3,930 
3,562 
3,210 



County 



Dorchester. . . . 

Howard 

Worcester 

Somerset 

Caroline 

Talbot 

Queen Anne's. . 

Charles 

Kent 

St. Mary's 

Calvert 

Balto. City 

Total State 



Number Enrolled in 
White Elementary Schools 



1923 



3,432 
2,241 
2,298 
3,059 
3,025 
2,105 
2,101 
1,803 
1,748 
2,117 
1,060 

t*79,124 

t*185,193 



1937 



2,939 
2,204 
2 , 159 
2,150 
2,125 
1,709 
1,565 
1,493 
1,332 
1,014 
813 

t*75,118 

t*186,073 



1.938 



2,800 
2,128 
2,098 
2,073 
2,048 
1 ,642 
1,494 
1,457 
1,321 
879 
799 

t*73,061 

t*182,700 



* Excludes duplicates. 

t Includes estimate of enrollment in grades 7 and 8 of junior high schools and enrollment 
in vocational schools. 

For enrollment in counties arranged alphabetically, see Table II. page 294. 



TABLE 3 



Comparison of White Elementary Enrollment in Counties and Baltimore City 
in Public and Non-Public Schools, 1927 to 1938 

















*Non-Catholic 


Year 


*Total 


Public Schools 


Catholic Schools 


Non-Public Schools 






















Baltimore 




Baltimore 




Baltimore 




Baltimore 




Counties 


City 


Counties 


City 


Counties 


City 


Counties 


City 


1927 


114,096 


105,526 


107,200 


78,979 


6,536 


25,942 


*360 


*605 


1928 


116,018 


107,440 


107,563 


79,247 


8,000 


27,285 


*455 


*908 


1929 


116,827 


107,984 


107,909 


78,398 


8,351 


28,274 


*567 


*1,312 


1930 


118,708 


109,864 


108,737 


78,838 


8,722 


29,111 


1,249 


1,915 


1931 


119,741 


109,634 


109,406 


78,202 


9,079 


29,560 


1,256 


1,872 


1932 


122,002 


109,843 


111,370 


78,069 


9,414 


30,051 


1,218 


1,723 


1933 


123,200 


109,459 


112,509 


77,639 


9,636 


30,304 


1,055 


1,516 


1934 


122,848 


109,132 


111,907 


76,560 


9,876 


31,096 


1,065 


1,476 


1935 


122,531 


108.532 


111,696 


76,158 


9,622 


30,828 


1,213 


1,546 


1936 


121,957 


108,777 


110,938 


76,863 


9,798 


30,171 


1,221 


1,743 


1937 


122,247 


106,839 


110,955 


75,118 


9,785 


29,817 


*1,507 


*1,904 


1938 


121,422 


105,087 


109,636 


73,064 


9,933 


29,705 


*1,853 


*2,318 



* Data for non-Catholic non-public schools become increasingly complete each succeeding 
year as more of these schools send in returns. See Tables II to V, pages 294 to 299. 



White Elementary Enrollment and Length of Session 



9 



Decreases in elementary school enrollment are generally attri- 
buted to lower birth rates. According to the reports of the Bureau 
of Vital Statistics, Maryland State Department of Health, birth 
rates for 1937 are lower than they were in 1930, except in three 
counties. Birth rates for 1935, 1936 and 1937 according to resi- 
dence of mother show little change. (See Table 4.) 



TABLE 4 



Recorded and Resident Birth Rates Per 1,000 White Population 

(Reported by Bureau of Vital Statistics, Maryland State Department of Health) 



County 


Recorded Birth Rates 


Resident Birth Rates* 


1920 


1930 


1935 


1937 


1935 


1936 


1937 


County Average 


23.5 


17.4 


14.3 


14.0 


17.0 


17.0 


17.6 


Allegany 


27.1 


22.2 


20.4 


21.6 


19.5 


19.9 


20.2 


Anne Arundel 


20.2 


14.4 


13.8 


12.0 


16.9 


16.0 


16.3 


Baltimore 


21.5 


13.9 


8.1 


6.7 


14.5 


13.8 


14.0 


Calvert 


26.6 


22.2 


19.8 


20.0 


20.6 


21.0 


21.0 




23.1 


16.5 


16.6 


16.8 


19.5 


17.4 


19.0 


Carroll 


22.1 


15.1 


13.0 


10.6 


16.5 


15.6 


15.4 


Cecil 


22.4 


19.9 


15.7 


14.9 


17.7 


15.8 


17.2 


Charles 


23.6 


20.1 


17.2 


15.1 


23.2 


23.5 


23.4 




26.9 


19.2 


15.5 


15.9 


15.3 


16.6 


15.7 


Frederick 


25.0 


20.2 


17.6 


18.1 


17.2 


18.1 


17.4 


Garrett 


28.4 


24.2 


24.3 


23.5 


25.8 


24.6 


24.8 


Harford 


18.6 


17.8 


14.0 


13.2 


16.7 


16.3 


16.8 




22.8 


14.9 


13.9 


14.4 


19.1 


19.3 


22.2 


Kent 


21.5 


12.6 


11.8 


14.6 


12.6 


11.9 


15.4 




20.9 


13.6 


14.9 


15.9 


18.7 


19.6 


22.8 


Prince George's 


20.9 


11.4 


7.5 


6.5 


19.2 


19.7 


20.0 


Queen Anne's 


21.1 


18.1 


13.1 


13.3 


14.6 


18.8 


17.1 


St. Mary's 


26.8 


26.7 


25.8 


24.6 


25.5 


25.3 


23.9 




24.7 


17.9 


14.6 


13.0 


14.2 


14.8 


13.9 


Talbot 


22.0 


19.4 


16.9 


18.8 


13.4 


17.9 


14.9 


Washington 


26.9 


20.4 


17.5 


17.7 


17.7 


16.4 


17.8 


Wicomico 


22.3 


18.4 


14.0 


17.1 


12.3 


13.1 


14.3 




20.0 


15.7 


9.3 


10.6 


11.9 


14.4 


13.6 


Baltimore City 


25.3 


17.6 


15.4 


15.9 


13.7 


13.1 


13.6 


Entire State 


24.5 


17.5 


14.9 


14.9 


15.5 


15.1 


15.6 



* Prior to 1935 birth rates were calculated on births occurring in the indicated areas and 
are shown under the heading "Recorded Birth Rates." For 1935, 1936 and 1937 birth rates 
are shown by residence of mother as well as according to location of birth. 



LENGTH OF SESSION 

The county public elementary schools for white pupils were in 
session an average of 187.2 days in 1937-38, an increase of 2.4 days 
over 1936^37 and a longer session than has been found in any year 
since 1932-33. The average number of days schools were open in 
individual counties varied from 181 to 195. The opening dates in 
September, 1937 covered the period from September 1 to Sep- 
tember 13, while schools in three counties closed on May 31, 1938 
and in another county were open until June 24th. Schools in two 
counties and in Baltimore City were open at least 190 days. (See 
Table 5.) 



10 



1938 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



TABLE 5 

Length of Session in White Elementary Schools, Year Ending June 30, 1938 



County 



County Average 

Baltimore 

Howard 

Allegany 

Harford 

Dorchester 

Cecil 

Washington 
Montgomery. . . . 
Anne Arundel . . . 

Talbot 

St. Mary's 

Kent 



Average 
Days 
in 
Session 



187.2 

194.8 
190.1 
188.9 
188.4 
188.0 
187.5 
186.1 
186.0 
185.8 
185.6 
185.4 
185.3 



School Year 
1937-38 



First 
Day 
of 
School 



9/9 

9/8 

9/9 

9/8 

9/7 

9/8 

9/7 

9/13 

9/8 

9/9 

9/8 

9/7 



Last 
Day 
of 
School 



6/24 
6/17 
6/17 
6/17 
6/10 
6/15 
6/10 
6/15 
6/17 
6/10 
6/10 
6/10 



County 



Charles 

Prince George's 

Frederick 

Garrett 

Carroll 

Wicomico 

Somerset 

Caroline 

Queen Anne's. . 

Calvert 

Worcester 

Balto. City 

Total State 



Average 
Days 
in 
Session 



185.1 
184.9 
184.7 
184.1 
183.9 
183.8 
183.2 
183.0 
183.0 
181.8 
180.9 

190.0 

188.3 



School Year 
1937-38 



First 
Day 
of 
School 



9/8 
9/8 
9/8 
9/8 
9/7 
9/1 
9/1 
9/8 
9/8 
9/8 
9/2 

9/14 



For counties arranged alphabetically, see Table VIII, page 302. 



Only two schools for white elementary pupils were open fewer 
than 180 days, the number required by law. One of these was 
open 179 days and the other was the school at Greenbelt which 
was not available for occupancy at the beginning of the school 
year. It was open for 159 days. (See Table 6.) 



TABLE 6 

Number of County White Elementary Schools in Session Fewer Than 180 
Days, Year Ending June 30, 1938 





For All Counties by Year 




For 1938 by County 


Year 






Having 


County 






Having 






Having 


More 






Having 


More 




Total 


One 


Than One 




Total 


One 


Than One 




No. 


Teacher 


Teacher 




No. 


Teacher 


Teacher 


1926 


124 


109 
68 


15 


Garrett 


1 


*1 




1927 


83 


15 


Prince George's 


1 


ti 


1928 


33 


25 


8 








1929 


62 


45 


17 










1930 


28 


22 


6 










1931 


12 


7 


5 










1932 


9 


8 


1 










1933 


5 


2 


3 










1934 


8 


6 


2 










1935 


34 


18 


16 










1936 


33 


21 


12 










1937 


12 


9 


3 










1938 ■ 


2 


1 


1 











* 179 days. 

t 159 days — Greenbelt School opened late. 



White Elementary Length of Session and Per Cent of 11 
Attendance 



SCHOOL ATTENDANCE IMPROVES 
TABLE 7 

Per Cent of Attendance in White Elementary Schools for School Years End- 
ing in June, 1923, 1936, 1937 and 1938 



County 



County Average 

Prince George's . 

Allegany 

Kent 

Frederick 

Talbot 

Carroll 

Queen Anne's. . . 
Anne Arundel . . . 

Wicomico 

St. Mary's 

Baltimore 

Washington . . . . 



1923 



84.2 
84.9 



1936 



90.7 



t92.1 
*93.0 
87.7 
T91.7 
91.3 
90.9 



91 
89 
91 
t90 
*90 



1937 



91.2 

192.0 
*94.1 
91.6 
T91.7 
90.2 
f91.1 
90.2 
91.7 
91.0 
91.7 
T90.2 
*91.1 



1938 



92.5 



t93 . 9 
*93.8 



93 
f93 
93 
t93 
92 
92 
92 
92 
192 
*92 



County 



Cecil 

Caroline 

Dorchester. . . . 

Charles 

Garrett 

Somerset 

Montgomery . . 

Howard 

Worcester 

Calvert 

Harford 

Baltimore City 

Entire State. . . 



1923 



84.8 
86.5 
81.2 
79.5 
83.9 
83.3 
81.9 
84.0 
83.5 
79.9 
84.5 

89.8 

86.7 



1936 



89.3 
90.4 
88.2 
90.0 
88.9 
88.9 
*90.4 
88.1 



88.7 
*90.6 
90.6 



1937 



89.7 
90.2 
90.1 
90.8 
91.4 
90.7 
*90.0 
87.6 
88.7 
90.1 
88.8 

*90.1 

90.7 



1938 



92.3 
192.3 
92.1 
92.1 
92.1 
91.9 
*91.8 
90.8 
90.7 
90.4 
89.1 

*91.4 

92.1 



* Includes Junior High Schools, grades 7-8. 
f Includes Junior High Schools, grade 7. 

For attendance in 1938 by counties arranged alphabetically, see Table VII, page 301. 



TABLE 8 



Per Cent of Attendance for School Years Ending in June, 1924, 1937 and 1938, 
by Types of White Elementary Schools 





Schools Having 




Schools Having 
















One Teacher 




Two Teachers 




Graded Schools 


County 


1924 


1937 


1938 


County 


1924 


1937 


19, 


}8 


County 


1924 


1937 


1938 


County Aver480.9 


89 


3 


90 


8 


County Aver. . 


.83.9 


90 


6 


92 


4 


County Aver. . 


.88 


3 


91 


.3 


92.7 


Talbot 


87.3 


92 


5 


94 


3 


Allegany 


88.9 


95 


7 


95 


6 


St. Mary's 






93 




95.0 


Charles 


77.3 


92 




93 


9 


Talbot 


86.7 


91 


7 


95 


4 


Pr. George's . . 


^89 





t92 


!i 


t93.9 


Kent 


84.8 


92 


5 


93 


7 


Charles 


84.3 


94 


3 


94 


9 


Frederick 


86 


4 


t92 





t93.8 


Pr. George's . 


.83.3 


90 


4 


92 


9 


Wicomico . . . . 


86.3 


91 


1 


94 


9 


Allegany 


92 


4 


*94 


1 


*93.8 


Cecil 


81.7 


88 


9 


92 


7 


Pr. George's. . 


.85.8 


92 





94 


3 


Kent 


88 


3 


92 





93.4 


Wicomico . . . 


.83.9 


91 





92 




Cecil 


86.5 


91 


8 


94 


2 


Queen Anne's. 


.88 


3 


90 


6 


93.3 


Somerset .... 


81.7 


90 


5 


92 


3 


Dorchester. . . 


.86.7 


90 


1 


93 


7 


Carroll 


84 


3 


91 


3 


t93.3 


Worcester. . . 


.77.0 


90 


2 


92 


1 


Kent 


85.8 


90 


6 


93 


3 


Talbot 


88 


5 


89 


8 


92.9 


Allegany .... 


82.9 


91 


8 


91 


9 


Garrett 


87.7 


91 


7 


93 


2 


Dorchester. . . 


.89 


5 


90 


6 


92.7 


Queen Anne's. 82 9 


89 


2 


91 


9 


Anne Arundel 


.81.9 


93 


4 


92 


8 


Washington . . 


.88 


8 


*91 


6 


*92.7 


Baltimore. . . 








91 


5 


Calvert 


81.7 


93 


2 


92 


6 


Anne Arundel 


.87 


9 


91 




92.7 


Carroll 


78.2 


90 


i 


91 


5 


Montgomery . 


.80.5 


88 


8 


92 


5 


Garrett 


89 


9 


92 


3 


92.7 




82.5 


85 


2 


91 


3 


St. Mary's 


81.4 


91 





92 


2 


Baltimore. . . . 


86 


2 


t90 


3 


192.5 


St. Mary's. . . 


.79.3 


91 


6 


91 


2 


Caroline 


87.9 


90 


9 


91 


9 


Wicomico .... 


89 


3 


90 


9 


92.4 


Garrett 


81.2 


9ii 


1 


90 


8 


Washington . . 


.80.6 


89 





91 


9 


Caroline 


89 


9 


90 


3 


t92.3 


Calvert 


77.2 


85 


8 


90 


2 


Carroll 


81.4 


89 


8 


91 






86 




90 




91.9 


Anne Arundel 77 . 6 


89 


7 


89 


6 


Frederick 


80.3 


90 


6 


91 


3 


Cecil 


87 


3 


89 


6 


91.8 


Montgomery 


.78.1 


85 


7 


89 


6 


Baltimore . . . . 


82.5 


88 


9 


91 


3 


Charles 


88 


4 


90 


4 


91.8 


Washington . 


.80.1 


87 


8 


89 


4 


Somerset 


83.3 


91 


3 


90,8 


Montgomery . 


S6 


3 


*90 


2 


♦91.1 


Dorchester . . 


.81.3 


87 


8 


89 


1 


Queen Anne's. 


.86.5 


88 


6 


90 




Howard 


85 


8 


88 


2 


90.9 


Frederick .... 


.79.6 


88 


9 


87 


8 


Harford 


.85.6 


87 





89 







89 


3 


89 


2 


90.9 




82.7 


86 


8 


86 


9 


Howard 


81.9 


87 


2 


89.0 


Calvert 






89 


6 


90.0 














Worcester .... 


82.6 


84 


7 


88 


8 




88 


9 


89 


6 


89.6 



* Includes Junior High School, grades 7-8. 
t Includes Junior High School, grade 7. 

t Caroline County had no one-teacher schools in 1938, but had attendance of 88.3 per cent 
in 1924, and 88.6 in 1937. 



12 1938 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 

Attendance of county white elementary pupils was better in 
1938 than for any year previously recorded. The average atten- 
dance was 92.5 per cent of the average number belonging, a gain 
of 1.3 over the year preceding. Every county but one showed a 
better attendance in 1938 than in 1937. In only one county was 
the per cent of attendance below 90 and in two counties it reached 
nearly 94 per cent. Attendance in Baltimore City was 91.4 per 
cent, making the State average 92.1 per cent. (See Table 7.) 

The per cent of attendance was lowest in the county one-teacher 
schools, 90.8 per cent, next highest in the two-teacher schools, 92.4 
per cent, and highest in the graded schools, 92.7 per cent, The 
difference between the county having the lowest and highest per 
cent of attendance was greatest for the one-teacher schools and 
least for the graded schools. The county having the lowest at- 
tendance in one-teacher schools was just below 87 per cent, in 
two-teacher schools just below 89 per cent, and in graded schools 
slightly under 90 per cent. There was improvement in attendance 
from 1937 to 1938 in one-teacher schools in every county except 
three, in two-teacher schools in every county except four, and in 
graded schools in all, except one county. (See Table 8.) 

Attendance By Months 

The counties had the maximum enrollment of white elementary 
pupils in November after which there was a lower enrollment 
each succeeding month. In the one-teacher and graded schools 
the maximum enrollment was found in December, and in the two- 
teacher schools in October. (See Table 9.) 



TABLE 9 

Number Belonging and Per Cent of Attendance in Maryland County White 
Elementary Schools, by Months, for School Year Ending in June, 1938 



Month 


Average Number Belonging 


Per Cent of Attendance 




















All Ele- 


One- 


Two- 




All Ele- 


One- 


Two- 






mentary 


Teacher 


Teacher 


Graded 


mentary 


Teacher 


Teacher 


Graded 


September 


103,410 


6,615 


8,577 


88,218 


96.1 


94.5 


95.6 


96.2 


October 


105,448 


6,887 


8,658 


89,903 


94.2 


92.4 


93.6 


94.4 


November 


105,590 


6.907 


8.604 


90,079 


93.2 


92.1 


92.7 


93.3 




105,483 


6,923 


8,432 


90,128 


91.0 


89.5 


91.4 


91.1 


January 


105,381 


6,877 


8,444 


90,060 


90.5 


87.3 


90.3 


90.7 




105,154, 


6,914 


8,310 


89,930 


91.2 


88.7 


90.9 


91.4 




104,891 


6,868 


8,277 


89,746 


91.3 


89.1 


90.8 


91.5 


April 


104,615 


6,843 


8,227 


89,545 


92.1 


90.8 


92.6 


92.1 


May 


104,320 


6,835 


8,240 


89,245 


92.5 


90.7 


92.3 


92.7 


June 


*96.893 


*6,405 


*7,632 


*82,856 


95.8 


94.7 


96.1 


95.8 


Average for Year. . . . 


104,894 


6,883 


8,276 


89,735 


92.5 


90.8 


92.4 


92.7 



* Somerset, Wicomico and Worcester reported no pupils enrolled in June. 



Attendance in White Elementary Schools 



13 



Attendance Under 100 and 140 Days 

The improvement in attendance is reflected in the marked de- 
crease in the per cent of county white elementary pupils who at- 
tended school fewer than 100 and 140 days. There were 3.7 per 
cent who attended fewer than 100 days, one per cent less than in 
1937, and 9.2 who attended fewer than 140 days, which was 2.8 
per cent lower than the corresponding per cent for the preceding- 
year. 

TABLE 10 

Per Cent of County White Elementary School Pupils Attending Under 100 
and 140 Days for Ten Years Past and by County for 1937-38 



Per Cent of County White Pupils Attending 



Year 


Elementary 


One-Teacher 


Two-Teacher 


Graded 


County 


Schools 


Schools 


Schools 


Schools 




Under 100 


Under 140 


Under 100 


Under 140 


Under 100 


Under 140 


Under 100 


Under 140 




Days 


Days 


Days 


Days 


Days 


Days 


Days 


Days 



ATTENDING UNDER 100 AND 140 DAYS BY YEAR 



1928 


8.2 


18.2 


13 


.3 


28.3 


8 


.7 


19 


. 7 


6.6 


14.7 


1929 


8.4 


19.3 


13 


.3 


29.4 


9 


6 


22 


. 5 


6.8 


16.0 


1930 


6.6 


15.2 


9 


3 


23.2 


7 


4 


17 


.2 


5.8 


13.1 


1931 


- 5.5 


12.9 


7 


.7 


18.3 


5 


8 


13 


.8 


5.0 


11.7 


1932 


5.3 


12.3 


6.8 


16.6 


5.7 


13 


.4 


5.0 


11.4 


1933 


4.6 


11.0 


6 


4 


15.7 


4 


8 


12 


.0 


4.4 


10.3 


1934 


4.9 


12.8 


6 


2 


17.1 


5 





14 





4.7 


12.2 


1935 


4.9 


12.4 


6 


9 


18.0 


5.0 


14 


. 5 


4.6 


11.5 


1936 


4.8 


12.4 


7 


3 


19.6 


5.2 


13 


9 


4.5 


11.5 


1937 


4.7 


12.0 


6 





17.6 


5.1 


13.0 


4.5 


11.4 


1938 


3.7 


9.2 


6 





14.7 


3 


8 


9 


9 


3.5 


8.7 




ATTENDING UNDER 100 AND 140 DAYS BY COUNTY, 19 


37-38 




Queen Anne's. 


.3 


4.0 


1 


6 


6.4 






8 


2 


.2 


3.0 


Pr. George's. . 


1.2 


5.9 


1 


1 


12.6 


1 


5 


5 


3 


1.2 


5.7 


Kent 


1.9 


6.3 


1 


7 


5.7 


1 


6 


5 


4 


2.1 


6.8 


Carroll 


1.8 


6.7 


1 


7 


10.4 


1 




8 


1 


1.9 


6.5 


Allegany 


3.0 


6.9 


5 





8.7 


1 


1 


2 


9 


3.0 


7.0 


Baltimore .... 


3.3 


6.9 


3 


9 


3.9 


5 


4 


10 





3.2 


6.8 


Frederick 


2.0 


7.1 




7 


15.1 


3 





10 


3 


1.9 


6.5 


Caroline 


2.1 


9.0 








3 


5 


12 


3 


2.1 


8.8 


Dorchester . . . 


3.9 


9.1 


*5 


8 


15-3 




9 


5 


2 


3.8 


8.0 


Talbot 


3.0 


9.3 


2 


9 


4.7 


3 





13 


4 


3.0 


9.6 


St. Mary's 


3.3 


9.9 


6 


1 


14.1 


1 


8 


9 





2.4 


5.4 


Calvert 


2.3 


10.1 


6 


7 


20.0 






3 


3 


2.7 


11.1 


Garrett 


3.4 


10.5 


3 


7 


13.7 




6 


8 


7 


3.5 


8.7 


Wicomico .... 


4.2 


10.8 


8 


9 


14.6 


3 


5 


6 


9 


4.0 


10.8 


Anne Arundel 


5.0 


11.2 


11 


1 


25.9 




3 


16 


5 


4.8 


10.8 


Worcester .... 


3.3 


11.6 






5.9 


1 




15 


2 


3.6 


11.3 


Washington . . 


5.0 


11.7 


9 


9 


22.3 


4 


4 


13 


6 


4.5 


10.5 


Cecil 


6.8 


11.9 


11 


1 


16.4 


3. 


1 


6 


3 


6.2 


11.6 




5.4 


12.6 


7 





15.0 


8. 


8 


16 


5 


4.8 


11.9 


Montgomery . 


6.3 


12.7 


10 


1 


16.8 


10. 




16 


8 


6.0 


12.4 




5.1 


13.1 


10 





22.9 


f». 


8 


14 


7 


3.7 


10.7 




6.3 


13.2 


1 


9 


7.5 


6 


2 


10 


3 


6.5 


13.7 


Howard 


6.0 


13.3 


6 


5 


12.9 


8. 


5 


18 


3 


5.5 


12.8 



14 1938 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



All types of schools showed an improvement in the per cent of 
pupils who attended fewer than 100 and 140 days, except for 
the one-teacher schools which showed no reduction in the per 
cent of pupils who attended fewer than 100 days. As in all 
other comparisons the one-teacher schools had the highest per 
cent of pupils in attendance fewer than 100 and 140 days, while 
the graded schools had the lowest per cent. (See upper part of 
Table 10.) 

One county had less than one per cent while four counties had 
over 6 per cent of their white elementary pupils present under 100 
days. For white elementary pupils present under 140 days, one 
county had as few as 4 per cent, while three had over 13 per cent. 

For one- and two-teacher schools for pupils present under 100 
days, the extremes among the counties were and 11 per cent, and 
for pupils present under 140 days, the minimum was 3 and the 
maximum 26 per cent. 

LATE ENTRANTS AFTER FIRST FIFTEEN DAYS OF SCHOOL 

TABLE 11 

Number and Per Cent of County White Elementary School Pupils Entering 
School After the First 15 Days Because of Employment, Indifference 
or Neglect, by County for 1937-38 



Year 
County 


Total 
Number 
Entering 

Late 


Per Cent Entering Late by Cause 


Rank 


Total 


Indiffer- 
ence or 
Neglect 


14 Years 
or More, 
Employed 


Under 
14 Years, 
Illegally 
Employed 


Indiffer- 
ence or 
Neglect 


14 Years 
or More, 
Employed 


Under 
14 Years, 
Illegally 
Employed 


Total 


1,035 


.9 


.6 


.2 


.1 








Pr. George's . . 


38 


.4 


.3 


.1 




6 


3 


10 


Baltimore .... 


85 


.5 


.5 






9 


1 


6 


Cecil 


17 


.5 


.3 


.1 


A 


5 


8 


12 


Allegany 


76 


.6 


.5 


.1 




11 


5 


7 


Wicomico .... 


23 


.6 


.5 


.1 




10 


6 


9 


Charles 


9 


.6 


.4 


.2 




8 


11 


1 


Queen Anne's. 


11 


.7 


.5 


.2 




12 


10 


1 


Anne Arundel 


52 


.8 


.8 






19 


2 


8 


Somerset 


17 


.8 


.3 


.4 


'.i 


7 


16 


13 


Harford 


37 


.8 


.5 


.2 


.1 


13 


9 


14 


Garrett 


36 


.9 


.6 


.2 


.1 


15 


12 


11 


Montgomery . 


88 


.9 


.8 


.1 




20 


4 


5 


Kent 


13 


.9 


.1 


.3 


.5 


1 


14 


21 


Frederick 


85 


1.1 


.8 


.3 




21 


13 


1 


Talbot 


22 


1.3 


.6 


.7 




14 


22 


1 


Worcester .... 


28 


1.3 


.8 


.3 


.2 


18 


15 


18 


Dorchester . . . 


38 


1.3 


.2 


.6 


.5 


3 


21 


22 


Calvert 


11 


1.3 


.2 


.5 


.6 


4 


18 


23 


Caroline 


30 


1.4 


.1 


1.1 


.2 




23 


16 


St. Mary's. . . . 


13 


1.4 


.7 


.5 


.2 


16 


20 


17 




74 


1.5 


.7 


.5 


.3 


17 


19 


19 


Washington . . 


194 


1.6 


.8 


.5 


.3 


22 


17 


20 




38 


1.7 


1.4 


.1 


.2 


23 


7 


15 



There were 1,035 county white elementary pupils who entered 
school after the first fifteen days because of indifference and ne- 
glect or employment. In nine counties the number of late en- 



Late Entrants and Withdrawals, White Elementary Schools 15 



trants for the causes just given totalled under 25, while in five of 
the largest counties these late entrants totalled between 76 and 
194. The necessity for cooperation of families, principals and 
teachers, especially in the large counties, if further reduction in 
late entrants is to be brought about is very evident. (See Table 
11.) 

WITHDRAWALS OF WHITE ELEMENTARY PUPILS 

In 1937-38 the number and per cent of withdrawals for re- 
moval, transfer, commitment to an institution or death, 11,249 
and 9.6 respectively, did not differ greatly from figures reported 

TABLE 12 

Withdrawals by Cause from Maryland County White Elementary Schools by 
Year, 1928 to 1938, and by County for Year Ending June 30, 1938 



Withdrawals for 
Removal, Trans- 
fer. Commitment 
or Death 



Number 



Per Cent 



Withdrawals for Following Causes 



Total 
Number 



Total 
Per Cent 



Per Cent Withdrawing for 



Mental 
and 

Physical 
Inca- 
pacity 





Over and 






Under 




Employ- 


Compul- 




ment 


sory At- 


Poverty 




tendance 






Age 





Other 
Causes 



Withdrawals by Years 



1928 


12,416 


10.8 


5,473 


4.7 


1.3 


2.2 


.6 


.4 


.2 


1929 


12,276 


10.6 


4,937 


4.3 


1.2 


2.0 


. 5 


.4 


.2 


1930 


12.718 


10.9 


4,105 


3.5 


1.0 


1.7 


.4 


.2 


.2 


1931 


11,479 


9.8 


3,642 


3.1 


1.1 


1.3 


.3 


.3 


.1 


1932 


12,008 


10.1 


2,966 


2.5 


1.1 


.8 


.3 


.2 


i 


1933 


12,008 


10.0 


2,932 


2.4 


.8 


.9 


.3 


.3 




1934 


11,447 


9.6 


2,897 


2.4 


1.0 


.8 


.3 


.2 




1935 


11,295 


9.5 


3,036 


2.5 


1.0 


.8 


.4 


.2 




1936 


11,046 


9.4 


3,037 


2.6 


.9 


.9 


.5 


.2 




1937 


11,963 


10.9 


2,899 


2.4 


.9 


.8 


. 5 


.1 




1938 


11,249 


9.6 


2,266 


1.9 


.7 


.6 


.4 


.1 




Withdrawals by County, 1937-38 


Queen Anne's . 


152 


9.7 


14 


.9 


.4 


.1 


.1 


.3 




Cecil 


389 


11.5 


35 


1.0 


.4 


.3 


.3 






Carroll 


436 


8.6 


60 


1.2 


. 5 


. 5 


.1 






Pr. George's . . 


1.217 


11.7 


132 


1.3 


.7 


.2 


.4 






Baltimore. . . . 


1,600 


8.9 


315 


1.8 


.7 


. 5 


. 5 






Garrett 


395 


9.6 


74 


1.8 


1.1 


.3 


.4 






Anne Arundel 


632 


9.6 


118 


1.8 


.8 


.5 


.4 


!i 




Harford 


614 


13.9 


80 


1.8 


.7 


.7 


.3 


.1 




Talbot 


167 


9.7 


33 


1.9 


.8 


.9 


.2 






Frederick 


727 


9.6 


146 


1.9 


.7 


1.0 




.2 






45 


5.5 


16 


2.0 


.3 


1.0 


!i 


.2 




Caroline 


168 


7.9 


42 


2.0 


.7 


.7 


. 5 






Alleganv 


1,105 


8.4 


269 


2.0 


.6 


.3 


.6 


.h 




Montgomery . 


896 


9.5 


193 


2.1 


1.0 


.4 


.4 


.2 




Wicomico .... 


444 


11.7 


85 


2.2 


.8 


1.0 


.2 


.1 




Howard 


266 


12.0 


51 


2.3 


.9 


.6 


.7 






Charles 


86 


5.8 


34 


2.3 


.7 


.7 


.6 


.2 




St. Mary's. . . . 


106 


11.5 


22 


2.4 


.9 


1.4 


.1 






Washington . . 


1,159 


9.7 


288 


2.4 


.6 


1.2 


.4 


!i 




Kent 


141 


10.2 


36 


2.6 


1.5 


.7 


.3 


.1 




Worcester .... 


192 


8.9 


61 


2.8 


.9 


1.1 


.4 


.4 




Dorchester . . . 


213 


7.3 


84 


2.9 


.8 


1.1 


.4 


.3 




Somerset 


99 


4.7 


77 


3.6 


1.4 


1.3 


.2 


.6 





16 



1938 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



since 1931. There was however, considerable variation among 
the counties in 1937-38, two in Southern Maryland and one on the 
Eastern Shore having fewer than 6 per cent withdrawn because 
of shifting of population or transfer to other schools or death, 
while at the other extreme seven counties had from 10 to 14 per 
cent withdrawn for these reasons. (See first two columns in 
Table 12.) 

Withdrawals for mental and physical incapacity, employment, 
ages outside the compulsory school attendance limits, show con- 
siderable decrease both in number and percentage. There were 
2,266 pupils, 1.9 per cent of the white elementary school enroll- 
ment, withdrawn for these causes. Among the counties the per 
cent of enrollment withdrawn was less than 1.4 per cent in four 
counties and over 2.5 per cent in four counties, the latter all on the 
Eastern Shore. Mental and physical incapacity were reported as 
causing the withdrawal of more than one per cent of the pupils in 
four counties, and employment as bringing about early leaving of 
school for over one per cent in eight counties. Poverty brought 
about the withdrawal of from .1 to .6 per cent of the white elemen- 
tary school enrollment in fourteen counties. (See right part of 
Table 12.) 

TABLE 13 



An Index of School Attendance in County White Elementary Schools 
for School Year Ending June 30, 1938 





Per Cent of 


Rank 


in Per Cent of 


County 






















Attend- 


*Late 


tWith- 


Attend- 


*Late 


tWith- 




ance 


Entrants 


drawals 


ance 


Entrants 


drawals 


County Average 


92 


5 




9 


1 


9 










93 


9 




4 


1 


3 


1 


1 


4 


92 


8 




7 




9 


7 


7 


1 


Baltimore 


92 


4 




5 


1 


8 


11 


2 


5 


Cecil 


92 


3 




5 


1 





13 


3 


2 


Allegany 


93 


8 




6 


2 





2 


4 


13 


Anne Arundel 


92 


7 




8 


1 


8 


8 


8 


7 


Frederick 


93 


4 


1 


1 


1 


9 


4 


14 


10 


Talbot 


93 


2 


1 


3 


1 


9 


5 


15 


9 




92 


6 




6 


2 


2 


9 


5 


15 


Carroll 


93 


1 


1 


5 


1 


2 


6 






Garrett 


92 


1 




9 


1 


8 


17 


?; 


6 


Kent 


93 


4 




9 


2 


6 


3 


13 


20 




92 


1 




6 


2 


3 


16 


6 


17 




89 


1 




8 


1 


8 


23 


10 


8 


Caroline 


92 


3 


1 


4 


o 





14 


19 


12 


Montgomery 

St. Mary's 


91 


8 




9 


2 


1 


19 


12 


14 


92 


5 


1 


.4 


2 


4 


10 


20 


18 




91 


9 




8 


3 


6 


18 


9 


23 


Calvert 


90 


4 


1 


.3 


2 





22 


18 


11 


Washington 


92 


4 


1 


6 


2 


4 


12 


22 


19 




92 


1 


1 


.3 


2 


9 


15 


17 


22 


Worcester 


90 


7 


1 


.3 


2 


8 


21 


16 


21 




90 


8 


1 


.7 


2 


3 


20 


23 


16 



* Late entrance for employment, indifference, or neglect. The county having the smallest 
percentage of late entrants is ranked first. 

t Withdrawals for causes other than removal, transfer, commitment to institution-, or 
death. The county having the smallest percentage of withdrawals is ranked first. 



Withdrawals, Index of Attendance, White Grade Enrollment 17 



Efficiency in Getting and Keeping Children in School 

In order to sum up the various measures of school attendance 
thus far presented, viz., per cent of attendance, late entrance, and 
withdrawals for preventable causes, the 23 counties have been 
arranged in order according to their average rank in these three 
items for public white elementary schools. That county is con- 
sidered highest which has a high percentage of attendance ac- 
companying a low percentage of late entrance and withdrawal. A 
county which makes little effort to enter its children at the be- 
ginning of the school year and permits them to withdraw before 
the close of the year may keep them in regular attendance while 
they are enrolled, but it is undoubtedly helping all its pupils to 
secure an education less well than a county which brings all of 
its children into school at the beginning of the year, discourages 
withdrawals, and still keeps a high percentage of attendance. 
(See Table 13.) 

GRADE ENROLLMENT IN WHITE SCHOOLS 

A comparison of white grade enrollment in 1921 and November, 
1937, made in connection with a study of the age-grade relation- 
ships shows the marked reduction in enrollment in grade 1 and 
the increase in enrollment in all grades above the third. (See 
Chart 1.) 

In November, 1937, there were 15,733 county white pupils in 
the first grade, 13,077 in the seventh grade, and 6,086 in the fourth 
year of high school. Sixteen years earlier, in 1921, the first grade 
enrollment was 19,815. This means that there has been a decrease 
in the sixteen-year period of 4,082 pupils in the first grade, which 
is a result in part of the reduction in failures which has accom- 
panied the improvement in instruction, in part of the decrease in 
population due to migration and a decreased birth rate, and in part 
of the organization of special classes for mentally retarded pupils, 
which enrolled 430 pupils in November, 1937. The. seventh grade 
enrollment has increased in the sixteen-year period from 1921 to 
1937 by 4,060 pupils, while the number enrolled in the fourth year 
of high school is larger by 4,390. (See Chart 1.) 

In 1937-38 the enrollment in the first three grades, in grades 5 
and 7 and in the first two years of high school was low T er than for 
the preceding year. A part of the decrease in elementary school 
enrollment may be explained by the increase from 336 to 612 in 
the enrollment in special classes. (See Chart 2.) 

The first grade enrollment of 15,895 was largest, the fourth 
grade enrollment of 14,941, was next in size, but in each higher 
grade thereafter enrollment decreased, reaching its lowest point 



IS 



1938 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



CHART 1 



GRADE DISTRIBUTION OF WHITE ENROLLMENT 



Grade | 1 1921 MM 1937 

i L^g^ I 

5 |'^ y y |||Lll M —«l 

6 L^ 7 8b 1 

7 IMW I ■IHMIII I IMIII i„i, ■,. ■■iL llllHJL . lIllIIWUJlMiE 

8 I 20 )immIiiii 

t | r.4M> j 



io.9t T 



II I wn liu ■ ■■■m 

in g&^H 

iv Crf],,.,,,,, 



Excludes 430 pupils in special classes for mentally handicapped pupils and 17 post-gradu- 
ates in November, 1937. 

of 6,193 in the fourth year of high school. The eighth grade was 
found in the three counties which have the 6-3-3 or 8-4 plan of or- 
ganization. The remaining counties have the 7-4 or 6-5 plan of 
organization. (See Chart 2.) 

In the first seven elementary grades and the first year of high 
school the number of boys exceeded the number of girls, but in the 
last three years of high school the girls outnumbered the boys. 



Distribution of White Enrollment by Grades 



19 



There were over 800 more boys in grade one than in grades 2 or 
4, while the first grade enrollment of girls was only 100 more than 
that in grade 4. 



CHART 2 



I 



N0MBER OF BOYS AND GIRLS ENROLLEDt BY GRADES 
IN MARYLAND COUNTY WHITE SCHOOLS 
YEAR ENDING JUNE 30, 1938 



Grade 
or Year 


Total 


■■Boys Girls 


Kgn. 


536 




1 


t 15, 895 




2 


14,590 


ffi! W. :, /7/'/, / . /. /. ! /"/'WW 


3 


14,239 




4 


14,941 




5 


14,530 




6 


14,169 


' v , > ; ///////////////ft , "W - 


7 


13,285 


fS? V/////// /////. //> , , /////////////// / 7///////1 


8 


3,313 


~ V/////J 


Special 
Classes 


612 





8,833 E llllllfa 
III 7,586 
IV * 6,193 




f Exclusive of withdrawals for removal, transfer, death, and commitment to institutions. 

$ Includes enrollment in junior first grade. 

* Includes 41 boys and 72 girls who were post-graduates. 



The number of boys enrolled in special classes, 482, was 3.7 times 
the number of girls enrolled, 130. (See Chart 2.) 



20 



1938 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



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Grade Enrollment and Graduates from White Elementary 21 

Schools 

In about one-half of the counties the white enrollment in the 
first grade was larger than that reported for any higher grade. 
Eleven counties, three more than in 1936-37, had an enrollment in 
one of the grades above the first which was larger than the first 
grade enrollment. (See Table 14.) 

A comparison of white enrollment in each grade in Baltimore 
City showed for the first seven elementary grades and the four 
years of high school an enrollment approximately half as large as 
that in the counties. Baltimore City public school enrollment far 
exceeded that in the counties in the kindergartens, special classes, 
and eighth grade. (See Table 14.) 



LARGEST NUMBER OF COUNTY ELEMENTARY SCHOOL 
GRADUATES 

The 11,478 white graduates of county elementary schools includ- 
ed the largest number that ever completed the elementary school 
course. They represented 10.8 per cent of the elementary school 
enrollment. The number of boys as well as of girls graduated was 
larger than ever previously reported, but the 5,956 girl graduates 
exceeded the boys in number by 434. The white county boys grad- 
uated represented 10 per cent of the elementary school enrollment, 
whereas the corresponding per cent for girls was 11.7. (See 
Table 15.) 

TABLE 15 



County White Elementary School Graduates 



Year 


Number 


Per Cent 


Boys 


Girls 


Total 


Boys 


Girls 


Total 


1923 


3,200 


4,136 


7,336 


6.1 


8.5 


7.2 


1924 


3,360 


4,210 


7,570 


6.4 


8.7 


7.5 


1925 


3 , 705 


4,549 


8,254 


7.0 


9.4 


8.1 


1926 


4,054 


4,599 


8,653 


7.7 


9.4 


8.5 


1927 


*4,290 


♦5.059 


*9,349 


*8.1 


*10.2 


*9.1 


1928 


*4,329 


*5,029 


*9,358 


*8.1 


no.i 


*9.1 


1929 


*4,742 


*5,186 


*9 , 928 


*8.8 


no. 4 


*9.6 


1930 


*4,857 


*5,283 


*10,140 


*9.0 


no. 5 


*9.7 


1931 


*4,757 


*5,156 


*9,913 


*8.7 


no. 2 


*9.4 


1932 


*5,183 


*5,642 


*10,825 


*9.3 


no. 9 


no.i 


1933 


*5,121 


*5,653 


*10,774 


*9.1 


no. 9 


*9.9 


1934 • 


*5,227 


*5,618 


*10,845 


*9.3 


no. 8 


no.o 


1935 


*5,190 


*5,719 


*10, 909 


*9.2 


ni.o 


no.i 


1936 


*5,160 


*5,699 


*10,859 


*9.3 


•n. » 


no.i 


1937 


*5.292 


*5,703 


*10,995 


*9.6 


m.i 


no. 3 


1938 


*5,522 


*5,956 


*11,478 


*10.0 


ni.7 


no. 8 



* Includes seventh or eighth grade promotions in junior high schools. 



In 1938 nine counties had increases and three decreases com- 
pared with 1937 in both boys and girls graduated, while the re- 
mainder had increases in either boys or girls graduated. In one 



22 1938 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 

CHART 3 



County 

Total and 
Co. Average 

St. Mary's 

Cecil 

Carroll 

Worcester 

Caroline 

Garrett 

Talbot 

Frederick 

Dorchester 

Harford 

Charles 

Anne Arundel 

Somerset 

Pr. George's 

Howard 

Wicomico 

Baltimore 

Queen Anne's 

Montgomery* 

Allegany* 

Kent 

Washington* 
Calvert 



PER CENT OF GRADUATES IN 1938 
COUNTY WHITE ELEMENTARY SCHOOL ENROLLMENT 



315 
141 Ll 



127 

235 



224 



Number 
Boys Girls 

5,522 

62 
189 
293 
111 
123 
223 

92 
391 
140 
220 

73 
363 
109 
481 
101 
180 
817 

73 
415 
563 

68 
412 

23 



iPer Cent Boys V////X Per Cent Girls 



5,956 



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f Excludes withdrawals for removal, transfer, commitment to institution, or death, and 
includes promotions from grade 7 in counties having 6-5 plan and from grade 8 in counties 
having 6-3-3 plan of organization. 

* County has 6-3-3 or 8-4 plan of organization. 



Graduates and Non-Promotions, White Elementary Schools 23 



county the proportion of white boy graduates in the elementary 
school enrollment was greater than that of girl graduates, while 
in two counties it was the same. In the great majority of counties 
the girls graduated exceeded the boys graduated. (Compare the 
black bars with the cross hatched bars in Chart 3.) 

FEWER NON-PROMOTIONS THAN EVER BEFORE 

The number and per cent of non-promoted white elementary 
pupils was smaller than ever before reported. There were 12,535 
reported as non-promoted in 1938, a decrease of 255 under 1937 
and 9,486 under 1923. The per cent of white elementary pupils 
reported not promoted was 11.8, the lowest ever reported. (See 
Table 16.) 

TABLE 16 



Number and Per Cent of Non-Promotions in County W hite Elementary 

Schools 



Year 


Number 


Per Cent 


Boys 


Girls 


Total 


Boys 


Girls 


Total 


1923 


13,435 


8,586 


22,021 


25.6 


17.5 


21.7 


1924 


11,999 


7,193 


19,192 


22.7 


14.8 


18.9 


1925 


10,673 


6,336 


17,009 


20.2 


13.0 


16.8 


1926 


10,392 


6,140 


16,532 


19.7 


12.5 


16.3 


1927 


9,954 


6,134 


16,088 


18.7 


12.4 


15.6 


1928 


10,346 


6,109 


16,455 


19.4 


12.3 


15.9 


1929 


9,147 


5,609 


14,756 


17.1 


11.3 


14.3 


1930 


8,962 


5,371 


14,333 


16.6 


10.7 


13.7 


1931 


9,231 


5,293 


14,524 


16.8 


10.4 


13.7 


1932 


9,597 


5,675 


15,272 


17.2 


11.0 


14.2 


1933 


10,503 


6,244 


16,747 


18.6 


12.0 


15.4 


1934 


11,037 


6,809 


17,846 


19.7 


13.1 


16.5 


1935 


9,283 


5,447 


14,730 


16.5 


10.5 


13.6 


1936 


9,283 


5,507 


14,790 


16.7 


10.7 


13.8 


1937 


9,200 


5,390 


14,590 


16.6 


10.5 


13.7 


1938 


7,979 


4,556 


12,535 


14.5 


8.9 


11.8 



The number of white boys who were reported by their teachers 
as not ready for work in the grades above those in which they 
were enrolled in 1937-38 was 7,979 or 14.5 per cent of those en- 
rolled in elementary schools. Corresponding figures for white 
girls were 4,556 and 8.9 per cent. The greater success of girls 
over boys in winning promotion needs the continued study of 
teachers, supervisors and administrators. (See Table 16.) 

In per cent of pupils over-age in November, 1937, the girls have 
a great advantage over the boys. Whereas over 11 per cent of the 
girls are over-age, this is the case for nearly 19 per cent of the 
white elementary boys. The per cent of pupils over-age is highest 
in one-teacher schools and lowest in graded schools. (See Chart 4.) 



24 



1938 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



CHART 4 



PER CENT OF WHITE BOYS AND GIRLS OVER AGE BY TYPE OF SCHOOL, NOVEMBER, 1937 



Type of 
School 


Total 
Enroll- 
ment 


Per Cent 
Over Age 
Total 


One-Teacher 


6,867 


17.5 | 


Two-Teacher 


8,529 


16.3 | 


Graded 


90,132 


*14.9 1 


All 

Elementary 


105,528 


i5a f 


High 


33,200* 


16.1 J 



Boys 



E222 Girls 



- mm -j 



IB.* 

mm 



7ZMMZMM 



!»■* /////////////////mm 



* Includes 430 in special classes for mentally retarded pupi 
over-age. 



of whom 90.7 per cent were 



Conditions Improve in Individual Counties 

In the individual counties the per cent of white pupils over-age 
in November, 1937, in white elementary schools ranged from 8.1 
per cent in the county with the smallest percentage over-age to 
20.7 per cent in the county having the highest per cent over-age. 
Sixteen years earlier the county with the smallest percentage of 
retardation had just under 27 per cent over-age while the county 
with the highest percentage over-age had over 46 per cent. The 
reduction in percentage of pupils over-age which has taken place 
in every county is therefore most commendable. There are, how- 
ever, nine counties which show increases from 1935 to 1937 in the 
per cent of white elementary pupils over-age. (See Chart 5.) 

A comparison of the counties in per cent of pupils over-age in 
white elementary schools for 1921, 1935, and 1937 indicates great 
changes in rank over the sixteen-year period. Most of the coun- 
ties which have a large proportion of pupils in rural schools tend 
to rank low in the per cent of pupils in white elementary schools 
who are over-age, while those which have a large proportion in 
graded schools tend to rank high. (See Chart 5.) 



OVERAGENESS AND NON-PROMOTIONS, WHITE ELEMENTARY SCHOOLS 25 



CHART 5 



NUMBER AND PER CENT OF COUNTY V/HITE ELEMENTARY SCHOOL PUPILS OVER AGE 
NOVEMBER, 1921 and 1937 



Number Per Cent 
1937 1935 



Total and <- gi5 

County Average 



Montgomery 

Frederick 

Talbot 

Somerset 

Caroline 

Cecil 

Allegany 

Y.'crc ester 

Queen Anne' s 

Wi cocico 



647 
712 
198 
252 
245 
385 
1,616 
265 
211 
521 



Fri-ce George's 1,404 



Harford 
Carroll 
Kent 

Washington 

Anne Arundel 

Garrett 

Dorchester 

Calvert 

St. Mary's 

Howard 

Baltimore 

Charles 



610 
738 
202 
1,768 
1,005 
644 
464 
136 
145 
358 
3,111 
278 



15.5 

9.9 
12.9 
12.0 
12.5 
14.0 
11.5 
11.9 
14.8 
14.2 
15.6 
16.7 
15.7 
16.3 
14.2 
17.4 
18.61 
18.4 
19.1 
16.1 
20.0 
19.6 
18.2 
19.5 






ml 


be— 




S9J.J 



- 1 " Pupils are considered over-age who according to their last birthday, on Sept. 1. were: 



8 years or older in grade 1 

9 years or older in grade 2 

10 years or older in grade 3 

11 years or older in grade 4 



12 years or older in grade 5 

13 years or older in grade 6 

14 years or older in grade 7 

15 years or older in grade 8 



Non-promotions in 1938 varied among the counties for boys 
from 7 per cent to 19 per cent, and for girls from close to 4 per 
cent to 13 per cent. The provision for kindergartens, and special 
classes, as well as the attitude of the school authorities toward 
having the school adapted to meet the needs and capacities of 
pupils, rather than having pupils meet the standards set up by the 
school all affect the proportion of pupils promoted. (See Chart 6.) 



26 



1938 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



CHART 6 



NUMBER AND PER CENT OF COUNTY WHITE ELEMENTARY 
AND JUNIOR HIGH PUPILS THROUGH GRADE 8 NOT PROMOTED ,* 1938 



County 



Number 





Boys 


Girls 


Total and 


7,979 




Co. Average 




4,556 


Montgomery 


one 


156 


Caroline 


98 


36 


Frederick* 


374 


205 


Worcester 


"190 


55 


Talbot 


94 


50 


Cecil 


182 


105 


Queen Anne's 


89 


48 


Allegany* 


7QH 
/ jU 


435 


Garrett 


265 


156 


Carroll* 




178 


Anne Arundel 


410 


281 


St. Mary's 


63 


33 


Calvert 


56 


36 


Harford 


oUo 


172 


Prince George' 


* 747 


437 


i< ti £>U ± ngi o n 


929 


515 


Somerset 


188 


88 


Kent 


111 


68 


Dorchester 


266 


125 


Charles 


139 


65 


Wicomico* 


307 


188 


Howard* 


196 


102 


Baltimore 


1,586 


1,022 



Per Cent Boys K/////l Per Cent Girls 



m 



EE 











MESS//////////////////* 









/////////////////////\ 




* Includes non-promotions in special class (es). 

In only four counties were more boys and girls and in two coun- 
ties were more girls reported as failures in 1938 than in 1937. In 
every county there were more boys than girls not promoted. (See 
Chart 6.) 



Non-Promotions and Overageness, White Elementary Schools 27 



Overageness and Non-Promotions by Grades 

The per cent of pupils over-age in November, 1937, is lowest in 
grade 1, 4.2 per cent, and increases until it is at its maximum in 
the fifth grade, in which over 21 per cent of the pupils are over- 
age. Thereafter, because the over-age pupils drop out of school, 
the per cent over-age decreases until it includes 7 per cent of the 
pupils in the fourth year of high school. A slight part of the re- 
duction in the per cent over-age in the lower grades is explained 
by the segregation in special classes of some mentally retarded 
children who were formerly in the regular classes of the grades. 
A comparison of the white bars (1921) and the black bars (1937) 
shows the great reductions which have taken place. (See Chart 7.) 

CHART 7 



Grade 

1 

2 
3 
4 
5 
6 
7 
8 

I 
II 
III 
IV 



NUMBER AND PER CENT OF COUNTY WHITE PUPILS OVER AGE BY GRADE 
OCTOBER, 1921 AND NOVEMBER, 1937 



Number 
Over Age 
1921 
1937 

3,165 [ 
658 I 

3,693 
1,372 

4,757 
1,918 

6,565 
2,634 

5,262 
3,096 

4,470 
2,965 

3,296 
2,518 



Per Cent Over Age 
1921 | 



1937 




28 



1938 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



The promotions were lower in 1938 than in 1937 for white boys 
and girls in every elementary grade. There were 22.4 per cent of 
first grade boys reported as not promoted and 14.5 per cent of the 
seventh grade boys. For girls the first grade non-promotions in- 
cluded 15 per cent and the fifth and seventh grade non-promotions 
8.3 per cent. (See Chart 8.) 



CHART 8 



Grade 

1 

2 
3 
4 
5 
6 
7 



NON-PROMOTIONS* 3Y GRADES IN COUNTY WHITE ELEMEL7TARY AND 
JUNIOR HIGH SCHOOLS THROUGH GRADE 8 FOR YEAR ENDING IN' 
JUNE, 1938 



Number 
Boys Girl! 



Per Cent Boys 



EZZ per Cent Girls 



1,916 
1,101 

837 
903 
885 
899 
964 
233 



548^ 
480[ fo 




571 1 ™ ///////////////A 
591^3 



549 1 
126 



////////// ///m 



* Excludes non-promotions in kindergartens and special classes. 

One reason for the reduction is the segregation of a larger num- 
ber of mentally handicapped children in special classes who for- 
merly were included as non-promotions in the regular grades. 
Also experiments with work preliminary to that offered in the first 
grade for immature children helped reduce first grade non-pro- 
motions. 

Since the first grade non-promotions are much higher than 
those in any other grade they have been shown separately by coun- 
ties. For boys they range from 11 to 29.9 per cent of the first 
grade enrollment and for girls from 5 per cent to 27.7 per cent. 



Non-Promotions by Grade and in First Grade 



29 



One of the chief causes of non-promotion in first grade is poor 
attendance. Some of this results from the failure of parents to 
realize the importance of each day's attendance in giving chidren 
a mastery of the work presented, but probably the prevalence of 
contagious diseases which requires long absences from school is 
an important factor, and also unwillingness of parents to have 
small children face bad weather conditions. Immaturity is also a 
cause of non-promotion for a small percentage of children who do 
not have a mental age of 6 years. On the average 7.4 per cent 
more boys than girls were not promoted in the first grade. How- 
ever, one county had more non-promotions for first grade girls 
than for boys, and in three counties the excess of non-promotions 
for first grade boys was as little as 2.5, 3.3 and 4 per cent. At the 
opposite extreme the excess of non-promotions for first grade 
bovs was 11.7 per cent in one countv and 10.8 in another. (See 
Table 17.) 



TABLE 17 

Number and Per Cent of Non-Promotions in First Grade 
in Maryland Counties, June, 1938 



County 



Total Counties 

Caroline 

Howard 

Montgomery . . 
Anne Arundel . 
Queen Anne's. . 

Talbot 

Worcester 

Carroll 

St. Mary's 

Wicomico 

Allegany 





First Grade 




Non-Promotions 




Number 


Per Cent 


Boys 


Girls 


Boys 


Girls 


1,916 


1,107 


22.4 


15.0 


18 


7 


13.0 


5.3 


26 


13 


12.5 


10.0 


109 


53 


17.1 


9.9 


79 


45 


17.2 


10.5 


21 


11 


16.7 


11.5 


24 


13 


17.5 


11.6 


30 


19 


20.4 


12.3 


73 


36 


20.6 


12.6 


15 


6 


22.4 


10.7 


54 


30 


21.0 


13.3 


196 


93 


16.6 


12.6 



County 



Somerset 

Frederick 

Dorchester. . . . 

Baltimore 

Calvert 

Cecil 

Harford 

Prince George's 
Washington 

Charles 

Kent 

Garrett 



First Grade 
Non-Promotions 



Number 



Boys 



35 
121 
47 
283 
15 
59 
74 
243 
228 
33 
30 
103 



Girls 



20 
74 
25 
172 
12 
39 
56 
147 
146 
13 
23 
54 



More Pupils Stay in School and Reach Upper Grades 

Of every 100 entrants to the first grade, it is estimated that only 
78 survived to grade 7 in 1921. Sixteen years later 95 of every 
100 entrants stayed through to reach the seventh grade. The cor- 
responding numbers estimated as reaching the first year high 
school were 47 in 1921 and 79 in 1937, and those reaching the 
fourth year of high school increased from 15 in 1921 to 44 in 1937. 
(See Chart 9.) 



30 



1938 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 
CHART 9 



ESTIMATED NTJMBER OF EVERY 100 WHITE ENTRANTS TO GRADE 1 
WHO REACHED GRADE 7 AND THE VARIOUS HIGH SCHOOL YEARS 



Grade 
1 



I 1 1921 



1937 



II 



III 



IV 




— i 



* Data on survival are estimated by dividing the enrollment in each grade by the largest 
enrollment found for any one age. The latter is assumed to be the number of entrants. 



Causes of Non-Promotions 

Teachers were asked to give the principal reasons why pupils 
would not be permitted to enter the grade above that in which they 
received instruction in 1937-38. Unfortunate home conditions 
with or without lack of interest on the part of children or parents 
were reported as responsible for the non-promotion of 4.5 per cent 
of the white elementary children. Mental incapacity explained 
the failure of 1.8 per cent of the pupils, personal illness accounted 
for the non-promotion of 1.4 per cent, and irregular attendance 
not due to sickness for 1 per cent. A comparison of these figures 
with previous years is shown in the upper portion of Table 18. 



Survival and Causes of Non-Promotions 



31 



TABLE 18 

Causes for Non-Promotion of County White Elementary Pupils Not Pro- 
moted for Year Ending June 30, 1938, and for Preceding Ten Years 



Year and 
County 



Per Cent of Pupils Not Promoted by Cause 



31* 



s.ti o 

"u "w Jsi 
O Cy 
*H O oS 



£ c c 



6-8 

o © 
to C 

^ n-l 







BY 1 


fEAR 






1928 


16,428 


16.0 


5.0 


3.0 


1 


9 


2.0 


1.3 


.8 


. 5 


1 


5 


1929 


14,756 


14.3 


4.3 


2.5 


1 


9 


2.0 


1.1 


.8 


.4 


1 


3 


1930 


14,333 


13.7 


4.5 


2.7 


1 


7 


1.4 


1.0 


.8 


.3 


1 


3 


1931 


14,524 


13.7 


4.8 


2.7 


1 


6 


1.2 


.8 


.8 


.3 


1 


5 


1932 


15,272 


14.2 


5.4 


2.6 




8 


1.2 


.7 


.8 


.3 


1 


4 


1933 


16,747 


15.4 


5.8 


3.0 


1 


5 


1.3 


.7 


.8 


.2 


2 


1 


1934 


17.848 


16.5 


5.8 


3.3 


2 


3 


1.5 


.6 


.9 


.2 


1 


9 


1935 


14,730 


13.6 


4.7 


2.5 


1 


9 


1.3 


.7 


.7 


.1 


1 


7 


1936 


14,790 


13.8 


4.9 


2.3 


1 


7 


1.4 


.8 


. 7 




1 


9 


1937 


14,590 


13.7 


5.0 


2.1 


1 


8 


1.3 


.8 


.8 


.1 


1 


8 


1938 


12,535 


11.8 


4.5 


1.8 


1 


4 


1.0 


.6 


.7 


.3 


1 


5 



BY COUNTY, 1937-38 



Montgomery 


461 


5 


4 


1.8 




1 


1 


.0 




5 


.4 




.3 


.2 


1 


1 


Caroline 


134 


6 


8 


2.3 


1 


3 


1 


.3 




2 


.2 




2 


.3 


1 





Frederick 


579 


8 


4 


3.7 


1 


7 


1 







5 


.8 




.4 


.2 




1 


Worcester 


175 


8 


9 


3.8 




9 


1 


2 




4 


1.3 




4 






9 


Talbot 


144 


9 


3 


3.1 


2 


8 


1 


.0 




5 


1.1 




.5 






3 


Cecil 


287 


9 


6 


4.2 


1 


2 


1 


1 




7 


.3 




.7 


!i 


1 





Queen Anne's 


137 


9 


7 


5.9 




1 


1 


2 




5 


.1 


1 


.0 






9 


Allegany 


1,225 


10 


1 


4.0 


1 


8 




9 


1 


5 


.5 




3 


.3 




8 


Garrett 


421 


11 


2 


4.2 


1 


9 


2 


3 




5 


.6 




6 


.4 




7 


Carroll 


537 


11 


5 


2.9 


3 


3 




9 


1 


1 


.7 






.2 


1 


7 


Anne Arundel 


691 


11 


6 


4.7 


1 


9 


1 


5 




8 


.3 


1 





.2 


1 


2 


St. Mary's 


96 


11 


7 


3.5 




6 


I 


7 


1 


7 


.9 




9 


. 5 


1 


9 


Calvert 


92 


11 


9 


7.0 




4 


1 


3 


1 


2 


. 5 




1 


.4 


1 





Harford 


477 


12 


6 


5.4 




6 


1 


8 


1 


8 


1.0 




6 


.3 


1 


1 


Prince George's 


1 ,184 


12 


8 


3.9 


4 


4 




5 




5 


.2 


1 


4 


.4 




5 


Washington 


1,444 


13 


5 


5.6 


2 


3 


1 


2 


1 


2 


1.1 






.2 


1 


2 


Somerset 


276 


13 


7 


5.7 


1 


5 


2 


2 




8 


.9 




3 


.4 




9 


Kent 


179 


14 


4 


6.4 


1 


7 


1 


5 




7 


.4 


1 


2 


.5 


2 





Dorchester 


391 


14 


4 


5.0 


4 





1 


3 


I 


5 


1.3 




5 


.2 




6 


Charles 


204 


14 


7 


5.3 


3 


1 


1 


3 


1 


9 


.9 




7 


.5 


1 





Wicomico 


495 


14 


7 


6.4 


2 


5 


1 


5 






1.2 




9 


.1 


2 


1 


Howard 


298 


15 


2 


4.1 


4 


7 


1 


4 


1 


7 


.6 


1 


2 


.3 


1 


2 


Baltimore 


2,608 


16 





5.9 




3 


1 


9 


1 


4 


.7 


1 


1 


.2 


4 


5 



* 13 years, 1925-1931, inclusive. 



Teachers reported that unfortunate home conditions with or 
without lack of interest affected the non-promotions of as few as 
1.8 per cent of the white elementary pupils in one county and as 
many as 7 per cent in another county. Mental incapacity was re- 
ported as a cause of failure for less than one per cent of the white 
elementary pupils in seven counties and for 4 per cent or more in 
three counties. Personal illness affected the non-promotions of 



32 



1938 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



over 2 per cent of the pupils in two counties and less than one per 
cent in two counties, while irregular attendance not due to illness 
caused no failures in one county and in seven affected the non-pro- 
motion of from 1.5 to 1.9 per cent of the pupils. (See Table 18.) 

TESTING OF COUNTY WHITE ELEMENTARY PUPILS 
State-wide Tests 

During the school year 1937-38 over 35,000 white pupils in the 
Maryland county elementary schools were given Form D of the 
Metropolitan Achievement Test Battery. These tests were paid 
for from the State appropriation to the Bureau of Measurements. 
Each county chose one or more intermediate grades (4, 5, or 6) 
and the seventh (eighth) grade for the testing, and selected the 
month in which to give the test to each grade. 

The number of counties which reported on the testing for each 
grade and the number of counties in which the median grade 
equivalent reached or exceeded the standards set up by the authors 
of the battery are shown in Table 19. 

TABLE 19 



Number of Maryland Counties in Which Median Grade Equivalent Reached 
or Exceeded Standard in Various Parts of the Metropolitan Achievement 
Tests, Form D, 1937-38 





Grade 4 


Grade 5 


Grade 6 


Grade 7 


Grade 8 




No. of Counties 


No. of Counties 


No. of Counties 


No. of Counties 


No. of Counties 


Subject 
























Report- 


at or 


Report- 


at or 


Report- 


at or 


Report- 


at or 


Report- 


at or 




ing 


above 


ing 


above 


ing 


above 


ing 


above 


ing 


above 




Test 


Stand- 


Test 


Stand- 


Test 


Stand- 


Test 


Stand- 


Test 


Stand- 




Results 


ard 


Results 


ard 


Results 


ard 


Results 


ard 


Results 


ard 


Reading 


16 


16 


13 


12 


10 


8 


20 


20 


3 


3 


Vocabulary. . . 


15 


15 


12 


12 


9 


2 


19 


11 


3 




Arithmetic 






















Funda- 






















mentals. . 


16 


15 


13 


10 


10 


8 


20 


20 


3 


2 


Problems . . . 


16 


14 


13 


7 


10 


6 


20 


19 


3 


2 




15 


15 


12 


12 


9 


9 


19 


19 


3 


2 


Literature .... 


15 


15 


12 


12 


9 


8 


19 


19 


3 


3 


History and 






















Civics 


15 


15 


12 


11 


9 


6 


19 


18 


3 


3 


Geography. . . 


15 


15 


12 


10 


9 


6 


19 


19 


3 






16 


15 


13 


10 


10 


6 


20 


11 


3 





A distribution in percentages of the grade equivalents of fourth 
grade pupils tested in October, 1937, and of seventh grade pupils 
tested in January, 1938, shows that in arithmetic problems and 
spelling the largest proportion of fourth grade pupils were below 
standard, while in spelling and vocabulary the largest proportion 
of seventh grade pupils were below standard. For fourth grade 
pupils 4.1 is the standard grade equivalent in October, while for 



Testing of White Elementary Pupils 



33 



seventh grade pupils 7.4 is the standard grade equivalent in Jan- 
uary. In reading and arithmetic fundamentals the distribution 
of scores showed the majority of pupils at standard or above. 
(See Table 20.) 



TABLE 20 

Per Cent of Maryland County White Pupils in Fourth Grade Tested in 
October, 1937, and Seventh Grade Tested in January, 1938, Making 
Various Grade Equivalents in Five Parts of the Metropolitan 
Achievement Tests, Form D 





Per Cent of Pupils Making Grade Equivalent in 


Grade 
Equivalent 






Arithmetic 




Reading 


Vocabulary- 


Funda- 
mentals 


Problems 


Spelling 



Fourth Grade Pupils, October, 1937 



7.0— 7.9 


.8 


.7 








6.0— 6.9 


4.3 


4.8 


.1 


1.2 


5.0 


5.5— 5.9 


6.5 


8.0 


.9 


3.0 


9.2 


5.0— 5.4 


17.7 


12.9 


15.9 


8.2 


10.3 


4.5— 4.9 


23.5 


24.8 


36.3 


20.3 


16.9 


4.0— 4.4 


32.6 


33.6 


33.7 


36.8 


24.6 


3.5— 3.9 


13.2 


14.2 


12.2 


26.5 


19.2 


Under 3.5 


1.4 


1.0 


.9 


4.0 


14.8 




1,841 


1,841 


1,840 


1,842 


1,836 


Seventh Grade Pupils, January, 1938 


11.0+ 


1.4 


.3 




.2 




10.0—10.9 


6.8 


3.6 


1.8 


2.4 


.2 


9.0— 9.9 


16.2 


6.5 


13.7 


15.0 


6.0 


8.5— 8.9 


15.3 


9.4 


11.7 


13.3 


9.6 


8.0— 8.4 


15.2 


12.4 


14.9 


15.8 


12.7 


7.5— 7.9 


14.7 


14.4 


19.8 


15.7 


14.4 


7.0— 7.4 


13.1 


15.2 


15.4 


14.0 


11.6 


6.5— 6.9 


9.7 


17.1 


9.1 


12.9 


12.9 


6.0— 6.4 


5.3 


12.4 


7.9 


5.8 


15.4 


5.5 — 5.9 


1.8 


6.9 


4.1 


4.9 


9.2 




. 5 


1.8 


1.6 




8.0 


Number Testedt 


2.359 


2,358 


2,362 


2,359 


2,358 



* Eight counties. f Four counties. 



All of the counties gave the Metropolitan Achievement Test in 
reading, arithmetic fundamentals and problems, (Form A) in 
October, 1933, and (Form C) in May, 1934. The grade equiv- 
alents were shown for one-teacher, two-teacher, and graded 
schools separately, whereas for testing in 1937-38 all the schools 
in the counties testing were reported together. Because results 
with different forms are not perfectly comparable, and because 
forms have been revised, it is not an easy matter to make exact 
statements about changes which have occurred. But comparison 



34 



1938 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



of scores in reading, arithmetic fundamentals and problems for 
October, 1933, with those for 1938 proves that there has been a 
definite and clear cut improvement in the results of instruction in 
the Maryland counties. 

Tests Given by Individual Counties or Schools 
Intelligence Tests 

Illinois Intelligence Test — Grade 4, September, 1937, Frederick 

Kuhlmann Anderson Test — Grades 4 and 7, Washington 

National Intelligence Test Scale A — Grades 4-5, Carroll 

Otis Group Intelligence Test — Grades 3-6, Howard; Grade 7, Leland 

Junior High School, Montgomery 
Pintner Cunningham Test — Grade 1, Howard 

Batteries of Tests 

Metropolitan Achievement Test — Form E, Wicomico 

Standard Graduation Examination — Grade 7, Anne Arundel, Howard 

Unit Scales of Attainments 

Grades 1-3, Howard, Prince George's 

Grades 7-8, Leland Junior High School, Montgomery 

Reading 

Clark Reading Readiness Test — Grade 1, Caroline 

Detroit Reading Test I — Grade 2, Forms A and B, October and May, 
Carroll 

Durrell Analysis of Reading Difficulties — Somerset 
Frick's Vocabulary Power Tests — Frederick 

Iowa Silent Reading Test — Grade 7, Carroll; Grades 7-8, Rockville 

Monroe Reading Aptitude Test — Grade 1, Harford 

Shank Test of Reading Comprehension — Grades 7-8, Midland 

Arithmetic 

Brueckner Curriculum Tests in Arithmetic Processes — Grades 7-8, Wood- 
land Way, Washington 

New Curriculum Monthly Tests in Fundamentals and Problem Solving — 
Grades 4-6, Allegany; Grades 4-7, Frederick 

Spelling 

Ayres Scale — Grades 2-3, Washington 

SPECIAL EDUCATIONAL OPPORTUNITIES FOR HANDICAPPED 
CHILDREN, 1937-1938 

Physically Handicapped Children Aided by the State Program 

Special educational services were rendered to 198 physically 
handicapped children and 608 mentally retarded children in the 
counties of Maryland under the supervision of the State Depart- 
ment of Education during the school year 1937-38. In addition, 
23 crippled children in Baltimore City were transported to senior 



Tests Given; State Aid to Physically Handicapped Children 35 



high schools at State expense. The total expenditure of S16,507.53 
for the 221 physically handicapped meant an average cost of 
$74.69 per child. The distribution of State aid by counties, to- 
gether with the data concerning home teaching, transportation, 
and special classes for physically handicapped children are shown 
in Table 21. 



TABLE 21 

Program for Education of Physically Handicapped Children in Maryland 
Financed With State Funds in 1937-38 













Transportation 


Special Class or 






County 


Home Teaching 




to Regular Class 


Special School 


Total 


























Teach- 


Expendi- 




Expendi- 




Expendi- 




Expendi- 




Pupils 


ers 


tures 




Pupils 


tures 


Pupils 


tures 


Pupils 


tures 


Total Counties. 


83 


49 


$6,716 


55 


9 


$559.60 


t*106 


$7,873.93 


198 


$15,150.08 


Allegany 


5 


3 


307 


52 






t*a22 


1,885.61 


t*27 


2,193.13 


Anne Arundel . . 


4 


4 


261 


80 






t8 


438.12 


tl2 


699.92 


Baltimore 


28 


4 


2,314 


03 






tl8 


985.82 


t46 


§3,299.85 


Calvert 












tl 


54.77 


tl 


54.77 




'2 


i 


317 


68 








2 


317.68 


Carroll 


1 


1 


81 


45 






t3 


164! 30 


t4 


245.75 


Cecil 


6 


6 


442 


40 






tl 


54.77 


n 


497.17 


Charles 














tl 


54.77 


ti 


54.77 


Dorchester. . . . 


2 


'2 


146 


75 






t3 


164.30 


t5 


311.05 


Frederick 


3 


3 


295 


11 


2 


126. 60 


t*4 


225.30 


t*9 


647.01 


Garrett 


4 


4 


251 


60 


3 


150.00 


t*5 


275.06 


t*12 


676.66 


Harford 


2 


2 


130 


80 






t3 


164.30 


t5 


295.10 


Howard 


2 


2 


236 


40 






t7 


383.38 


t9 


619.78 


Kent 


3 


1 


321 


40 






t3 


164.30 


t6 


485.70 


Montgomery . . . 


5 


5 


391 


00 






=5=2 


122.00 


* 7 


513.00 


Prince George's 


4 


3 


256 


89 


i 


86^50 


t*3 


170.53 


t*8 


513.92 


Queen Anne's. . 














ft 


109.53 


ft 


109.53 


St. Mary's 


i 


i 


23 


80 








1 


23.80 
















t*3 


171^58 


t*3 


171.58 


Talbot 


i 


i 


40 


66 










1 


40.00 


Washington 


4 


4 


280 


20 


'2 


156 ; 66 


tai4 


2 , 12i i 19 


t20 


2,551.39 




5 


1 


540 


92 


1 


46.50 


ft 


109.53 


t8 


696.95 


Worcester 


1 


1 


76 


80 






tl 


54.77 


ft 


131.57 


Baltimore City 










23 


1,357.45 




§ 


23 


§1,357.45 


Entire State . . . 


83 


49 


6,716 


55 


32 


1,917.05 


106 


7,873.93 


221 


16,507.53 



* Includes in the county from which they came 10 children enrolled at Children's Rehabili- 
tation Institute for whose education $576 from State funds was paid through Baltimore County 
Board of Education. 

t Includes in the county from which they came 20 children at Children's Hospital School, 
38 at Kernan's, and 15 at Happy Hills for whose education $3,997.96 from State funds was 
paid to Baltimore City toward expense of teachers. 

§ Amounts paid Baltimore County and City for the above services have been prorated and 
reported opposite the county in which the children resided before entering the hospitals. 

a Includes special class. 



One class for crippled children was conducted in Cumberland, 
another in Hagerstown, and a third in the Children's Rehabili- 
tation Institute at Reisterstown with a total enrollment of 33 
for the three classes. The 10 children at Reisterstown were dis- 
abled because of spastic paralysis and came from five different 



36 1938 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 

counties. The Institute is a State-aided hospital school conducted 
for the treatment and education of children suffering from cere- 
bral injuries; a teacher is provided to give instruction of an 
academic nature on the same basis as the home teaching program 
which is conducted in the different counties. (See Table 21 and 
page 64.) 

Baltimore City was given $3,997.96 as part-payment of the 
salaries of teachers at the Children's Hospital School, Kernan's, 
and Happy Hills who gave instruction to 73 county children hos- 
pitalized through the Crippled Children's Service of the State 
Department of Health. (See Table 21 and page 64.) 

Home teaching was provided for 83 county children; special 
transportation to regular schools was given to 9 children in five 
different counties and 23 children in Baltimore City. There was 
an increase of 97 in the number of physically handicapped children 
receiving special education in the State in 1938 over the number 
in 1937. (See Table 21.) 

Special Program for Hard of Hearing Children in Montgomery County 

The ear clinic, which has been conducted by a leading otologist 
from Baltimore and paid for by the Montgomery County Board 
of Education for the past several years, was continued during 
1937-38. Prior to the holding of the bi-weekly clinic, audiometer 
tests were given under the direction of the school nurse and all 
children who showed definite hearing loss were scheduled for 
examination by the otologist. During the year 2,117 children 
from six different schools were given audiometer tests and 205 
of this number were examined by the otologist. Physical cor- 
rections were recommended in 63 cases and a number of children 
were referred to the teacher of lip reading for special instruction, 
bringing the total now being taught by her to 40. This teacher, 
who is a full-time employee of the Montgomery County Board of 
Education, is planning to inaugurate an evening class in lip read- 
ing for a number of adults in the county. She is also conducting 
an educational program among the local teachers, and is enlisting 
the aid of various civic clubs in an effort to extend the program 
to include hard of hearing adults throughout the entire county. 

Audiometer Tests in Other Counties 

A survey to determine the hearing loss among white children 
in the public schools of the State was begun early in 1938 by the 
Maryland State School for the Deaf in cooperation with the State 
Department of Education. At the close of the school year in 
June, all children in the 2nd, 5th, and 8th grades in the public 



Physically and Mentally Handicapped Pupils 



37 



schools of St. Mary's and Queen Anne's Counties and the City of 
Frederick had been tested, together with all children in the other 
grades in these schools who in the opinion of their teachers or 
parents were suspected of having a hearing loss*. The program 
will be continued in the same manner until all of the public schools 
in the counties of the State have been surveyed. 

Of the 1,680 children examined in the three counties, 87 regis- 
tered a hearing loss in one or both ears of 15 per cent or more. 
The names of these 87 were referred to the county school super- 
intendents and a recommendation as to medical attention and 
special education was made in each case. The two examiners 
from the Maryland State School for the Deaf are experienced 
teachers in this field and their advice as to the seating arrange- 
ments and special training of the children with hearing loss has 
proved most helpful. Furthermore, their contacts with the regu- 
lar grade teachers in the various schools which they visited have 
done much to create a correct attitude toward the handicap of 
loss of hearing. 



County Mentally Handicapped Children 

A total of 30 classes for mentally retarded children were con- 
ducted by eight different counties during the year 1937-38. The 
enrollment in these classes was 608 as shown by Table 22. 



TABLE 22 

Special Classes for Retarded Children in Maryland Counties, 1937-38 



County 



Total 

Allegany 

Carroll 

Frederick 

Kent 

Prince George's 

Talbot 

Washington . . . 
Wicomico 




Average 
Enrollment 
per Class 



* Includes one class for colored children. 



Teacher Training 

Courses in Special Education for teachers of handicapped chil- 
dren and also regular grade teachers who are interested in the 
program were conducted as usual in the summer schools of the 
University of Maryland and Johns Hopkins University. 



38 1938 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 
Clinical Study of Handicapped Children in the Counties 

Cooperation with the Services for Crippled Children of the 
State Department of Health was continued by the State Super- 
visor of Rehabilitation and Special Education in conducting or- 
thopedic clinics in 22 counties of the State. All orthopedic cases 
receiving special education were examined by the specialists who 
conducted the clinics and a medical report on each child was 
furnished to the Department of Education. (See page 64.) 

Child guidance clinics were held in 22 of the counties during 
the year by psychiatrists from public and private hospitals and 
institutions located in and around Baltimore. Local school offi- 
cials cooperated by referring problem children for examination 
and by assisting the psychiatrists in securing data for the study 
of cases that had been reported. (See page 63.) 

Special Education for Baltimore City Handicapped White Pupils 

The chief change from 1937 to 1938 in the Baltimore City pro- 
gram of class instruction for white handicapped children appeared 
in the addition of eleven shop centers and a class in hearing 
conservation. The open air classes and special centers were de- 
creased by one each. (See Table 23.) 

TABLE 23 



Baltimore City Special Classes for White Pupils for Semester Ending 

June 30, 1938 













Promoted Once or 












Twice, or Making 






Net 






Satisfactory 




Number 


Roll 


Average 


Per Cent 


Improvement 


Kind of Class 


of 


June 30, 


Net 


of Atten- 








Classes 


1938 


Roll 


dance 
















Number 


tPer Cent 



White Physically Handicapped 



Total 


39 


790 


808 


90.5 


659 


83.4 




15 


348 


352 


89.2 


290 


83.4 


Orthopedic 


11 


233 


247 


92.4 


184 


79.0 


Sight Conservation 


4 


70 


68 


88.2 


57 


81.4 


Hearing Conservation 


3 


40 


41 


90.3 


33 


82.5 


Deaf 


2 


22 


22 


90.9 


22 


100.0 


Mixed* 


4 


77 


78 


92.3 


73 


94.8 


White Mentally Handicapped 


Total 


177 


3,904 


3,967 


85.1 


3,232 


82.8 


Opportunity 


123 


2,723 


2,697 


86.6 


2,235 


82.1 




47 


1,075 


1,165 


81.7 


909 


84.6 




7 


106 


105 


86.2 


88 


83.0 



* For junior high school pupils, 
t Per cent of net roll. 



White Handicapped Pupils; Resignations of County Teachers 39 



The 39 classes for approximately 800 white physically handi- 
capped children included open air, orthopedic, sight and hearing 
conservation classes, and those for the deaf and junior high 
school pupils. 

Special speech training was given to 800 white pupils who were 
handicapped by stammering, lisping, lalling and cleft palates, 
while 100 pupils were taught lip reading. Pupils remained in 
regular classes and were given part-time instruction by five 
teachers of speech correction and one of lip reading who went 
from school to school. 

Nearly 4,000 white mentally handicapped pupils were given 
special advantages in 177 opportunity classes, shop and special 
centers. 

CERTIFICATION AND SUMMER SCHOOL ATTENDANCE OF WHITE 
ELEMENTARY TEACHERS 

The annual report for 1936-37 showed on pages 41-43 and 292- 
293 the certification status of 2,734 county white elementary 
teachers as of October, 1937, as well as the number who had 
attended summer school in 1937. Since these data were for the 
staff of the school year 1937-38, they are not repeated in this 
report. 

WITHDRAWALS OF WHITE COUNTY ELEMENTARY TEACHERS 

TABLE 24 

Causes of Resignation Reported for Teachers Who Withdrew from the Mary- 
land County White Elementary Schools" Between October of 
One Year and October of the Following Year 



Cause of Resignation 



Oct. 
To 
Oct. 


Marriage 


-u 
c 

£ 

0) 

t- 

a; 


>» 
o 
B 

.2 
*S 

€ 

c 


c 

a! 
-C 

u 

a 

j3 be 
*J c 

■55? 

s* 


oa 
®| 

5 ~ 

eS a> u . 

J- 4-> <- t- o 
■-02 O v 

.5— t£ lC 
3 c £ 

S • - C 3 C 

«jUC Xtl A 


1 Illness 


| Moved Away 


JS 

a 

a> 

Q 


Teaching in Another 
State or in Private 
School 


Provisional Certificate 
or Failure to Attend 
Summer School 


Position Abolished 


Rejected by Medical 
Hoard 


Other and Unknown 


Total 


Leave of Absence 


Transfer to Another 
County 


Transfer to Other Type 
of School Within County 


1927-28 


148 


14 


31 


43 


30 


24 


10 


10 


25 


37 






27 


399 


44 


53 


3 


1928-29 


164 


27 


27 


35 


23 


14 


8 


8 


48 


12 






18 


384 


31 


46 


9 


1929-30 


136 


27 


23 


36 


9 


15 


8 


7 


34 


15 






20 


330 


23 


47 


12 


1930-31 


122 


19 


37 


10 


11 


9 


14 


6 


15 


12 






21 


276 


22 


19 


34 


1931-32 


83 


24 


23 


2 


1 


9 


9 


7 


2 


9 


5 




24 


201 


15 


10 


6 


1932-33 


81 


28 


12 


3 




4 


1 


7 


2 


1 


7 




12 


158 


11 


3 


16 


1933-34 


93 


26 


6 


12 


*3 


7 


3 


3 


5 


2 


3 




5 


168 


13 


7 


8 


1934-35 


71 


24 


9 


12 


3 


6 


1 


2 


5 


2 


1 




7 


143 


20 


10 


7 


1935-36 


89 


14 


11 


10 


8 




6 


4 


3 


1 






4 


157 


23 


10 


8 


1936-37 


95 


22 


9 


6 


5 


5 


10 


3 


7 


4 


i 




9 


176 


15 


43 


9 



* Teachers withdrawing from grade 7 or grades 7 and 8 in junior or junior-senior high 
schools are excluded from this table. They are included in Table 74, page 115. 



40 



1938 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



There were 176 white elementary teachers who left the service 
in the county schools between October, 1936, and October, 1937, an 
increase of 19 over the preceding year. This continues the 
tendency which first appeared in the figures for last year to re- 
verse the downward trend in the number of withdrawals from 
the white elementary teaching staff, which was evident almost 
continuously from October, 1927, to October, 1935, except be- 
tween October, 1933, and October, 1934. The contrast of 399 
withdrawals between October, 1927, and October, 1928, with 176 
between October, 1936, and October, 1937, indicates the great 
change which has taken place. A part of the reduction is due to 
the increase in junior high schools; a part is due to the continu- 
ance in the service of teachers who in more normal times would 
have withdrawn to get married, to run their own homes, or to 
take positions in fields other than teaching; a part is explained 
by the consolidation of schools and the decrease in elementary 
school enrollment resulting from a declining birth rate. (See 
Table 24.) 

The chief reason reported for leaving the teaching service is 
marriage. Between October, 1928, and October, 1929, there were 
164 county white elementary teachers who resigned for this 
reason, while between October, 1934, and October, 1935, the 
smallest number, 71, left for marriage. There were 95 county 
white elementary teachers for whose resignations marriage was 
designated as the cause between October, 1936, and October, 1937, 
an increase of 6 over the preceding year. (See Table 24.) 

Other causes of withdrawal are retirement ; inefficiency ; teach- 
ing positions in other states or in private schools; positions in 
fields other than teaching ; teaching positions in Baltimore City, 
the State teachers colleges, or positions as supervisors or at- 
tendance officers ; illness. (See Table 24.) 

TURNOVER OF TEACHERS SHOWS SLIGHT UPTURN 

The number and per cent of teachers new to the county white 
elementary school service in 1937-38, 207 and 7.5 per cent, were 
much lower than eight years ago when the corresponding figures 
were 343 and 11.8 per cent, but were somewhat above the low 
point for the elementary schools in 1932-33 when the number and 
per cent new were only 149 and 5.3 per cent. (See Table 25.) 

The number of inexperienced white elementary teachers ap- 
pointed to the county staffs totalled only 82, a smaller number 
than ever previously reported. The number of county graduates 
from the teachers colleges was smaller than at any time since 
1922, for they represented the first group who graduated after 
establishment of the four-year teachers college course in the 
fall of 1934. (See fourth column in Table 25.) 



Resignations and Turnover of White Elementary Teachers 41 



The turnover ranged from none in one county to 57 including 
23 per cent of the staff in the county showing most rapid growth. 
(See Table 25.) 

TABLE 25 



Number and Per Cent of White Elementary School Teachers* New to the Ele- 
mentary Schools of Each Individual County during the School Year 
1937-38, with Comparisons for Preceding Years 





New to 






Number New to County Elementary 






County 






Schools* Who Were 




Year 






Change in 
Number 






Experienced 






AND 






of 














County 






Teaching 




















Positions 




In 














Per 


October 


Inex- 


County, 


But 


From 


rom 


Substi- 




ber 


Cent 


to 


peri- 


UUt> IN O L 


New 


An- 


secon- 


tutes 








October 


enced 


Too f>Vl i n nr 

1 cradling 


to 


other 


dary 














Year 


State 


County 


Schools 














Before 








*County Total and 




















Average: 




















1930-31 


°343 


11.8 


— 24 


238 


56 


29 


44 


5 


15 


1931-32 


007c 
- 1 


Q Z 


—61 


210 


oc. 


17 


19 


r 
O 


11 


1932-33 


01 A Q 


K Q 


— 81 


102 


00 

A3 


2 


10 


a 
D 


10 


1933-34 


°174 


6.2 


— 29 


115 


30 


12 


3 


5 


12 


1934-35 


°195 


7.0 


— 13 


155 


21 


10 


7 


3 


6 


1935-36 


°166 


6.0 


— 7 


115 


33 


7 


10 


3 


8 


1936-37 


°204 


7.4 


+ 14 


141 


35 


19 


10 


3 


6 


1937-38 


°207 


7.5 


— 18 


82 


52 


40 


40 


4 


29 








—2 














Somerset 


'i 


l!8 


— 5 




i 










Cecil 


2 


2.3 


4 


I 






i 






Frederick 


6 


3.2 


—3 


1 


i 


i 


1 




2 


Wicomico 


3 


3.3 


—1 




1 


1 


1 






Worcester 


2 


3.6 


—2 




1 




1 






Dorchester 


3 


3.8 


—6 




1 


i 


1 






Harford 


5 


4.1 


—3 


i 


2 


1 






i 


Calvert 


1 


4.8 




1 












Washington 


16 


5.7 


+ 3 


6 


'3 




i 




6 


Talbot 


3 


6.1 




3 












Kent 


3 


7.5 


—2 




i 




i 




i 


Carroll 


10 


7.9 


—3 


*4 


1 


2 


3 






Allegany 


23 


8.6 


+ 1 


8 


4 




6 




'5 


St. Mary's 


3 


9.1 


—3 


1 


1 










Baltimore 


35 


9.8 


+ 5 


21 


4 


i 


'3 




4 


Howard 


6 


10.5 


—1 


2 


1 




3 






Anne Arundel ...... 


17 


11.2 


+ 1 


7 


4 


'4 


2 






Montgomery 


23 


11.5 


—1 


6 


2 


8 


5 








15 


12.1 




4 


7 


2 


1 




i 


Caroline 


7 


13.0 


—6 




5 








2 


Charles 


6 


15.4 






1 




i 




4 


Prince George's. . . . 


57 


22.9 


+i4 


i<3 


11 


19 


9 




2 


Baltimore City 


132 


8.3 


—34 


99 


14 


9 


8 




2 


Elem. and Occup. 


126 


8.3 


—35 


94 


14 


8 


8 




2 




6 


7.7 


+ 1 


5 




1 










°331 


7.6 


—52 


181 


66 


49 


48 


4 


31 



* Teachers in Krade 7 and grades 7 and 8 of junior or junior-senior high schools excluded 
from this Table. They are included in Table 75. page 116. 

° Excludes teachers who transferred from one county to another. 



The turnover of Baltimore City white elementary and occupa- 
tional teachers in 1937-38 was 126, of whom 94 were inexperi- 



42 1938 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 

enced. Only in 1933, 1934, and 1935 were fewer inexperienced 
teachers appointed than in 1937-38. (See Table 26.) 

TABLE 26 

Turnover of White Elementary and Occupational Teachers in Baltimore City 











Teachers New to Baltimore City Schools 






Total 


































Number 
New to 








Who Were Experienced 






Baltimore 


Change in 
Number 
















City White 














Year 


Elementary 


of 


Inex- 




But Not 










and Occu- 


Teaching 


per- 


From 


in 


In 


In Other 






pational 


Positions 


ienced 


Other 


Service 


County 


Type of 


Other 




Schools 






States 


Preced- 
ing 
Year 


Preced- 
ing 
Year 


Baltimore 
City 
School 




1929-30. . . . 


160 


+ 12 


138 


6 


9 


3 


3 


1 


1930-31. . . . 


185 


+ 44 


160 


2 


7 


8 


6 


2 


1931-32. . . . 


115 


—69 


69 


17 


10 


4 


14 


1 


1932-33. . . . 


67 


—221 


12 


6 






48 


1 


1933-34. . . . 


84 


—6 


60 


1 


"l8 


' ' "4 




1 


1934-35. . . . 


155 


+ 43 


132 


3 


11 


5 




4 


1935-36. . . . 


116 


+ 16 


100 


7 


7 


1 




1 


1936-37. . . . 


127 


—30 


115 


2 


10 








1937-38. . . . 


126 


—35 


94 


8 


14 


' ' 8 




' ' 2 



MORE MEN COUNTY WHITE ELEMENTARY TEACHERS 

There were 261 white men teaching in the first seven (eight) 
grades of the county elementary schools, an increase of 3 over the 
preceding year, continuing the trend evident since 1929-30 for 
the number and proportion of men to increase. The men included 
8.85 per cent of the staff in these grades in 1937-38. In the last 
15 years only in 1922-23 was there a larger number and per cent 
of men employed in county white elementary schools than in 
1937-38. (See Table IX, page 303.) 

The number of men employed in elementary school grades 
varied from none in five counties to 49 and 56 in the counties 
employing the largest numbers. (See Table IX, page 303.) 



NUMBER OF PUPILS PER TEACHER DECREASES 



TABLE 27 



Average Number of Pupils Belonging per County White Elementary 
Principal and Teacher 



Average Number 
Belonging 

Year per Teacher 

1923 31.7 

1924 31.5 



1925. 
1926. 
1927. 
1928. 
1929. 



32.1 
32.0 
32.3 
32.8 
32.9 



1930 33. 



Year 
1931. 
1932. 
1933. 
1934. 
1935. 
1936. 
1937. 
1938. 



Average Number 
Belonging 
per Teacher 

34.0 

34.9 

36.2 

36.1 

36.1 

35.8 

35.4 

35.2 



Teacher Turnover; Men Teachers; No. Belonging Per Teacher 43 



The average number of pupils belonging per county white ele- 
mentary teacher, 35.2, was smaller than at any time since 1933 
when the number was 36.2, but larger than at any time from 1923 
to 1932 inclusive. The range for 1938 among the counties was 
from 26.1 to 41.7 pupils, six counties having an average of fewer 
than 32 pupils belonging per teacher and two having over 38 
pupils per teacher. (See Table 27 and Chart 10.) 

CHART 10 



AVERAGE NUMBER BELONGING PER TEACHER AND PRINCIPAL 
IN WHITE EL1J/ENTARY SCHOOLS 



County- 


1936 


1937 


Co. Average 


35.8 


35.4 


Baltimore 


41.6 


41.7 


Anne Arundel 


37.2 


38.4 


Caroline 


36.6 


36.3 


Pr. George's 


37.9 


38.1 


Frederick 


36.1 


35.4 


Wicomico 


Q 


oo.b 


Carroll 


35.1 


35.2 


Worcester 


36.2 


35.3 


Queen Anne' s 


34.4 


34.3 


Calvert 


39.2 


36.1 


Charles 


35.9 


35.3 


Somerset 


33.3 


32.3 


Allegany 


35.2 


35.3 


Washington 


36.1 


34.7 


Cecil 


34.2 


32.9 


Howard 


35.3 


33.7 


Dorchester 


33.3 


32.9 


Montgomery 


32.2 


31.2 


Kent 


30.1 


31.0 


Harford 


31.3 


30.9 


Garrett 


33.8 


32.3 


Talbot 


33.5 


32.4 


St. Mary*s 


29.7 


26.3 


Balto. City 


33.5 


33.1 


State 


35.0 


34.5 




t Excludes 26.1 pupils for junior high and 19.3 pupils for vocational schools. 



44 1938 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 

Ten counties showed more pupils belonging per teacher in 1938 
than in 1937. 

There were 17 counties in which the average number belonging 
per teacher and principal was higher than it was in Baltimore 
City in 1938 — 32.8. This is explained by the larger number of 
non-teaching principals and vice-principals and by the more ex- 
tensive program for physically and mentally handicapped children 
in Baltimore City than is possible in the counties. On the other 
hand there are still a number of small one- and two-teacher 
schools which reduce the average in some of the counties. (See 
Chart 10 and Table 28.) 



TABLE 28 

Number of Teachers and Average Size of Class in County White Elementary 
One-Teacher, Two-Teacher, and Graded Schools for Year Ending 
July 31, 1938 



County 



Schools Having 
One Teacher 



Number 
of 

Teachers 



Average 
Number 

Be- 
longing 

Per 
Teacher 



County 



Number 
of 

Teachers 



Schools Having 
Two Teachers 



Average 
Number 

Be- 
longing 

Per 
Teacher 



County 



Schools Having 
Three or More 
Teachers 



Number 
of 

Teachers 



Average 
Number 

Be- 
longing 

Per 
Teacher 



Average .... 

Baltimore . . 
Pr. George's 

Charles 

Allegany 
Anne Arundel 
Cecil 



Worcester 
Queen Anne's 

Garrett 

Harford 

Howard 

Dorchester . . 
Washington . 

Frederick 

Somerset 
St. Mary's . . 
Montgomery 
Wicomico 

Kent 

Carroll 

Talbot 

Calvert 



289 



23.9 

38.0 
30.0 
27.0 
26.8 
26.0 
25.5 
25.5 
24.5 
24.3 
24.1 
23.7 
23.4 
23.3 
23.1 
22.6 
22.5 
22.2 
21.5 
20.4 
19.9 
18.5 
14.3 



Average 

Baltimore. . . 
Allegany .... 

Garrett 

Frederick. . . . 

Howard 

Talbot 

Cecil 

Anne Arundel 
Washington . 

Calvert 

Kent 

Carroll 

Pr. George's. 
Dorchester . . 
Queen Anne's 
Worcester 
Montgomery 

Caroline 

St. Mary's . . 
Somerset .... 

Harford 

Wicomico 
Charles 



269 

18 
18 
20 
22 

5 

2 
12 
10 
26 

4 
12 

8 
20 

8 



30.7 



36.2 
35.6 
32.2 
31.9 
31.8 
31.6 
31.3 
31.0 
30.6 
30.4 
29.7 
29.3 
29.2 
29.0 
28.7 
27.8 
27.5 
26.9 
26.6 
25.3 
25.1 
24.1 



Average . . 

Baltimore . 
Anne Arundel 
Dorchester . . 

Caroline 

Somerset .... 
Wicomico . . . 
Queen Anne's 

Garrett 

Carroll 

Pr. George's. 

Howard 

Cecil 

Kent 

Worcester. . . 

Calvert 

Frederick. . . . 
Washington . 

Charles 

Harford 

Allegany. . . . 

Talbot 

St. Mary's. . . 
Montgomery 



2,407 

361 
142 
5.1 
48 
42 
75 
29 
45 
110 
218 
38 
53 
19 
45 
17 
161 
247 
33 
77 
307 
39 
5 

245 



37.0 

41.9 
38.6 
38.2 
38.2 
38.0 
38.0 
37.9 
37.7 
37.6 
37.5 
37.4 
37.4 
37,2 
37.0 
36.9 
36.8 
36.4 
36.3 
35.1 
34.8 
33.9 
32.3 
32.1 



The average size of 289 one-teacher schools for white pupils 
was 23.9, a decrease of 33 schools and .5 pupils from the preceding 
year. The range among the counties in pupils per teacher in one- 
teacher schools was from 14.3 to 38.0. (See Table 28.) 



Pupils Belonging and Average Salary Per Elementary Teacher 45 



For the 269 white teachers in schools with a two-teacher or- 
ganization the average number of pupils per teacher was 30.7, 
a decrease of 37 teachers and an increase of .1 of a pupil over 
1937. The variation in average number of pupils per teacher 
was from 24.1 to 38.3 in the individual counties. (See Table 28.) 

For the 2,407 white teachers in schools having three or more 
teachers the average number of pupils per teacher and principal 
was 37.0, a decrease of .5 of one pupil under 1936-37. The number 
of teachers in graded schools increased by 69 which practically 
balanced the decrease in the number of teachers in one- and two- 
teacher schools. The smallest average number of pupils per 
teacher was 32.1 and the largest 41.9. (See Table 28.) 

It will be noted that the one-teacher schools were smallest in 
size, 23.9 pupils, the two-teacher schools next with 30.7 pupils 
per teacher, and the graded schools largest with 37.5 pupils per 
teacher. (See Table 28.) 

AVERAGE SALARY PER TEACHER INCREASES 

The average salary per county white elementary teacher and 
principal showed increases each year from 1923 to 1933, due to 
the additional years given to preparation and further training 
which entitled the staff to higher certificates, and to the greater 
number of years teachers are staying in the service. The average 
salary was SI, 231 in 1932-33. In consequence of the salary cuts 
which went into effect in most of the counties in September, 1933, 
the average salary dropped in 1934, since which time with restora- 
tion of cuts in whole or in part there has been a gradual increase 
to Sl,295 in 1937-38. (See Table 29 and Chart 11.) 

TABLE 29 



Average Annual Salary Per County White Elementary School Teacher and 

Principal, 1923-1938 



Year Ending June 30 


Average 
Salary 
White 
Elementary 
School 
Teachers 


Year Ending June 30 


Average 
Salary 
White 
Elementary 
School 
Teachers 


1923 


$990 
1,030 
1,057 
1,103 
1,126 
1,155 
1,184 
1,199 


1931 


$1,217 
1,230 
1,231 
1,122 
1,135 
1,202 
1,220 
1,295 


1924 


1932 


1925 


1933 


1926 


1934 


1927 


1935 


1928 


1936 


1929 


1937 


1930 


1938 







46 



1938 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



CHART 11 

Average Salary Per County White Elementary Principal and Teacher, 

1923 to 1938 



$1,500 



$1,200 



$ 900 



$ 600 



$ 300 




1925 1927 1929 1931 1933 1935 1937 1939 



During 1937-38 the average salary per teacher and principal 
varied in individual counties from $1,065 to $1,555. Four counties 
had average salaries in excess of $1,300, while four had salaries 
below $1,150. Every county, except two, showed an increase in 
salary from 1937 to 1938. (See Chart 12.) 

The 1938 average salary was higher than the average salary 
prior to the depression in every county, except three, and in one 
in which it was the same. (See Chart 12.) 

The average salary per elementary teacher and principal in 
Baltimore City, $1,789, was 38 per cent higher than the average 
salary in the counties, and 15 per cent higher than the average 



Average Salary Per White Elementary School Teacher 



47 



paid in Baltimore County which had the highest average salary 
paid in any county in the State. (See Chart 12.) 



CHART 12 



AVERAGE SALARY PER PRINCIPAL AND TEACHER IN WHITE ELEMENTARY SCHOOLS 



County- 
Co. Aver age 

Baltimore 
Mont gone ry 
A. Arundel 
Allegany 
Cecil 

Washington 

Frederick 

Pr. George's 

Q. Anne's 

Harford 

Kent 

Carroll 

Talbot 

Dorchester 

Garrett 

St. Mary's 

Howard 

Somerset 

Wicomico 

Caroline 

Worcester 

Calvert 

Charles 



1933 
$1231 

1453 
1366 
1270 
1314 
1226 
1168 
1139 
1231 
1183 
1151 
1175 
1095 
1121 
1104 
1144 
1099 
1104 
1119 
1143 
1115 
1118 
1150 
1100 



1936 
$1202 

1507 
1391 
1210 
1316 
1155 
1129 
1148 
1169 
1084 
1090 
1072 
1036 
1035 
1021 
1030 
1022 
1004 
1019 
1107 
1024 
1028 
1040 
1020 



1937 1938 
$1220 



1570 
1390 
1261 1 
1316 I 
1149 
1127 
1159 
1210 
1075 
1090 
1082 
1055 
1056 
1020 
1047 
1023 
1030 
1021 
1112 
1009 
1020 
1024 
1006 





Balto. City 1701 1681 1743 
State 1405 1378 1408 



f Excludes $1,969 for junior high and $1,979 for vocational teachers. 



In a number of counties during 1937-38 there were committees 
of teachers and school officials studying the bases for construction 
of a sound salary schedule which would take into consideration 
the additional years of professional preparation required of 
teachers and the need of giving recognition to the successful 
experience of those teachers who remain in the service. 



48 1938 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



COST PER WHITE ELEMENTARY PUPIL 
CHART 13 



COST P] 
FOR 


ZR PUPIL BELONGING IN WHITE ELEMENTARY SCHOOLS 
CURRENT EXPENSES EXCLUDING GENERAL CONTROL 


County 


1936 


1937 


1938 


Co. Average 


$ 49 


$ 51 






St. Mary's 


56 


64 




Calvert 


61 


64 




Montgomery 


63 


66 










Kent 


59 


60 




Charles 


54 


60 




Queen Anne's 


54 


58 




Talbot 


53 


55 




Garrett 


49 


52 




Allegany 


52 


53 




Cecil 


47 


49 




Dorchester 


47 


49 




Worcester 


48 


51 




Anne Arundel 


51 


54 




Carroll 


47 


49 




Howard 


43 


49 




Frederick 


47 


49 


SEEKS 


Harford 


47 


49 




Baltimore 


49 


51 




Wicomico 


46 


47 




Caroline 


48 


47 




Somerset 


46 


47 




Washington 


41 


43 


3SSS5 


Prince George' 


3 44 


46 




Baltimore City 


65 


fa7 




State 


54 


57 













f Excludes $94 per junior high and $148 per vocational school pupil. 



The average current cost, excluding general control and fixed 
charges, per county white elementary pupil increased gradually 
from 1923 to 1931, then decreased until 1934, since which year 
it has increased. The per pupil cost since 1936 has included esti- 
mated expenditures by the county health offices for services to 
public school children. The cost per pupil in 1938, $54.86, was 
$3.62 more than for 1937. (See Table 30.) 



Cost Per White Elementary Pupil 



41) 



TABLE 30 

Average Current Expense Cost, Excluding General Control and Fixed 
Charges, Per County White Elementary Pupil, 1923 to 1938 



Year 



1923 
1924 
1925 
1926 
1927 
1928 
1929 
1930 



Average Cost 
per Pupil 
Belonging 



$39.84 
43.06 
43.67 
46.02 
47.26 
47.81 
49.49 
49.78 



Year 



1931 
1932 
1933 
1934 
1935 
1936 
1937 
1938 



Average Cost 
per Pupil 
Belonging 



$50.17 
49.27 
46.95 
44.36 
45.16 
*48.90 
♦51.24 
*54.86 



* Part of this amount is due to inclusion of estimated expenditures on public white elemen- 
tary school children by county health offices from State and county funds. These figures were 
first included in 1936. 

The cost per white elementary school pupil in individual coun- 
ties in 1938 ranged between $49 and $77, three counties spending 
$50 or less per pupil and three counties spending over $70 per 
pupil. Every county showed a higher cost in 1938 than in 1937 
due in part to the increase in average salary per teacher and 
principal and the decrease in average size of class. (See Chart 13.) 

Cost Per Pupil Highest in One-Teacher Schools 

TABLE 31 

Cost Per Pupil Belonging in White One-Teacher, Two-Teacher, and Graded 
Schools for Year Ending July 31, 1938, Exclusive of Expenditures for 
General Control, Supervision, and Fixed Charges 



County 



One-Teacher 
Schools 



No. 



Cost 
Per 
Pupil 



County 



Two-Teacher 
Schools 



No. 



Cost 
Per 
Pupil 



County 





Cost 


No. 


Per 




Pupil 


332 


$52.48 


1 


89.13 


24 


68.21 


4 


66.54 


6 


60.64 


7 


58.33 


6 


55.75 


33 


54.96 


8 


53.19 


20 


52.89 


4 


52.39 


15 


51.81 


7 


51.77 


7 


51.48 


44 


51 .00 


9 


50.95 


24 


50.63 


12 


49.25 


8 


49.25 


13 


48.25 


9 


48.17 


7 


46.94 


33 


46.79 


31 


46.11 



County Average 

Anne Arundel . . 

Calvert 

Montgomery. . . 

Talbot 

Kent 

St. Mary's 

Queen Anne's. . 
Dorchester. . . . 

Garrett 

Washington 

Carroll 

Wicomico 

Frederick 

Cecil 

Somerset 

Howard 

Allegany 

Harford 

Worcester 

Charles 

Prince George's 
Baltimore 



287 

1 
1 



$63.33 

114.46 
96.25 
90.77 
76.75 
72.86 
67.82 
67.79 
67.78 
67.31 
63.82 
62.95 
62.81 
61.90 
61.82 
60.14 
56.12 
55.81 
54.82 
54.62 
51.22 
50 . 02 
40.39 



County Average 

Montgomery 

Calvert 

Wicomico 

Worcester 

St. Mary's 

Anne Arundel . . 

Kent 

Talbot 

Caroline 

Queen Anne's. . 
Dorchester. . . . 
Prince George's 

Carroll 

Charles 

Cecil 

Harford 

Frederick 

Somerset 

Baltimore 

Garrett 

Washington .... 

Allegany 

Howard 



135 



$56.83 

84.69 
73.73 
70.69 
70.67 
70.56 
60.09 
68.81 
66.31 
63.92 
60.71 
60.64 
56.91 
54.67 
54.35 
54.13 
53 . 47 
53 . 07 
52.15 
51 .92 
48.63 
47.33 
44.82 
43.83 



County Average 

St. Mary's 

Montgomery 

Calvert 

Charles 

Queen Anne's. . 

Talbot 

Allegany 

Garrett 

Anne Arundel. . 

Kent 

Carroll 

Cecil 

Howard 

Baltimore 

Worcester 

Frederick 

Harford 

Caroline 

Wicomico 

Dorchester. . . . 

Somerset 

Prince George's 
Washington .... 



50 



1938 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



The 1938 current expense cost, exclusive of general control, 
supervision, and fixed charges per county white elementary pupil 
belonging averaged over $63 in one-teacher, nearly S57 in two- 
teacher, and over $52 in graded schools. In one-teacher schools 
the average cost per pupil in individual counties ranged from S40 
to SI 14, in two-teacher schools from S44 to S85, and in graded 
schools from S46 to S89. (See Table 31.) 

Cost Per Baltimore City Pupil 

The expenditure per white elementary school pupil in Baltimore 
City, $69.12, was exceeded in only three counties. The cost per 
pupil for salaries of teachers and for operation of buildings was 
higher in Baltimore City than in any county. (See Chart 13 and 
Table 32.) 

Analysis of Cost Per White Elementary Pupil 

The average current cost per county white elementary pupil 
included $36.83 for salaries, $8.73 for auxiliary agencies ( trans- 
portation, health, and libraries), $4.18 for operation, $1.96 for 
maintenance (repairs and replacements), $1.84 for books, ma- 
terials and costs of instruction other than salaries, and $1.32 for 
supervision. Every element entering into the cost showed an 
increase over the preceding year. (See Table 32.) 

Salary costs per county white elementary pupil ranged from 
under $31 to $37, the former county ranking near the top in 
average number of pupils belonging per teacher and principal, 
and near the bottom in average salary per teacher and principal, 
while the latter county showed the reverse, being near the bottom 
in average number of pupils belonging per teacher and principal 
and near the top in average salary per teacher and principal. In 
no county was the average as high as it was in Baltimore City. 
(See Table 32.) 

Operation costs per county white elementary pupil for heating 
and cleaning buildings were between S2.50 and $2.88 in four 
counties which had small buildings without janitors and low fuel 
costs, and totalled $5.53 and S7.30 in the two counties spending 
the highest amounts per pupil, one of these counties having large 
buildings with central heating plants requiring janitors and en- 
gineers. The highest amount in any county was just under the 
Baltimore City cost, S7.40 per white elementary pupil for opera- 
tion of buildings. (See Table 32.) 

Expenditure per white elementary pupil for maintenance fluc- 
tuated between less than one dollar in three counties to over four 
dollars in two counties. Repairs made through the Works Progress 
Administration relieved twelve counties of expenditures on main- 
tenance. (See Table 32 and Tables 164 and 165, page 252.) 



Cost Per White Elementary Pupil 



51 



The expenditure per pupil for books, materials and costs of 
instruction other than salaries varied from less than $1 in one 
county to over S2 in seven counties. State aid for books and 
materials totalled 89 cents per pupil. The average county du- 
plicated from the county levy the State's contribution and one 
county spent from the levy nearly twice as much per pupil as the 
State allowance. (See Table 32.) 

TABLE 32 



Cost Per Pupil in While Elementary Schools, Grades 1-7(8), for the Main 
Subdivisions of Expenditures, Exclusive of General Control, for the 
Year Ending July 31, 1938 



County 


Super- 
vision 


Salaries 


Text Books 
and Other 

Costs of 
Instruction 


Opera- 
tion 


Main- 
tenance 


Auxiliary 
Agencies* 


Total 
Current 

Ex- 
penses 


Capital 
Outlay 


County Average . . . 


$1 


32 


$36 


83 


$1 


84 


?4 


18 


$1 


96 


$8 


73 


$54 


86 


$7.84 


Allegany 


1 


08 


38 


22 


2 


34 


4 


98 


2 


10 


6 


81 


55 


53 


1.08 






82 


35 


24 


1 


35 


4 


17 


2 


20 


11 


08 


54 


86 


6.88 


Baltimore 




93 


37 


44 


1 


46 


4 


50 


1 


15 


6 


42 


51 


90 


6.42 




3 


54 


32 


71 


1 


55 


4 


80 


1 


76 


27 


42 


71 


78 


.38 


Caroline 


1 


42 


30 


62 


1 


50 


3 


33 




66 


13 


98 


51 


51 


5.51 


Carroll 


1 


14 


33 


38 


2 


41 


2 


88 


1 


40 


12 


46 


53 


67 


1.87 


Cecil 


1 


15 


38 


59 


2 


18 


3 


10 


2 


44 


7 


76 


55 


22 


3.51 


Charles 


2 


16 


30 


82 


1 


77 


4 


80 


4 


22 


18 


20 


61 


97 


.24 




2 


20 


34 


87 


1 


43 


3 


39 


1 


52 


11 


68 


55 


09 


.58 




1 


28 


34 


50 


1 


86 


3 


45 


1 


48 


9 


90 


52 


47 


1.08 


Garrett 


1 


55 


37 


16 


1 


27 


2 


71 


3 


34 


12 


86 


58 


89 


5.74 




1 


69 


38 


24 


1 


19 


3 


30 


1 


60 


6 


34 


52 


36 


11.32 


Howard 


1 


47 


34 


49 


1 


81 


3 


80 


1 


36 


10 


25 


53 


18 


21.54 


Kent 


2 


59 


37 


88 


1 


46 


5 


53 


1 


89 


13 


51 


62 


86 


.02 


Montgomery 


1 


43 


47 


01 


2 


67 




30 


2 




9 


59 


70 


77 


8.83 


Prince George's. . . 


1 


19 


33 


31 


2 


55 


3 


78 


4 


04 


3 


87 


48 


74 


18.50 


Queen Anne's 


2 


27 


34 


62 


2 


29 


3 


79 


1 


63 


17 


13 


61 


73 


.31 


St. Marv's 


3 


38 


44 


20 


1 


61 


2 


50 


2 


22 


22 


88 


76 


79 


1.80 




1 


27 


33 


46 


1 


42 


2 


72 




46 


10 


68 


50 


01 


.12 


Talbot 


2 


01 


37 


57 


1 


55 


4 


99 




52 


13 


81 


60 


45 


4.94 




1 


29 


37 


50 


1 


34 


3 


22 


1 


44 


4 


11 


48 


90 


1.47 


Wicomico 


1 


33 


32 


35 


2 


07 


4 


49 


1 


62 


9 


79 


51 


65 


77.36 


Worcester 


1 


67 


32 


31 




92 


4 


20 




35 


14 


59 


55 


04 


1.19 


Baltimore City: 
































Elementary 


1 


40 


54 


39 


1 


78 


7 


40 


2 


27 


1 


88 


69 


12 


1.09 


Junior High .... 


1 


74 


75 


33 


3 


85 


9 


59 


2 


81 


1 


17 


94 


49 


.16 


Vocational 


1 


48 


102 


48 


12 


11 


20 


51 


8 


50 


3 


09 


148 


17 




Total State (Elem.) 


$1 


35 


$42 


82 


$1 


82 


$5.28 


$2.06 


$6 


40 


$59.73 


$5.54 



* Includes estimated expenditures by State Department of Health on services to school 
children. 

For expenditures see Table XVIII, page 312. 



Supervision costs per white elementary pupil were less than 
$1 in two counties which employed fewer supervisors than the 
number for whom they were entitled to receive State aid, while 
at the opposite extreme two counties with a small number of white 
elementary teachers spent over $3 per white elementary pupil 
for supervision. (See Table 32.) 

The cost per white elementary pupil for auxiliary agencies 
varied from close to $4 in two counties to over $27 in one county. 
Since the term "auxiliary agencies" covers such diverse items 



52 1938 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 

as transportation, libraries, and health, further analysis has been 
made of the costs and services rendered under these three classi- 
fications. In Table 35, counties have been listed in the order of 
their expenditure per white elementary pupil for auxiliary agen- 
cies, the county with the highest expenditure appearing first. 

TABLE 33 



Expenditures and Cost Per Pupil for Auxiliary Agencies in Maryland County 
White Elementary Schools — Year Ending July 31, 1938 



County 


Transportation 


Libraries 


tHealth 


Pupils Trans- 
ported at 
Public Expense 


Amount 
Spent 


Cost 
per 
Pupil 
Trans- 
ported 


Total 
Expen- 
ditures 
for 
Libraries 


Amount per 


Total 
Expen- 
ditures 

for 
Health 


Amount 

per 
Pupil 


Number 


Per 
Cent 


School 


Teacher 




35,980 


33 


9 


$724,398 


$20 


13 


$18,718 


$24 


83 


$6 


31 


t$161,069 


$1.54 


Calvert 


553 


71 


4 


18,393 


33 


26 


181 


25 


87 


8 


23 


2,360 


3.09 


St. Mary's 


458 


55 


9 


15,575 


34 


01 


155 


8 


17 


5 


02 


2,531 


3.13 


Charles. 


927 


66 


7 


19,856 


21 


42 


635 


63 


52 


16 


20 


4,157 


3.07 


Queen Anne's. . 


798 


56 


7 


20,296 


25 


4:>, 


334 


22 


1>7 


8 


35 


3,303 


2.36 


Worcester 


1,109 


56 


5 


24,245 


21 


86 


140 


9 


33 


2 


55 


3,879 


2.00 




1,198 


60 


9 


22,535 


18 


81 


571 


57 


07 


11 


IK:: 


3,805 


1.97 


Talbot 


559 


36 





17,676 


31 


62 


108 


6 


72 


2 


16 


3,319 


2.15 


Kent 


510 


40 


9 


11,900 


23 


3:1 


541 


28 


47 


13 


69 


4,196 


3.40 




1 ,262 


33 


7 


39,346 


31 


IS 


643 


8 


93 


5 


41 


6,660 


1 .79 


Carroll 


2,835 


60 


5 


52,184 


18 


41 


826 


26 


65 


6 


33 


4,322 


.93 


Dorchester .... 


978 


36 


1 


25,124 


25 


69 


296 


8 


71 


3 


72 


5,564 


2.10 


Anne Arundel . . 


3,074 


51 


8 


53 , 653 


16 


97 


596 


22 


93 


3 


88 


10,138 


1.73 




921 


45 


7 


17,275 


18 


76 


86 


4 


53 


1 


51 


3,577 


1.82 




842 


42 


9 


15,727 


18 


68 


450 


18 


00 




77 


3,566 


1.84 


Frederick 


2,876 


41 


8 


58 , 566 


20 


36 


611 


14 


20 


3 


20 


8.105 


1.19 


Wicomico 


1,190 


35 


4 


21,837 


18 


35 


1,079 


44 


97 


11 


93 


8,312 


2.58 


Montgomery . . . 


3,157 


37 


1 


62,307 


19 


74 


1,118 


29 


4 1 


4 


23 


16,952 


2.02 


Cecil 


920 


30 


6 


16,410 


17 


84 


992 


27 


55 


11 


124 


5,460 


1.85 


Allegany 


2,737 


22 


6 


52,931 


19 


34 


952 


15 


36 


2 


76 


24,619 


2.07 


Baltimore 


4,828 


29 


6 


82,389 


17 


06 


3,920 


71 


28 


10 


27 


14,976 


.94 




827 


21 


8 


19,506 


23 


59 


506 


11 


00 


4 


15 


3,630 


.95 


Washington .... 


1,716 


16 





30,513 


17 


78 


2,255 


28 


19 


7 


31 


10,815 


1.02 


Prince George's 


1,705 


18 


5 


26,154 


16 


22 


1,723 


33 


14 


6 


98 


6,823 


.76 



t Includes $152,070 estimated expenditures of the county health offices for public school 
services. Also includes $8,999 for school nurses, dental clinics, and supplies spent by county 
boards of education. 



Transportation Service for County White Elementary Pupils 

Transportation services absorbed nearly 80 per cent of the 
expenditures shown for auxiliary agencies for county white ele- 
mentary pupils in 1937-38. The total county expenditures for 
transporting white elementary pupils increased over the preced- 
ing year by nearly $51,000 to $724,398 ; the pupils transported 
increased by 1,900 to 35,980; the per cent of county white ele- 
mentary pupils transported was higher than the preceding year 



Cost Per White Elementary Pupil for Transportation and 53 

Libraries 

by 2, making the 1938 percentage 33.9; and the cost per county 
white elementary pupil transported increased by 37 cents, making 
the cost $20.13 in 1938. Improvement in the type of bus, restora- 
tion of cuts in payments to bus drivers, elimination of overcrowd- 
ing, and consolidation of schools were all factors in the increases 
shown. (See Table 33.) 

The number of white public school elementary pupils trans- 
ported varied from as few as 458 to as many as 4,828. The per 
cent of white elementary pupils transported was under 20 in two 
counties and over 60 in four counties. In general expenditure 
per white elementary pupil for auxiliary agencies, which de- 
termines the order in Table 33, correlates roughly with per cent 
of pupils transported. Expenditures ranged from $11,900 to 
$82,389, while cost per white elementary pupil transported was 
under $17 in two counties and over $33 in two counties. (See 
Table 38.) 

Baltimore City transported 465 white pupils to school, of whom 
275 were physically handicapped. 

Library Expenditures for White Elementary Pupils 

Expenditures from public education funds for libraries used 
by white elementary pupils totalled $18,718 in 1938, an increase 
of $7,434 over 1937. This represented an expenditure per white 
elementary school of $24.83 and per white elementary teacher of 
$6.31. These were increases of $10.71 and $2.51 respectively 
over corresponding figures for the year preceding. (See Table 33.) 

The smallest amount spent from public funds by any county 
was $86 and the largest amount $3,920. According to Section 
167 of the School Law, it is required that $10 be paid by the county 
school commissioners out of the State school fund to any school- 
house district as library money if the people of the district raise 
the same amount annually. Some counties which have large 
consolidated schools pay the $10 to any room which raises at 
least $10. The law was passed in 1904 when many of the county 
schools had only one teacher. 

In addition to these public funds, the teachers, patrons, and 
pupils raised funds which were used for purchase of library books 
and equipment. For both white high and elementary schools in 
certain counties these additional amounts are reported in Table 
XXIV, pages 318-319. 



54 1938 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 

services of maryland public library advisory commission 

In addition to the use of library facilities in a number of schools 
which have been improved so much that their teachers are better 
able to supply their own needs, a number of teachers took ad- 
vantage of the privilege of securing books from the public 
libraries in the counties, cities, and towns, or from the Maryland 
Public Library Advisory Commission with offices in the Enoch 
Pratt Library Building, 400 Cathedral Street, Baltimore, Mary- 
land. The most vital work of the Commission is to teach com- 
munities how to provide themselves with books and to foster the 
development of service rather than to distribute books and other 
printed material from a central reservoir throughout the State. 

Because of the limited State appropriation for books, the 
Library Commission was not in a position to supply all of the 
books requested. Also the requirement that the cost of trans- 
porting cases and packages of books be met entirely by the school 
requesting them deterred some teachers who had requested a 
supply. The number of books sent to county white elementary 
school teachers which totalled 5,577 was 2,678 fewer than for 
the preceding year, accounted for in part by the increased facili- 
ties in the counties. Eight counties showed an increase in the 
number of volumes borrowed from the Commission for white 
elementary pupils. (See Table 34.) 

Traveling libraries are collections of books loaned for a period 
of four months at the end of which time they may be returned 
and exchanged for another collection or renewed for four more 
months. Thirty books are included in cases sent by parcel post ; 
thirty-five in those sent by express. They are not fixed collections, 
but are selected to suit individual needs. The cost of transpor- 
tation must be met by the schools and guarantee of reimburse- 
ment for lost or damaged books is required. 

The package libraries of from one to twelve books are made 
up to meet special requirements for school essays, debates, in- 
dividual needs, or professional needs of the teachers. These are 
loaned for one month to anyone living in Maryland who is without 
access to a public library. 

Developments in the local libraries during 1937-38 stimulated 
by the Library Commission staff included the organizing of the 
first "Friends of the Library" group connected with any public 
library in Maryland. The organization was begun by a number 
of patrons of the Cumberland Library who wanted to help the 
library systematically rather than provide occasional gifts and 



Services of Library Advisory Commission 



55 



benefits. The organization after a membership drive hoped to 
have 200 charter members. The Cumberland Library, opened 
in 1924, is a thriving community service housed in the beautiful 
old Academy Building. 



TABLE 34 

Services of the Maryland Public Library Advisory Commission to the County 
White Elementary Schools, 1937-38 







Traveling Libraries 


Package Libraries 




Total 


(30 to 35 books in each) 


(1 to 12 books in each) 
















Year 


No. of 




Number of 






Number of 




AND 


Volumes 












County 


















Supplied 






















Traveling 






T^O r»L- o 






ocnoois 


r P/nQ f»Vi pro 


T .I hrsi riod 


ocnoois 


± eacners 


Libraries 






SnnnlipH 


Supplied 


Supplied 


Supplied 


Sn nnl it*H 




1931 


12,022 


157 


196 


299 


'89 


124 


393 


1932 


9,799 


165 


206 


275 


79 


84 


266 


1933 


16,606 


182 


275 


419 


87 


112 


334 


1934 


8,609 


96 


128 


225 


91 


107 


210 


1935 


8,675 


81 


144 


219 


77 


88 


247 


1936 


7,029 


66 


80 


184 


46 


56 


150 




8 ,255 


f44 


f52 


207 


56 


73 


237 


1938 


5,577 


f39 


f43 


133 


47 


52 


199 


Allegany 


al27 


a4 


a4 


a4 


al 


al 


al 


Anne Arundel . . . 


bc442 


bc4 


bc4 


bc5 


bc7 


bc9 


bc37 


Baltimore 


g674 


g3 


g4 


g7 


glO 


gl3 


g67 


Calvert 


c. . . . 


c. . . . 


c. . . . 


c. . . . 


c. . . . 


c. . . . 


c. . . . 


Caroline 


14 








3 


3 


3 


Carroll 


c552 


"c7 


"c9 


cl6 


c4 


c4 


c5 


Cecil 


cel4 


ce. . . . 


ce . . . . 


ce . . . . 


ce2 


ce2 


ce2 




be. . . . 


be. . . . 


be. . . . 


be. . . . 


be. . . . 


be. . . . 


be. . . . 




c204 


c2 


c2 


c3 


c5 


c5 


c24 


Frederick 


c383 


c5 


c6 


ell 


cl 


cl 


c6 


Garrett 


65 


2 


2 


2 








Harford 


bc46 


bcl 


bcl 


bcl 


'bc2 


'bc2 


bc8 


Howard 


7 








1 




5 


Kent 
















Montgomery 


cf2 424 


ci'.'.'.'. 


cf ; ! ; ; 


cf ' 59 


' cf3 


' cf3 


cfi5 


Prince George's. 


593 


6 


6 


17 


1 




2 


Queen Anne's. . . 


cl40 


cl 


cl 


c4 


c 


c. . . . 


c 


St. Mary's 


33 


1 


i 


1 


1 




1 


Somerset 


36 


1 


i 


1 


2 




2 


Talbot 


be. . . . 


be... 


be. . . . 


be. . . . 


be. . . . 


be. . . . 


be. . . . 


Washington .... 


d. . . . 


d 


d 


d. . . . 


d. . . . 


d. . . . 


d 


Wicomico 


c30 


cl 


cl 


cl 


c. . . . 


c. . . . 


c 


Worcester 


93 


1 


1 


1 


4 


4 


21 



a Cumberland Public Library supplied the schools in Cumberland from its own collection. 
In addition, the Library Commission took care of some of the needs of Cumberland schools 
and supplied other schools of the county as shown above. Circulation of Public Library not 
shown here. 

b Limited library service given to schools by County Library. Circulation not shown here. 

c Library privileges extended to any who can conveniently go to the county seat on the days 
when the library is open. Circulation not shown here. 

d County-wide library takes care of book service to schools. Circulation not shown here. 

e Elementary school library books centralized in the School Board Office in Elkton. Books 
circulated to schools of county from that office. Circulation not shown here. 

f All traveling libraries borrowed by School Board and re-circulated to schools of the county 
from that office, therefore, number of schools and teachers served is not available. Circulation 
not shown here. 

g Centralized libraries have been organized, in 22 of the elementary schools of Baltimore 
County. With more books and attractive rooms available within the schools themselves fewer 
books have been borrowed from the Library Commission. 



56 1938 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 

A library has been erected at Williamsport, Washington Coun- 
ty, to serve the young people of the community as a memorial 
to the high school pupils who lost their lives in the accident to 
the school bus which was struck at a grade crossing in Mont- 
gomery County when the bus was returning late at night from 
a meeting at the University of Maryland. 

The new Rockville Public Library reorganized and opened to 
the public is a part of the educational system of the county under 
the control of the Montgomery county school board. It is located 
in the building that was formerly the Rockville Academy. The 
children's room and main library are housed on the first floor. 
On the second floor is a commodious community hall decorated 
with paintings by the artist, Peter Wagner of Pittsburgh. 

The C. Burr Artz Memorial Library of Frederick, for which 
a beautiful Georgian Building was completed in 1937, was opened 
to the public in January, 1938. The central entrance lobby on 
the main floor of the building contains the charging desk, while 
the circulating library and reading room are in the north and 
south wings, respectively. The lower floor entered through a 
sunken garden is devoted to younger readers. The pine paneling, 
built-in book cases, and open fireplaces are in keeping with the 
colonial exterior. 

The Cecil County Library, an outgrowth of the Elkton Public 
Library which had been maintained by subscription and a town 
subsidy, was opened to the public in December, 1937. New 
quarters were rented and attractively decorated and additional 
furniture was provided. An advisory committee consisting of 
a representative from each of the nine election districts is working 
with a committee of the original Board of Directors of the former 
Elkton Library to establish the county library on a permanent 
basis. The library is financed at present by funds made available 
by the County Comissioners, the Elkton Commissioners, and the 
balance belonging to the former Elkton Public Library. Through 
the courtesy of a local laundry, arrangements have been made 
for the delivery and collection of books, free of cost, to the home 
of any person in the county, provided it is located on or close to 
one of the laundry routes and otherwise to that store or post 
office designated by the person desiring the book. 

In 1937 the revitalization of the Middletown Public Library 
accompanied the appointment of a full-time custodian paid from 
WPA funds. The Berlin Library was completely reorganized 
and installed in new quarters, with two full-time custodians paid 
by WPA. The Centreville Public Library building was remodeled 
in 1936 and the Pocomoke Public Library has been installed in the 



Library Development; Health Expenditures 



57 



new municipal building erected as a government project. Pre- 
liminary work in the establishing of rural library service in St. 
Mary's County was carried on as a WPA recreational project. 

Extensive Works Progress Administration library projects 
were carried on in nine counties and in the office of the Commis- 
sion under the supervision of the Maryland Public Library Ad- 
visory Commission. School and library books to the total of 
44,202 were reconditioned so that they could be put back into 
use and 13,461 books in school libraries were organized and cata- 
logued at a cost of $74,852. Books from 13 Baltimore County 
elementary schools and from the Greenbelt School in Prince 
George's County were brought to the Commission office for or- 
ganization and cataloguing. In addition high school libraries 
were organized and catalogued. Those counties which had no 
library projects had no suitable workers available. (See Table 
171, page 253, for expenditures by counties.) 

A course in library science for school librarians and teacher- 
librarians inaugurated at Western Maryland College in the sum- 
mer of 1936 was also given in 1937 and 1938. One elementary 
teacher and twelve high school teachers were enrolled in 1938. 

Several librarians in elementary schools joined the State Asso- 
ciation of School Librarians which was organized to stimulate 
school library service and further professional interest. It holds 
one of its two annual meetings at the time the State Teachers' 
Association is in session. 

Expenditures from Public Funds for Health and Physical Education 

Expenditures for health of white elementary pupils are esti- 
mated as $161,069 in 1937-38, a decrease of $10,000 under 1936- 
37. To the expenditures of S8,999 made by county boards of 
education for school nurses, dental clinics, and other services has 
been added an estimate of $152,070 for State, federal, and county 
funds spent by county health offices on services to public school 
children. The latter amount was calculated on the assumption 
that one-half of the public funds reported as expenditures by the 
county health offices were used for health work among public 
school children. The figures reported by the State Department 
of Health exclude an allocation by counties of $99,825 expended 
on services for crippled children, of which $51,500 came from 
State and $48,325 from federal funds. (See right part of and 
note under Table 33, page 52 ; Table 35, page 59 and Table XVI, 
page 310.) 

In some communities in other states the health program is a 
responsibility of the school authorities instead of, as in Maryland, 
a responsibility of the health authorities working in cooperation 



58 1938 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



with the school authorities. Expenditures for health service 
rendered directly by the school authorities have, of course, always 
been reported in school costs to the U. S. Office of Education, 
whereas until 1935-36, for Maryland counties, no amounts were 
included to cover estimated costs of similar services rendered by 
a public agency other than the schools. 

Ten county boards of education spent directly $8,576 for school 
nurses, dental clinics, and transportation of white elementary 
children to clinics. Four of these counties paid salaries of one 
or two school nurses, but in three of these counties the nurses 
were also considered a part of the staff of the county health 
offices. The county boards of education also spent $423 for mis- 
cellaneous health activities. 

The amounts included as estimated expenditures for health 
for white elementary pupils varied from less than $2,535 in two 
counties to over $10,000 in five counties. The estimated expendi- 
ture per white elementary pupil was less than $1.20 in six coun- 
ties and over $3 in four counties. (See last two columns in Table 
33, page 52.) 

health services for schools given by county and state* 

Staff and Finances for Health Services 

Every county had the services of one full-time health officer, 
and three large counties each had also a full-time assistant health 
officer. In addition, two counties each had 14 part-time county 
health officers The counties employed 84 nurses, the number 
varying from 2 to 9 according to size of county, and 34 clerks. 
There were 79 additional employees giving service in county 
clinics and bacteriological laboratories. (See Table 35.) 

Of $420,082 spent for county health offices in 1938, the counties 
contributed $169,162, the State $124,126, the Federal Government 
S99,880, and other agencies $26,914. It has been estimated by 
State Health Department officials that one-half of the expendi- 
tures of county health offices were used for services which affect 
the health of public school children. The Health Department 
figures in Table 35 include a part of those allocated to health by 
the county boards of education. By using figures in Table 35 
together with those reported by the county boards of education, 
it has been possible to estimate the State, Federal, and county 
funds used for health service to school children included in the 
third column under auxiliary agencies in Table XVI, page 310. 
These estimated receipts and disbursements are also included in 
Tables XI, XII, and XIII, pages 305 to 307. 



* Data prepared by Gertrude B. Knipp with the approval of Dr. Robert H. Riley, Director 
of the Maryland State Department of Health. 



Service to School Children by County Health Offices 



59 



The funds for health service in the 23 counties averaged 30 per 
cent from the State, 24 per cent from Federal funds, 40 per cent 
from the county levy, and 6 per cent from other county sources. 
The per cent of aid for health ranged among the counties for State 
aid between 14 and 61 per cent, for Federal aid between 4 and 
49 per cent, from the county levy between 7 and 75 per cent, and 
from other county sources from 1 to 24 per cent. (See Table 35.) 

TABLE 35 



Cost of County Health Offices in Maryland Counties for Year Ending 

September 30, 1938 

(Data furnished by the Maryland State Department of Health) 



County 


Number of 


Total 
Budget 


Per Cent From 


Hes 
Offi 

Full 
Time 


1th 

?ers 

Part 
Time 


Nurses 


Clerks 


Other 


State 


Federal 
Aid 


County 
Levy 


Other 
County 
Sources 


Total Counties. 


26 


29 


c84 


34 


a79 


d$420,082 


29.5 


23.8 


40.3 


6.4 


Dorchester .... 






3 


2 


4 


16,466 


60.6 


20.0 


14.2 


5.2 


Caroline 






2 




1 


10,393 


53.2 


36.8 


7.0 


3.0 


Talbot 






2 




1 


9,041 


49.5 


20.0 


28.5 


2.0 


Kent 






3 




4 


12,729 


45.9 


15.1 


36.6 


2.4 


St. Mary's 






2 




3 


11,313 


45.8 


38.3 


13.0 


3.1 


Garrett 






4 




3 


13,493 


44.7 


33.6 


20.4 


1.3 


Charles 




1 


3 




2 


16,503 


41.1 


43.2 


13.1 


2.6 


Calvert 






2 




4 


10,909 


40.4 


31.4 


26.0 


2.2 


Carroll 




ii 


2 






9,206 


38.3 


20.7 


39.0 


2.0 


Queen Anne's. . 






2 




i 


9,569 


37.9 


27.9 


29.6 


4.6 


Somerset 






3 






12,101 


37.7 


31.6 


29.2 


1.5 


Howard ....... 






2 




1 


9.673 


37.6 


5.2 


50.5 


6.7 








3 




2 


13,191 


31.6 


41.7 


21.6 


5.1 


Washington .... 






4 




7 


26,011 


30.9 


13.9 


37.9 


17.3 


Prince George's 






3 




4 


16.079 


29.5 


29.4 


36.8 


4.3 


Wicomico 






5 




5 


23.770 


29.3 


43.7 


24.1 


2.9 


Cecil 






3 




2 


13,235 


27.7 


28.0 


36.0 


8.3 


Montgomery . . . 






b8 


3 


9 


36,743 


21.7 


14.3 


56.5 


7.5 


Frederick 






2 


2 


5 


19,160 


19.1 


34.8 


40.1 


6.0 


Alleganv 


2 




8 


3 


12 


50 , 627 


18.0 


4.3 


74.7 


3.0 


Harford 


1 




2 


1 


2 


11,473 


17.5 


13.1 


45.7 


23.7 


Anne Arundel . 


2 




b7 


2 


5 


31 ,115 


16.5 


49.2 


25.3 


9.0 


Baltimore. . . . 


2 


i<i 


9 


3 


2 


37,279 


13.6 


5.0 


70.6 


10.8 



a Includes 22 sanitary inspectors and employees in venereal disease clinics, clinicians, jani- 
tors, bacteriologists, technicians and laboratory helpers in branch laboratories, 
b Includes two part-time nursts. 
c Includes four part-time nurses. 

d Excludes services for crippled children of which $51,500 comes from State and $48,325 
from federal funds ; also $31,892 for venereal disease control from federal funds. 



Services Rendered Schools 

Health promotion and disease prevention activities in the 
schools in 1938 under the direction of the State and County 
Departments of Health included physical examination of children 
in the elementary grades ; inspection of children by health officers 
and public health nurses and institution of control measures to 



60 1938 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 

prevent the spread of transmissible diseases ; and sanitary super- 
vision of water supply systems and sewage disposal facilities. 
Dental clinics arranged by the Division of Oral Hygiene of the 
State Department of Health, and the physical examination of 
children nearing school age in preparation for their admission to 
school, under the joint auspices of the Bureau of Child Hygiene 
of the State Department of Health, the County Departments of 
Health and the County Superintendents of Schools were also a 
part of the regularly organized school health program. 

Supplemental activities were carried on in the mental hygiene 
clinics, through services for crippled children conducted under 
the auspices of the State Department of Health, and in the special 
efforts made for the discovery of incipient cases of tuberculosis 
among school children. 

Physical Examination and Inspection of School Children 

Nearly 50,000 children in the elementary schools had the bene- 
fit of a complete physical examination by the county health officers 
assisted by the public health nurses. (See Table 36.) 

TABLE 36 



Examinations of School and Pre-School Children by State and County 
Health Officers, 1938 



County 


Number 
School 
Children 
Examined 


Pre-School Children 
Examined During 1938 


Per Cent of Pre-School 
Children Examined 


Number 


Per Cent 


Requiring 
Vaccination 
vs. Smallpox 


Not 
Immunized 
vs. Diphtheria 


White 


Colored 


White 


Colored 


White 


Colored 


White 


Colored 


Total 


49,380 


5,863 


1,463 


41.8 


46 


1 


33.4 


21.8 


26.9 


18.7 


Allegany 


9,469 


1,029 




64.7 










.3 




Anne Arundel . . 


3,804 


406 


206 


51.4 


58 


6 


' ' .1 


1.9 


1.0 


i!6 


Baltimore 


8,530 


1,210 


163 


54.9 


72 


4 


55.4 


66.9 


38.9 


66.9 


Calvert 


1,069 


45 


111 


40.9 


74 


5 






4.4 


2.7 


Caroline 


2,291 


15 


30 


6.1 


39 









33.3 


3.3 


Carroll 


6,484 


16 




3.0 






81.3 




81.3 




Cecil 


1,188 


173 


" 45 


39.1 


100 


6 


1.7 








Charles 


1,262 


25 


73 


13.4 


40 


i 


28.0 


37!6 


28^6 


27!4 


Dorchester. . . . 


208 


130 


68 


38.9 


41 


5 


63.1 


75.0 


88.5 


63.2 


Frederick 


2 , 632 


448 


24 


48.4 


22 


9 


56.0 


33.3 


53.8 


4.2 


Garrett 


74 


317 




61.2 






5.0 




36.3 




Harford 


330 


119 


' 32 


22.9 


29 


i 


14.3 


46^9 


18.5 


15.6 


Howard 


2,314 


241 


41 


85.2 


47 


7 


9.5 




3.7 




Kent 


368 


95 


71 


66.0 


62 


8 


43.2 


^5 


14.7 


84^5 


Montgomery. . . 


3,512 


239 


94 


22.4 


49 


7 


2.1 


1.1 


5.4 




Prince George's 


1,863 


297 


65 


21.4 


16 


2 


66.7 


43.1 


58.9 


43^i 


Queen Anne's. . 


370 


36 


62 


19.4 


81 


6 






2.8 




St. Mary's 


376 


39 


25 


17.0 


18 





53! 8 


84!6 


69.2 


66!6 


Somerset 


225 


101 


125 


44.7 


73 


5 


7.9 


1.6 


20.8 


5.6 


Talbot 


972 


38 


43 


14.4 


30 


9 


18.4 


9.3 


2.6 




Washington .... 


240 


647 


14 


53.3 


43 


8 


84.5 


100.0 


45.0 


14^3 


Wicomico 


1,321 


173 


105 


44.9 


60 


3 


26.6 


27.6 


13.9 


30.5 


Worcester 


478 


24 


66 


10.4 


35 


9 






16.7 





Services to School Children by County Health Offices 



61 



Special attention was paid in the routine examinations to the 
general health of the children, to weight and other indications 
of good or faulty nutrition; to nose, throat, teeth, chest, vision 
and hearing. In the larger schools the examinations were limited 
to pupils in the lower grades, to those in upper grades who were 
scheduled for re-examination, and to those for whom examina- 
tion was requested by the teachers. All of the children in the 
smaller schools were examined. 

Parents were welcome at all of the examinations, and in many 
of the schools were present by special invitation. Unfavorable 
conditions were pointed out to those present or were reported 
through follow-up visits to the homes by the county nurses, and 
the parents were urged to take their children to their family 
physician promptly for the necessary care or treatment. 

Through the joint activities of the county nurses and the 
Parent-Teacher Associations the corrections made have increased 
steadily, year by year. The aid of the service clubs has been 
enlisted for special needs and treatments, and for glasses and 
other equipment for children in families unable to make the 
necessary expenditures. 

For the Control of Communicable Diseases 

The routine physical examinations were supplemented by 86,650 
inspections by the county health officers and public health nurses, 
at the request of the school authorities, of children with symptoms 
of scarlet fever, measles, mumps, or other transmissible diseases, 
or who had been exposed to such diseases. The necessary con- 
trol measures were instituted to prevent the spread of such dis- 
eases in the schools, and immunization clinics for certain diseases 
gave further protection against them. 

Physical Examination of Preschool Children 

Over 5,800 children approaching school age were examined 
during the year at the regularly scheduled child health confer- 
ences, or in connection with the summer tour of the healthmobile, 
under the joint direction of the Bureau of Child Hygiene and the 
County Departments of Health. Through the cooperation of the 
County Superintendents and the Parent-Teacher Associations, 
lists of incoming children were furnished the County Departments 
of Health and many of the conferences were held in the school 
buildings, during the spring term, before the schools closed for the 
summer vacation. 

For the benefit of children who had not been reached in other 
ways, special "Summer Round-Up" conferences were organized 
through the efforts of the Maryland Congress of Parents and 
Teachers, or were made possible through the annual visit of the 
health trailer of the Bureau of Child Hygiene. The staff of the 



62 1938 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 

trailer included a physician, a dentist and a public health nurse. 
The itinerary for each county was arranged by the county health 
office. 

As in the school examinations, special attention was paid to the 
general health of the children ; to underweight or other symptoms 
of malnutrition; to the throat and nose; the teeth; chest condi- 
tions ; and to vision and hearing. Conditions in need of correction 
were pointed out and the parents were urged to see that the child- 
ren were given any necessary medical treatment during the sum- 
mer months in order that the children might enter school free 
from avoidable physical handicaps. 

Of the total number of children examined in 1938, 5,863 w T ere 
white and 1,463 colored. The number examined represented 42 
per cent of \he white and 46 per cent of the colored children of age 
six years. Vaccination against smallpox had been neglected for 
1,958 or 33 per cent of the white children examined and for 319 or 
22 per cent of the colored children examined; 1,578 or 27 per cent 
of the white children examined and 274 or 19 per cent of the col- 
ored children examined had not been immunized against smallpox. 
In many of the counties clinics for vaccination against smallpox 
and for protection against diphtheria, were held in connection with 
the conferences. The importance of having these services attend- 
ed to promptly was explained to all parents, and their attention 
was also directed to the State law which will not permit any child 
who has not been vaccinated against smallpox to be enrolled in 
any public school in the State. (See Table 36.) 

Immunization Against Diphtheria, Typhoid Fever, Smallpox, and Scarlet Fever 

Over 18,000 children of preschool and school age were protected 
against diphtheria during the year at clinics held under the aus- 
pices of the County Departments of Health; over 7,800 persons 
were immunized against typhoid fever; 7,237 were vaccinated 
against smallpox; and 1,249 were protected against scarlet fever. 
Intensive campaigns against scarlet fever were continued in Alle- 
gany and Garrett Counties. 

Tests for Tuberculosis 

Tuberculin testing of selected groups in high schools and in the 
upper grades as a means of discovering incipient cases of tuber- 
culosis, as a preliminary to the prompt institution of control mea- 
sures, supplemented the general school health program in practi- 
cally all the counties. Through the recent addition of portable 
X-ray machines to the field equipment of the State Department of 
Health, it was possible for follow-up X-ray examinations to be 
made on all pupils giving a positive tuberculin reaction. The find- 
ings were interpreted at individual conferences with pupils and 
parents and any necessary treatment or alteration of daily activi- 
ties was advised. 



Services to School Children by County Health Offices 



63 



Mental Hygiene Clinics 

Mental hygiene clinics at which approximately 800 persons, 
700 of whom were children of school age, were held in 22 counties 
under the joint direction of the Bureau of Child Hygiene of the 
State Department of Health, the State Commissioner of Mental 
Hygiene, the State Mental Hygiene Society, the County Depart- 
ments of Health and the school authorities, continuing the ar- 
rangement started in 1934. 

The examinations were conducted by psychiatrists connected 
with the State, Baltimore City, or local hospitals or institutions. 
The State was districted and a regular schedule of clinics was fol- 
lowed in each section. 

Dental Clinics 

School dental clinics were a part of the school health service in 
seventeen counties. Similar services for preschool children were 
available in other counties through the summer tour of the health- 
mobile. Nearly 29,000 children had the benefit of dental examina- 
tions and advice, and 11,187 had dental treatments. (See Table 37.) 

TABLE 37 

Report of School Dental Clinics Conducted Under the Auspices of the Mary- 
land State Department of Health, August 1, 1937 to July 31, 1938 



Allegany 

Anne Arundel . . 

Baltimore 

Calvertf 

Caroline! 

Cecil t 

Chariest 

Frederick 

Garrett 

Harford 

Howard 

Kentf 

Montgomery . . . 
Prince George's 
Queen Anne's. . 

St. Mary's 

Somersetf 

Talbott 

Washington 
Wicomico 







Number of 












05 




Children 




Number of 




«~ c 


Time Given 
















°.2 


to Service* 


Exam- 














Si c 




ined 




Fillings 


Teeth 






Total 






by 


Treated 


In- 


Ex- 


Clean- 


Treat- 


Opera- 


13 




Den- 




serted 


tracted 


ings 


ments 


tions 


2 




tists 














38 




28,982 


11,187 


19,414 


16,250 


4,176 


1,746 


41,586 


1 


Full 


2,290 


1,822 


1,432 


4,234 


554 


780 


7,000 


5 


Part 


3,332 


1,343 


2.933 


1 , 652 


567 


115 


5,267 


5 


Part 


5.818 


1,328 


2 . 659 


1.699 


714 


110 


5.182 


1 


Part 


t361 


t242 


+502 


t225 


tl8 


t4 


1749 


t 


t 


t 


t 


t 


t 


t 


t 


t 


t 


t 


t 


t 


t 


t 


+ 


t 


t 


f2 


tPart 


tl,244 


t312 


1647 


t296 


tl20 


tl 


tl .064 


2 


Half 


972 


949 


1.201 


978 


55 


2,234 


4 


Part 


46 


46 


46 


86 


5 


' ' 2 


139 


2 


Part 


259 


255 


445 


175 


227 


3 


850 


1 


Half 


815 


298 


1,330 


377 


29 




1,736 


+ 1 


tHalf 


t764 


1353 


t660 


t289 


1257 


t38 


tl .244 


2 


Part 


6 , 238 


1,110 


3.346 


1 . 732 


696 


246 


6.020 


12 


tPart 


tl.105 


t891 


t937 


t663 


tl67 


tl43 


tl.910 


tl 


tPart 


t220 


tl6 


+66 


139 


tl4 


tl7 


tl36 


tl 


tPart 


t65 


t53 


+73 


+56 


t 


12 


tl31 


t 


t 


t 


t 


+ 


t 


t 


t 


t 


tl 


tPart 


t698 


tl83 


+988 


1428 


+175 


+79 


tl,370 


3 


Part 


488 


488 


218 


1.608 


27 


90 


1.943 


1 


Half 


1,316 


698 


1,274 


1,012 


502 


75 


2,863 


3 


Full, 4 mos. 


2,951 


800 


657 


1,001 


49 


41 


1,748 



* The scope of service varies from full-time and half-time service to "part-time." meaning 
one or more one-day clinics per month. 

+ For additional service in the counties indicated, see "Healthmobile" which operated full- 
time for four months in Calvert. Caroline, Cecil, Charles, Kent, Prince George's, Queen 
Anne's, St. Mary's, Somerset, and Talbot Counties. 



64 1938 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



Services for Crippled Children 

When funds for the care of crippled children were offered by 
the Federal Government under the Social Security Act, the Board 
of State Aid and Charities was first designated as the official State 
agency in charge of the Services. Seven physiotherapists located 
at strategic points throughout the State, and three orthopedic 
nurses were appointed to the staff. In 1937, by an Act of the Leg- 
islature, the Services for Crippled Children were transferred to 
the Maryland State Department of Health. 

The plans submitted to the Children's Bureau by the Board of 
State Aid and Charities and the one submitted by the Maryland 
State Department of Health incorporated the fundamental prin- 
ciples which had previously guided the Maryland League for 
Crippled Children and its professional advisers in their program. 

With additional funds made available it has been possible to 
provide each year for approximately 60 clinics throughout the 
State. Services not previously provided now include the attend- 
ance of an orthopedic nurse and of a physiotherapist at each 
clinic. Through cooperation with the county health officers, it is 
now possible to have X-rays made at all the clinics where such ser- 
vice is required. The interval of time between recommendation 
for an actual hospitalization has been considerably shortened and 
with the service of physiotherapists in the communities it has also 
been possible to shorten the period of hospitalization. 

The number of crippled children now on the State register is 
1,637, of whom all except 19 are suffering from some orthopedic 
or plastic condition. 

Transportation to and from the clinics continues to be one of 
the most perplexing problems, as this phase of the program rests 
almost entirely on the volunteer services of the American Legion, 
civic clubs and interested citizens. With the limitation of this 
type of service, however, no child recommended to clinic service 
has gone unattended, as in many instances the orthopedic surgeon 
in charge of the clinic has made home visits to patients who found 
it impossible to reach the general clinic. 

The Services for Crippled Children now include special care for 
children who are not mentally deficient who are suffering from 
spastic and like conditions. Dr. Winthrop M. Phelps, who has de- 
voted many years to the treatment, care, education, and rehabili- 
tation of this type of crippling condition, recently opened the 
Children's Rehabilitation Institute, Inc., near Baltimore. The 
children under treatment are in residence and each child receives 
individual daily physical therapy and muscle re-education. In 
addition there is a certain amount of group work carried out by a 
full-time teacher who conducts classes for the ten children from 
the Counties of Maryland who are hospitalized at the Institute un- 
der the auspices of the Services for Crippled Children. 



Services for Crippled Children; Capital Outlay; Size of Schools 65 

For educational opportunities available to physically handi- 
capped children see pages 34 to 39, and 178, and for those avail- 
able to adults, see pages 223 to 226. 

CAPITAL OUTLAY FOR WHITE ELEMENTARY PUPILS 

The capital outlay for county white elementary pupils totalled 
$818,285 in 1938 making the average outlay per pupil $7.84. 
Every county which had an outlay of $20,000 or more for white 
elementary schools, except for Baltimore, Harford, and Howard 
Counties, received grants in aid from the Federal Public Works 
Administration. (See Table 172, page 253, last column in Table 
XVIII, page 312, and last column in Table 32, page 51.) 

SIZE OF WHITE ELE3IENTARY SCHOOLS INCREASES 

During the school year 1937-38 there were 754 county schools 
in which white elementary pupils received instruction, a decrease 
of 45 under the preceding year. The largest reductions occurred 



TABLE 38 

Number of County White Schools Giving Instruction in Grades 1 to 7 (8) 
Having Following Number of Teachers, School Year 1937-38 



County 



Total 

Allegany 

Anne Arundel . . 

Baltimore 

Calvert 

Caroline 

Carroll 

Cecil 

Charles 

Dorchester. . . . 

Frederick 

Garrett 

Harford 

Howard 

Kent 

Montgomery. . . 
Prince George's 
Oueen Anne's . . 

St. Mary's 

Somerset 

Talbot 

Washington 

Wicomico 

Worcester 



754 

62 
26 
55 
7 
10 
31 
36 
10 
34 
43 
72 
46 
25 
19 
38 
52 
15 
19 
19 
16 
80 
24 
15 



County White Schools Giving Instruction in Grades 1 to 7 (8) 
Having Following Number of Teachers 



289 



139 



54 



52 



28 



* The figure at the top of each column indicates that this number of teachers was employed 
during the entire year or part of the year. 



66 



1938 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



in the number of one- and two-teacher elementary schools, there 
being 289 one-teacher and 139 two-teacher schools, which repre- 
sented 36 fewer one-teacher and 11 fewer two-teacher schools 
than were in operation in 1936-37. (See Table 38.) 

Nine counties had from 7 to 19, while five counties had from 52 
to 80 schools giving instruction to white elementary pupils. Thir- 
teen counties had a smaller number of schools for white elemen- 
tary pupils. One county had 9 fewer schools, a second 7 fewer, a 
third 5 fewer, and a fourth 3 fewer ; in three counties there were 
4 fewer schools, 2 fewer schools, and 1 fewer school than in 1936- 
37. (SeeTa6Ze38.) 



Fewer One-Teacher Schools 

The number of one-teacher schools for 1937-38 which totalled 
289 was 35 fewer than for the preceding year and 882 fewer than 
in 1919-20. Fewer than ten per cent of the county white elemen- 
tary teachers gave instruction in one-teacher schools. (See Table 
39.) 



TABLE 39 

Decrease in Teachers Employed in White One-Teacher Schools, 1920-1938 



School Year Ending June 30 



1920 
1921 
1922 
1923 
1924 
1925 
1926 
1927 
1928 
1929 
1930 
1931 
1932 
1933 
1934 
1935 
1936 
1937 
1938 



County White Elementary Teachers 





In One-Teacher Schools 


Total 






Number 


Per Cent 


2,992 


1,171 


39.1 


3,037 


1,149 


37.8 


3,054 


1 ,124 


36.8 


3,063 


1,093 


35.7 


3.065 


1,055 


34.4 


3,047 


1,005 


33.0 


3,067 


956 


31.2 


3,088 


898 


29.1 


3,070 


823 


26.8 


3,078 


739 


24.0 


3,050 


663 


21.7 


3,049 


586 


19.2 


3.022 


489 


16.2 


2,954 


407 


13.8 


2,947 


377 


12.8 


2,941 


365 


12.4 


2,949 


342 


11.6 


2,972 


324 


10.9 


2,965 


289 


9.7 



The number of one-teacher schools varied all the way from four- 
teen counties having from to 9 to six counties having 20 to 54. 
The 6,883 pupils in one-teacher schools included 6.6 per cent of the 
total white county elementary school enrollment. Eleven coun- 
ties had less than 5 per cent of their enrollment in one-teacher 



Size of Schools; One-Teacher Schools; Supervision Elementary 67 

Schools 



schools, while two counties had 32 and 36 per cent of their en- 
rollment in this type of school. ( See Table 40.) 



TABLE 40 

Number and Per Cent of Teachers and Pupils in White One-Teacher 
Elementary Schools in Maryland Counties, Year Ending June 30, 1938 



County 



Total and Average 

Caroline 

Anne Arundel . . 

Baltimore 

Montgomery . . . 

Worcester 

Prince George's 

Frederick 

Calvert 

Charles 

Allegany 

Wicomico 



Teachers in 
One-Teacher 
Schools 



Num- 
ber 



289 



Per 
Cent 



9.7 



.7 
.7 
3.0 
3.6 
3.6 
4.2 
4.5 
5.1 
5.8 
7.7 



Pupils in 
One-Teacher 
Schools 



Num- 
ber 



6,883 



26 
99 
177 
51 
270 
185 
14 
54 
537 
150 



Per 
Cent 



6.6 



.4 
.6 
2.1 
2.6 
3.0 
2.7 
1.9 
4.0 
4.5 
4.7 



County 



Carroll 

Washington . . 
Queen Anne's 
Somerset .... 

Talbot 

Harford 

Kent 

Howard 

Cecil 

Dorchester. . 
St. Mary's . . . 
Garrett 



Teachers in 
One-Teacher 
Schools 



Num- 
ber 



12 



Per 
Cent 



9.2 
11.7 
12.5 
15.8 
18.1 
18.9 
22.8 
25.9 
26.1 
26.4 
37.2 
45.8 



SUPERVISION OF WHITE ELEMENTARY SCHOOLS 

There were 47 county supervisors in service in the white ele- 
mentary schools in 1937-38. Ten counties were entitled to em- 
ploy one supervisor since they had on their staffs fewer than 80 
white elementary teachers; four counties with 80 to 119 white 
elementary teachers were entitled to employ two supervisors, but 
one of these employed only one ; two of the three counties eligible 
to have three supervisors, since they had from 120 to 185 white 
elementary teachers, employed only two supervisors, while one 
county employed only one as one of the supervisors was on leave 
of absence for study ; one county eligible to employ four supervi- 
sors had only three ; two counties which could have employed five 
supervisors with State aid employed only four ; one county which 
could have employed six supervisors employed five; and the two 
largest counties entitled to have State aid for seven supervisors 
employed only four and five, respectively. (See Chart 14.) 

All of the above supervisors supervised work in all subjects, 
except that Baltimore and Montgomery Counties employed full- 
time music supervisors, Carroll and Prince George's part-time 
music supervisors, Montgomery and Washington Counties full- 
time art supervisors, and Prince George's a part-time art super- 
visor. 



Supervision White Elementary Schools 



69 



Improvement of the elementary school curriculum is one of the 
major concerns of elementary supervisors and teachers. Since 
there is some difference in the educational philosophy prevailing 
in the counties, naturally there are many different ideas as to what 
should be done about the curriculum and as to how to organize 
learning situations, subject-matter, and children's experiences. 

In the field of the social studies, fusion is being favored in some 
places and the separate subject plan in others. However, every- 
where in Maryland there is recognition of the need for more in- 
tegration and for better integration. Likewise, there is increasing 
emphasis upon understandings, insights, attitudes, and utilization 
of facts rather than upon facts as ends in themselves. Individual 
counties have consulted specialists on the curriculum in 1937-38 : 
Dr. Herbert Bruner, of Columbia University; Dr. Howard E. Wil- 
son, of Harvard University ; Dr. Leon C. Marshall, of Johns Hop- 
kins and American University ; and others, as well as members of 
the State Department of Education staff. The State bulletin en- 
titled "Curriculum Materials in the Social Studies for the Inter- 
mediate Grades" prepared by Dr. M. Theresa Wiedefeld has been 
very helpful to supervisors and teachers in developing the "Social 
Process" approach as presented by Dr. Marshall. 

Although just now curriculum improvement in the social stu- 
dies is being emphasized in most of the counties, certain other 
counties are primarily concerned with curriculum improvement 
in the language arts, science, or arithmetic. 

Many things are being tried out here and there experimentally ; 
as, for example, measures and problems concerned with reading 
readiness in the early elementary grades ; specialized work in re- 
medial reading with individuals in the later elementary grades; 
more effective ways of enriching vocabulary ; ways of making art 
function in everyday activities whether in or out of school ; a 
series of carefully prepared science lessons given by means of 
phonograph records; ways of making more effective use of radio 
and of utilizing various types of projectors for visual education; 
different types of class excursions and ways and means of arrang- 
ing for such excursions ; new ideas in connection with reports to 
parents on the work of pupils, and in the classification and pro- 
motion of children. 



WHITE HIGH SCHOOLS 



GROWTH IN ENROLLMENT 

The enrollment in the last four years of county white public 
high schools in 1938 increased to 34,415, a gain of 456 over cor- 
responding figures for the preceding year, continuing the steady 
growth noted since 1920. For Baltimore City the decrease in 
the last four years of high school apparent in 1937 continued in 
1938 with 18,040 pupils enrolled, 306 fewer than for the previous 
year. (See Table 41 and Chart 15.) 

CHART 15 



GR01TH IN "WHITE HI (2 SCHOOL ENROLLMENT 



Counties 



1919- 1920 ggf 

1920- 1921 

1921- 1922 



1922-1923 P™ 



™ >---v^W~J 



1924- 1925 

1925- 1926 

1926- 1927 

1927- 1928 

1928- 1929 

1929- 1930 

1930- 1931 B 

1931- 1952 

1932- 1933 

1933- 1934 

1934- 1935 



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1935- 1936 gggg 

1936- 1937 



1937-1938 



70 



Enrollment in White High Schools 



71 



The average number belonging in county white public high 
schools was 32,731, a gain of 793 over the year preceding, and 
the average daily attendance increased by 983 to 31,009 in 1938. 
In Baltimore City, average number belonging decreased by 35 
under the corresponding figure for 1937, while average attendance 
increased by 112 in 1938 over 1937. (See Table 41.) 

TABLE 41 



White Enrollment and Attendance in Last Four Years of Public High Schools 
in 23 Maryland Counties and Baltimore City for School Years Ending 
June, 1920 to 1938 



Year Ending 


23 Counties 


Baltimore City 














June 30 




Average 






Average 






Enrollment 


Number 


Average 


Enrollment 


Number 


Average 






Belonging 


Attendance 




Belonging 


Attendance 


1920 


9,392 




7,798 


6,208 


5 , 980 


5,408 


1921 


10,900 




9,294 


6,899 


6,676 


6,151 


1922 


12,815 


* 


11,188 


8,320 


8,008 


7,329 


1923 


14,888 


13,844 


12,716 


9,742 


9,467 


8,656 


1924 


16,026 


14,842 


13,969 


9,783 


9,513 


8,722 


1925 


17,453 


16,168 


14,982 


10,658 


10,165 


9,340 


1926 


19,003 


17,516 


16,218 


10,933 


10,769 


9,951 


1927 


20,358 


18,770 


17,504 


11,391 


11,067 


10,233 


1928 


21,811 


20,382 


19,080 


11,792 


11,698 


10,816 


1929 


23,371 


21,802 


20,275 


12,899 


12,782 


11,802 


1930 


24,760 


23,186 


21,890 


13,434 


13,175 


12,261 


1931 


26,998 


25,402 


23,988 


14,549 


14,299 


13,278 


1932 


28,547 


26,835 


25,249 


16,053 


15,761 


14,696 


1933 


30,778 


28,877 


27,302 


17,707 


17,030 


15,831 


1934 


31,036 


29,017 


27,292 


17,807 


17,018 


15,823 


1935 


31,786 


29,723 


27,963 


18,557 


17,793 


16,567 


1936 


33,111 


31,192 


29,261 


18,869 


17,998 


16,894 


1937 


33,959 


31,938 


30,026 


18,346 


17,624 


16,549 


1938 


34,415 


32,731 


31,009 


18,040 


17,589 


16,661 



Average number belonging not reported before 1923. 



The total high school enrollment combined for public and non- 
public schools in the counties has increased steadily each year 
from 1927 to 1938. In Baltimore City, while the enrollment in 
the Catholic secondary schools continued to increase, the non- 
Catholic private school enrollment as well as the public school 
enrollment showed reductions under the enrollment in 1937. The 
excess of the counties over the City in white enrollment in the 
secondary schools apparent in 1927 has become larger in suc- 
ceeding years, reaching 14,571 in 1938. This excess is due in 
part to the larger white population in the counties, to the oppor- 
tunity to attend vocational schools in the City, and to the greater 
availability of jobs for City youth. (See Table 42.) 



72 



1938 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



TABLE 42 



Comparison of White High School Enrollment in Counties and Baltimore City 
in Public and Non-Public Schools, 1927 to 1938 

















Non-Catholic 




Total 


Public Schools 


Catholic Schools 


Non-Public Schools 


Year 






















Baltimore 




Baltimore 




Baltimore 




Baltimore 




Counties 


City 


Counties 


City 


Counties 


City 


Counties 


City 


1927 


21,885 


14,246 


20,358 


11,391 


969 


2,549 


558 


306 


1928 


23,255 


14,290 


21,811 


11,792 


533 


2,143 


911 


355 


1929 


24,874 


15,994 


23,371 


12,899 


525 


2,491 


978 


604 


1930 


27,525 


16,790 


24,760 


13,434 


1,112 


2,478 


1,653 


878 


1931 


30,175 


18,594 


26,998 


14,549 


1,491 


3,191 


1,686 


854 


1932 


31,628 


20,485 


28,547 


16,053 


1,427 


3,598 


1,654 


834 


1933 


33,639 


22,001 


30,778 


17,707 


1,503 


3,570 


1,358 


724 


1934 


33,760 


22,190 


31,306 


17,807 


1,376 


3,699 


1,348 


684 


1935 


34,803 


23,339 


31,786 


18,557 


1,572 


4,023 


1,445 


759 


1936 


36,249 


23,891 


33,111 


18,869 


1,587 


4,211 


1,551 


811 


1937 


37,313 


23,699 


33,959 


18,346 


1.707 


4,435 


1,647 


918 


1938 


38,010 


23,439 


34,415 


18,040 


1,787 


4,562 


1,808 


837 



LENGTH OF SESSION IN HIGH SCHOOLS 

The county high schools for white pupils were in session on the 
average 187.2 days in 1937-38, an increase of 2.1 days over the 
year preceding. In the individual counties, length of session 
varied from approximately 181 days to 192 days in one county 
and to 195 days in another county. Baltimore City schools were 
open 190 days. (See Table 43.) 



TABLE 43 

Length of Session in White High Schools, Year Ending June 30, 1938 



County 



County Average 

Baltimore 

Howard 

Allegany 

Harford 

Dorchester 
Anne Arundel. . 

Cecil 

Washington 
Montgomery. . . 
Prince George's 

Kent 

Frederick 



Average 
Days 
in 
Session 



187.2 

195.0 
192.0 
188.8 
188.3 
188.0 
187.2 
187.1 
186.0 
186.0 
185.9 
185.0 
185.0 



School Year 
1937-38 



First 
Day 
of 
School 



9/9 

9/8 

9/9 

9/8 

9/7 

9/8 

9/8 

9/7 

9/13 

9/8 

9/7 

9/8 



Last 
Day 
of 
School 



6/24 
6/17 
6/17 
6/17 
6/10 
6/17 
6/15 
6/10 
6/15 
6/17 
6/10 
6/10 



County 



Garrett 

St. Mary's. . . 

Talbot 

Wicomico . . . 

Carroll 

Somerset .... 

Caroline 

Queen Anne's 

Charles 

Calvert 

Worcester. . . 

Balto. City. . 

Total State. . 



Average 
Days 
in 
Session 



184.8 
184.5 
184.4 
184.0 
183.9 
183.1 
183.0 
183.0 
182.8 
182.0 
180.7 

190.0 

188.2 



School Year 
1937-38 



First 
Day 
of 
School 



9/8 
9/8 
9/9 
9/1 
9/7 
9/1 
9/8 
9/8 
9/8 
9/8 
9/2 

9/14 



Last 
Day 
of 
School 



6/10 

6/9 

6/10 

5/31 

6/8 

5/31 

6/7 

6/8 

6/15 

6/9 

5/31 

6/23 



The dates for opening county high schools extended over the 
period from September 1 in two counties to September 13 in one 
county. The first closing date in 1938 was May 31 and the last 
June 24. (See Table 43.) 



Session and Attendance in White High Schools 



7:5 



PER CENT OF ATTENDANCE IN WHITE HIGH SCHOOLS 

In 1938 the per cent of the average number belonging in aver- 
age attendance in white high schools in both the counties and 
Baltimore City was 94.7. This was an increase of .7 in the coun- 
ties and .8 in the City over similar percentages for the preceding 
year. (See Table 44.) 

TABLE 44 

Per Cent of Attendance in White High Schools, School Years Ending in 
June, 1923, 1936, 1937 and 1938 



County 



1923 



1936 



1937 



1 938 



County 



1923 


1936 


1937 


1938 


88.7 


95.1 


94.7 


94.3 


93.5 


93.1 


94.1 


94.0 


92.0 


91.5 


92.6 


93.9 


89.9 


92.8 


92.6 


93.8 


91.7 


94.2 


93.1 


93.8 


90.2 


91.2 


92.7 


93.5 


86.8 


92.9 


92.5 


93.4 


91.2 


92.3 


92.3 


93.2 


88.9 


92.7 


92.5 


93.1 


93.2 


92.4 


92.7 


93.0 


91.2 


92.2 


92.1 


92.5 


91.5 


93.9 


93.9 


94.7 


91.6 


93.8 


94.0 


94.7 



County Average 

Frederick 

Wicomico 

Somerset 

Washington 

Allegany 

Dorchester 

Kent 

Queen Anne's. . . 

Carroll.. . 

Anne Arundel . . . 
Prince George's . 
Baltimore 



91.9 

91.5 
92.3 
91.4 
93.1 
94.8 
92.4 
90.2 
91.9 
88.7 
92.1 
91.8 
91.3 



95.5 
94.9 
94.5 
95.0 
95.0 
93.7 
90.7 
92.2 
93.8 
93.9 
94.1 
94.0 



95.5 
95.4 
94.5 
95.3 
95.4 
94.3 
91.8 
93.7 
94.1 
94.1 
94.4 
94.0 



94.7 

96.2 
96.0 
96.0 
95.8 
95.4 
95.4 
95.2 
95.2 
95.1 
95.1 
95.0 
94.6 



Charles 

Calvert 

Cecil 

Howard 

Worcester 

Garrett 

St. Mary's 

Harford 

Montgomery 

Talbot 

Caroline 

Baltimore City. . . . 

State Average 



For attendance in 1938 by counties arranged alphabetically, see Table VII, page 301. 

The range in per cent of attendance was from 92.5 per cent in 
the lowest to over 96 per cent in the highest county. Only two 
counties had a lower per cent of attendance in the white high 
schools in 1938 than they had the preceding year. (See Table 44.) 

The average number belonging in county white public high 
schools was highest in October, 33,581, after which month there 
was a decrease each succeeding month, the June figure being 
29,069 when schools in three counties were not in session. Per 
cent of attendance was highest in September and June, 96.8 and 
96.9 respectively. The lowest per cent of attendance was found 
in December, 93.4 per cent. (See Table 45.) 

TABLE 45 

Number Belonging and Per Cent of Attendance in Last Four Years of Mary- 
land County White High Schools, by Months, for School Year 
Ending in June, 1938 



Month 


Average No. 


Per Cent 
of 

Attend- 
ance 


Month 


Average No. 


Per Cent 
of 

Attend- 
ance 


Attend- 
ing 


Belong- 
ing 


Attend- 
ing 


Belong- 
ing 




32,220 
32,124 
31,678 
30,918 
31,044 
30,783 


33,274 
33,581 
33,356 
33,112 
32,891 
32,690 


96.8 
95.7 
95.0 
93.4 
94.4 
94.2 


March 


30,526 
30,192 
29,974 
28,175 

31,008 


32,380 
32,058 
31,731 
29,069 

32,732 


94.3 
94.2 
94.5 
96.9 

94.7 




April 


November 


May 


December 


June 


January 

February 


Average for Year . 



74 



1938 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



IMPORTANCE OF HIGH SCHOOLS 
Of every 100 white pupils attending county public elementary 
and secondary schools, 24.3 attended secondary schools in 1937-38. 
This was an increase of .5 over the corresponding figure of 23.8 
for the year preceding. For Baltimore City corresponding ratios 
were 21.1 in 1938 as against 20.8 in 1937. (See Chart 16.) 



CHART 16 



THE NUMBER OF PUPILS ATTENDING WHITE HIGH SCHOOLS 
FOR EVERY 100 WHITE PUPILS ATTENDING SCHOOLS 
IN THE COUNTIES AND BALTIMORE CITY 
1917 - 1958 



Maryland Counties 



Baltimore City v//a 



1917 
1918 
1919 
1920 
1921 
1922 
1923 
1924 
1925 
1926 
1927 
1928 
1929 

1930 
1931 
1932 
1933 

1934 
1935 
1936 
1937 



1918 
1919 
1920 
1921 
1922 
1923 
1924 
1925 
1926 
1927 
1928 
1929 
1930 

1931 
1932 
1933 
1934 

1935 
1936 
1937 
1938 



7.6 



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Proportion of White Pupils in High School 



75 



The ratio of number belonging in the white high schools to the 
combined average enrollment in high and elementary schools 
varied among the counties from 18.5 to 30.6. Counties in which 
the elementary school enrollment is decreasing more than in the 
average county show a higher percentage in high school than 
counties in which the white elementary school enrollment is in- 
creasing. Nineteen of the 23 counties showed increases from 
1937 to 1938 in ratio of pupils in high school. (See Table 46.) 



TABLE 46 

Ratio of "Number Belonging" in Last Four Years of White High Schools to 
"Number Belonging" in White Elementary and White High Schools Combined 



1924 


1936 


1937 


1938 


13.3 


22 


7 


23.2 


23.8 


3.0 


25 





27.2 


30.6 


18.7 


29 


8 


28.3 


28.7 


14.3 


26 


1 


26.5 


28.5 


15.2 


27 


7 


29.3 


28.3 


5.5 


25 


5 


27.0 


28.3 


18.9 


27 


1 


26.8 


27.8 


14.8 


25 


2 


26.8 


27.5 


15.2 


23 


8 


25.3 


26.4 


10.2 


27 


3 


26.5 


26.1 


18.3 


24 


5 


25.3 


25.9 


13.7 


24 


4 


24.1 


25.5 


18.8 


25 


5 


25.3 


25.5 



County 



Wicomico 

Dorchester 

Howard 

Frederick 

Prince George's . 
Montgomery*. . . 

Calvert 

Allegany* 

Baltimore 

Garrett 

Washington*. . . . 

Baltimore City*. 

State Average . . . 



1924 


1936 


1937 


1938 


19.9 


26.2 


24.9 


25.4 


16.7 


24.0 


24.9 


24.7 


12.7 


22.8 


22.9 


24.7 


14.9 


22.3 


23.7 


24.4 


11.6 


22.3 


23.1 


24.1 


13.9 


20.0 


22.2 


22.9 


15.5 


24.5 


23.9 


22.4 


13.5 


21.6 


22.0 


22.2 


11.0 


21.7 


21.8 


22.1 


8.4 


19.6 


20.6 


21.3 


11.1 


17.6 


17.9 


18.5 


9.7 


20.1 


20.2 


20.5 


11.8 


21.7 


22.0 


22.5 



"County has 6-3-3 or 8-4 plan of organization as against 7-4 or 6-5 plan in remaining counties. 



If conditions permitted no retardation in any grade and four 
years of high school attendance by every elementary school 
graduate, the maximum percentage that could possibly be en- 
rolled in the four years of high school would be 33.3 in counties 
having the 8-4 or 6-3-3 plan and 36.4 per cent in counties organized 
on the 7-4 plan. These percentages assume that there is a uni- 
form number entering school each year, which of course is not 
the case. (See Table 46.) 



NUMBER OF HIGH SCHOOL GRADUATES INCREASES 

There were 5,930 graduates from the county white high schools 
in 1938, an increase of 458 over the preceding year. This con- 
tinued the upward trend noted in every year since 1919, with the 
exception of 1935. Of the graduates 2,566 were boys and 3,364 
were girls. Baltimore City also showed an increase in the number 
of high school graduates, 2,918 in 1938 compared with 2,865 in 
1937. (See Table 47.) 



76 



1938 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



The number of graduates varied from 47 in the county with 
the smallest to 787 in the county with the largest white school 
population. Thirteen counties had more high school graduates 
in 1938 than in 1937. As in previous years, in every county the 
number of girls graduated exceeded the number of boys gradu- 
ated. In Baltimore City there were 1,459 boys and 1,459 girls 
graduated in 1938. (See Chart 17.) 



CHART 17 



NUMBER OF BOYS AND GIRLS GRADUATED FROM WHITE HIGH SCHOOLS 



County 



Total 



1938 



1937 1938 



Boys 



Girls 



Balto. 725 
Allegany 536 
Mont . 406 
Wash. 387 
Pr.Geo. 420 
A.Arundel 374 
Frederick 319 
Carroll 268 
Harford 266 
Cecil 161 
Wicomico 217 
Dorch . 197 
Garrett 176 
Worcester 133 
Caroline 156 
Talbot 129 
Somerset 120 
Howard 82 
Charles 110 
Q.Anne's 106 
Kent 106 
St .Mary's 51 
Calvert 48 



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Balto. 2,865 2,918 1,459 
City 1,459 



Number of Graduates and Persistence to Graduation 77 
TABLE 47 



Four- Year White High School Graduates in Maryland, 1919 to 1938 



Y EAR 


r>oys 


23 Counties 
Girls 


Total 


r>altimore 

Citv 


1 Q1 Q 


323 


681 


1 004 


653 


1 Qon 


378 


772 


1 ' 150 


698 


1921 


470 


893 


1 ' 363 


806 


1922 


599 


1,034 


1^633 


948 


1923 


686 


1,267 


1,953 


1,167 


1924 


813 


1,405 


2,218 


1,348 


1925 


929 


1,610 


2 , 539 


1,141 


1926 


1,045 


1,574 


2,619 


1,450 


1927 


1,071 


1,816 


2,887 


1 , 528 


1928 


1,142 


1,851 


2,993 


1,503 


1929 


1,339 


2,056 


3,395 


1,757 


1930 


1,534 


2,251 


3,785 


1,775 


1931 


1,713 


2,491 


4,204 


1,970 


1932 


1,772 


2,625 


4,397 


2,167 


1933 


2,114 


2,807 


4,921 


2,371 


1934 


2,220 


2,902 


5,122 


2,485 


1935 


2,052 


2,787 


4,839 


2,469 


1936 


2,283 


3,039 


5,322 


2,759 




2,361 


3,111 


5,472 


2,865 


1938 


2,566 


3,364 


5,930 


2,918 



PERSISTENCE TO HIGH SCHOOL GRADUATION 

If the number of graduates in 1938 is compared with the first 
year enrollment of 1935, it is possible to obtain a rough estimate 
of persistence to high school graduation of those who were 
classified as in the first year of high school in 1935. Although 
the first year enrollment includes repeaters of the preceding 
year, these are partially offset by the pupils who enter high 
school after the first year. 

TABLE 48 



Persistence to Graduation by County White High School Pupils 







Per Cent of Persistence to Graduation 






Four Years Later 


Year 


First Year 








Enrollment 












Total 


Boys 


Girls 


1923 


5,756 


45.3 


38.4 


51.8 


1924 


6,311 


45.7 


36.0 


54.5 


1925 


6.772 


44.2 


35.6 


52.0 


1926 


7,548 


45.0 


38.2 


50.9 


1927 


7,895 


47.9 


40.3 


55.0 


1928 


8,486 


49.5 


42.2 


56.3 


1929 


8,587 


51.2 


42.9 


58.9 


1930 


9,038 


54.4 


47.1 


61.6 


1931 


9,777 


52.4 


44.8 


60.2 


1932 


9,662 


50.1 


42.1 


58.3 


1933 


10,548 


50.5 


42.6 


58.6 


1934 


10,629 


51.5 


44.7 


58.2 


1935 


11,062 


53.6 


46.0 


61 .4 



78 



1938 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



The average per cent of persistence to high school graduation 
in 1938 was 53.6, which includes 46.0 for boys and 61.4 per cent 
for girls. This was a higher persistence for both boys and girls 
than was shown in any year since 1927, with the exception of 
1933. (See Table 48.) 

CHART 18 



PER CENT OF PERSISTENCE TO HIGH SCHOOL GRADUATION 
First Tear 
Enrollment % 

1935 1938 ■■ Boys CZD Girls 



SS^y?* n,062 53.6 H! 



658 72.9 
161 62.7 f™ 
301 61.8 BP 



171 61.4 g| 



Montgomery 
Q. Anne f s 
Dorchester 
Charles 
Harford 
Garrett 
Kent 

Worcester 
Washington 809 56.5 $21 
Allegany 1,208 55.1 
Pr. Geo. 786 55.1 



451 60.5 gg 
312 58.0 B> 



163 57.7 



268 57.1 |g 



Caroline 

Carroll 

A. Arundel 

Cecil 

Frederick 

St. Mary's 

Talbot 

Howard 

Calvert 



227 55.1 H 
525 52.2 "" 



708 52.1 ^ 
426 52.1 g 
725 50.6 (H5 



126 49. 



249 49.0 gg 
222 48.6 
97 48.5 



Baltimore 1,644 47.9 
Somerset 275 42.2 





Persistence to High School Graduation 



79 



Among the counties the percentage of persistence ranged from 
36.7 to 72.9. Thirteen counties showed gains in 1938 over the 
1937 persistence. For boys the range in per cent of persistence 
ran from 27.8 to 61.3 and for girls from 46.1 to 85.9. In every 
county the percentage of persistence to high school graduation 
was higher for girls than for boys. (See Chart 18.) 

A committee of high school principals in Somerset, Wicomico, 
and Worcester who agreed that persistence to graduation was 
an important element in determining the efficiency of a high 
school prepared forms to make in their own high schools a name 
by name follow-up check of persistence to graduation of every 
pupil enrolled as a freshman or transferred to a particular high 
school during the period between September, 1926, and June, 1934. 
The names of those who died or who transferred to another 
school were removed from the lists. The number of individuals 
who graduated was compared with the actual number of fresh- 
men entrants plus transfers to the school. The comparison of 
the actual facts with the rough approximations published in the 
annual reports of the State Department of Education shows that 
the State Department figures are much too low. 

The comparative figures are shown below : 



Persistence to Graduation of Freshmen 
Entrants from 1926 to 1934 According to 



County 

Somerset . 

Wicomico 

Worcester 



Name by Name Check 

Boys Giris 

46.3 61.8 

40.7 57.9 

51.5 67.6 



Report of State Department of Education 
Boys Girls 

31.5 50.9 

34.0 50.6 

41.1 65.0 



In their summary the principals in these counties indicate that 
the differences vary directly with the excess of transfers from 
schools over the transfers to schools and with the per cent of 
freshmen who repeat the grade. The difference between the 
State Department and actual figures are greater for Somerset 
than for Wicomico or Worcester. The principals' summary re- 
port showed that in individual high schools in these three counties 
persistence to graduation for boys varied from 24 to 70 per cent 
and for girls from 51 to 77 per cent. Persistence to graduation 
in the high schools of these three counties is generally high for 
the girls where a large proportion come from farms. For the 
boys persistence to graduation is generally low in Wicomico and 
Somerset for the boys from agricultural centers. For the girls 
in the larger towns, excluding Stockton, and in the sea food 
centers, persistence to graduation is low. 

The principal reported that pupils rarely withdraw from the 
Crisfield High School to go to work. Most of the withdrawals 
are below the age of employability. The younger they are when 



80 



1938 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



they drop out, the less likely are they to come back and graduate. 
Three-fourths of those who withdraw are first and second year 
pupils. The girls who withdraw from the third and fourth years 
usually marry within a year after withdrawal. 

The forms used by the principals for their study will be made 
available to any principal wishing to make similar studies of 
persistence to graduation in his own school. 



MORE ENTRANTS TO STATE TEACHERS COLLEGES 
CHART 19 



GIRL GRADUATES OF WHITE PUBLIC HIGH SCHOOLS ENTERING MARYLAND 
TEACHERS COLLEGES THE FALL FOLLOWING GRADUATION 



County 



Number 



Per Cent 



1936 1937 1938 1937 1938 
3.8 



A?XSaj[e 131 118 151 



Wicomico- 


19 


17 


18 


14.9 


Kent 


5 


4 


7 


7.3 


Worcester 


4 


4 


9 


5.9 


Somerset 


5 




6 




Allegany 


1 


00 


OQ 


O.J. 


Cecil 


2 


5 


9 


5.1 


Harford 


6 


6 


10 


3.7 


Baltimore 


33 


12 


29 


2.8 


Caroline 


10 


6 


4 


6.3 


Q. Anne f s 


1 


2 


3 


2.9 


Charles 


1 


3 


3 


4.7 


Dorchester 


2 




3 




Calvert 


3 




1 


- 


Washington 


10 


6 


7 


3.0 


A. Arundel 


2 


5 


5 


2.3 


Garrett 


4 


5 


2 


5.1 


Frederick 


2 


8 


2 


4.4 


Montgomery 




1 


2 


.5 


Carroll 


2 


6 


1 


3.6 


Pr. George* £ 


1 


2 


1 


.8 


Howard 




1 




2.2 


St. Mary's 


1 








Talbot 


6 


3 




3.5 


Balto.City 


96 


72 


83 


5.3 


State 


227 


190 


234 


4.2 





1938 Graduates Who Entered State Teachers Colleges 



81 



The number of 1938 county girl high school graduates entering 
the three Maryland State Teachers Colleges in the fall of 1938 
increased from 118 in 1937 to 151 in 1938. These represented 
4.5 per cent of the girls graduated from county high schools in 
1938 compared with 3.8 per cent the preceding year. (See 
Chart 19.) 

The 1938 girl graduates entering State Teachers Colleges 
ranged from none at all in 3 counties and less than 1 per cent 
in 3 counties to 14.5 per cent. The largest numbers entered from 
the counties in which the Teachers Colleges are located. Thirteen 
counties sent a larger number of 1938 than of 1937 girl gradu- 
ates to Maryland State Teachers Colleges. (See Chart 19.) 

Baltimore City sent 83 girl graduates of 1938 to Towson State 
Teachers College, an increase of 11 over the number of 1937 
graduates. There were 234 girl graduates in 1938 from the 
county and City public white high schools who entered the State 
Teachers Colleges in September, 1938. (See Chart 19.) 

Similar data for 1938 boy graduates indicated entrants to the 
State Teachers Colleges, of whom 82 came from 13 counties and 
21 from Baltimore City as against 52 and 17 respectively, for the 
preceding year. As with the girls, the largest number of county 
boys who entered came from the counties in which the State 
Teachers Colleges are located with the exception of one adjoining 
county. (See Table 49.) 



TABLE 49 



Bov Graduates from White Public High Schools Entering Maryland State 
Teachers Colleges, 1938 



Total 
Number 
White 
Boy 
Grad- 
uates 


Boy Graduates 
Entering Mary- 
land Teachers 
Colleges 


County 


Total 
Number 
White 
Boy 
Grad- 
uates 


Boy Graduates 
Entering Mary- 
land Teachers 
Colleges 


Number 


Per Cent 


Number 


Per Cent 








Baltimore 


342 


9 


2.6 


2,566 


82 


3.2 




41 


1 


2.4 






Washington 


202 


3 


1.5 


49 


11 


22.4 


Cecil 


90 


1 


1.1 


78 


13 


16.7 


Harford 


126 


1 


.8 


314 


29 


9.2 


Frederick 


173 


1 


.6 


87 


5 


5.7 










74 


4 


5.4 


Baltimore City. . . 


1,459 


21 


1.4 


55 


2 


3.6 








58 


2 


3.4 


State 


4,025 


103 


2.6 



County 



Total and County 
Average 

Somerset 

Wicomico 

Allegany 

Dorchester 

Garrett 

Talbot 

Worcester 



82 



1938 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



OCCUPATIONS IN 1937-38 OF 1937 COUNTY WHITE HIGH SCHOOL 

GRADUATES 

The discussion on the preceding pages was concerned with 
graduates of 1938. In order to follow up on occupations of gradu- 
ates during 1937-38 it was necessary to investigate activities of 
the 1937 graduates who numbered 2,361 for boys and 3,111 girls. 
Of the boys graduated there were 652 or 27.6 per cent, and of the 
1937 girl graduates 1,078, or 34.7 per cent, who continued their 
education in 1937-38. On the other hand, 354 boys or 15 per cent 
and 1,081 girls or 34.7 per cent of the 1937 county graduates were 
reported as staying or working at home or married the year fol- 
lowing graduation. (See Tables 50 and 51.) 



TABLE 50 

Comparison of Number and Per Cent of County White High School Graduates 
Continuing Education or Staying or Working at Home Year 
Following Graduation, 1926 to 1937 



Total Number 
of Graduates 



Boys 



1,045 
1,071 
1,142 
1,339 



534 
713 
772 
114 
223 
052 
283 
361 



Girls 



1,574 
1,816 
1,851 
2,056 
2,251 
2,491 
2,625 
2,807 
2,904 
2,787 
3,039 
3,111 



Number 



Continuing 
Education 



Boys 



507 
472 
480 
527 
542 
574 
471 
469 
522 
498 
613 
652 



Girls 



856 
913 
947 
1,051 
1,031 
953 
820 
701 
803 
800 
980 
1,078 



Staying or 
Working at 
Home, Married 



Boys 



99 
118 
125 
223 
361 
495 
447 
473 
367 
244 
354 



Girls 



323 
417 
432 
455 
694 
994 
,321 
,453 
,348 
,172 
,036 
,081 



Per Cent 



Continuing 
Education 



Boys 



48.8 
44.1 
41.8 
39.3 
35.3 
33.5 
26.6 
22.2 
23.5 
24.3 
26.9 
27.6 



Girls 



54.3 
50.3 
51.2 
51.3 
45.8 
38.2 
31.2 
25.0 
27.7 
28.7 
32.3 
34.7 



Staying or 
Working at 
Home, Married 



Boys 



8.5 
9.3 
10.3 
9.3 
21.5 
21.2 
27.9 
21.1 
21.2 
17.9 
10.7 
15.0 



The per cent of county white high school graduates who con- 
tinued their education the year following graduation decreased 
gradually from 1926 to 1933 and showed slight gains from 1933 
to 1937. There were 49 per cent of the white boys and 54 per cent 
of the white girls graduated in 1926 who followed their high 
school course with further study. These percentages dropped to 
22 for boys and 25 for girls in 1933, after which they increased 
gradually with 28 per cent for boys and 35 per cent for girls 
reported for 1937 graduates. (See Tables 50 and 51.) 

On the other hand, the number and per cent of boys staying or 
working at home the year following graduation increased steadily 



Occupations of White Graduates of County High Schools 83 



for graduates of the years 1926 to 1932 and dropped thereafter 
with 354 of the 1937 graduates at home during 1937-38. The 
boy graduates at home the year following graduation ranged 
between 8.5 per cent of the boys graduated in 1926 and 27.9 for 
those graduated in 1932, dropped to 10.7 per cent for 1936 gradu- 
ates and increased to 15 per cent for 1937 graduates. (See Tables 
50 and 51.) 

For girls the rise and fall in number staying or working at 
home for those who graduated during the period from 1926 to 
1937 is similar to that for boys, except that the maximum number 
at home is reached for 1933 .rather than for 1932 graduates. The 
percentage of girls who stayed or worked at home the year fol- 
lowing graduation increased from 20.5 per cent for those gradu- 
ated in 1926 to 51.8 for graduates of 1933, dropped to 34 for 1936 
graduates and increased slightly to 34.7 per cent for 1937 girl 
graduates. (See Tables 50 and 51.) 



TABLE 51 



Occupations of 1937 Graduates as Reported by Principals of County White 
High Schools in 1937-38 



Occupations 


Number 


Per Cent 














Boys 


Girls 


Boys 


Girls 


Continuing Education 


652 


1,078 


27 


6 


34.7 




323 


328 


13 


7 


10.5 


State Teachers Colleges 


45 


124 


1 


9 


4.0 


Dentistry, Agriculture, Pharmacy, Ministry, Law 


20 


2 




8 


.1 




36 




1 


5 




Physical Education, Home Economics, and Kindergarten Train- 






ing Schools 




8 






.3 




' ' 6 






3 






145 


379 


6 


1 


12.2 




57 


22 


2 


4 




Post-Graduate High School Courses 


18 


33 




8 


l!l 


Art and Music Schools 


2 


22 




.1 


. 7 






160 






5.1 




176 


598 




.5 


19.2 




178 


294 




5 


9.4 






189 






6.1 


Clerks in Stores, Salesmen and Saleswomen, Business 


333 


288 


14 


.1 


9.2 


Manual, Manufacturing, Mechanical 


283 


66 


12 





2.1 




246 




10 


.4 




Office Work 


123 


312 


5 
3 


9 


10.0 


Transportation, Chauffeur, Railroad, Garage 


79 


'a 


Communication, Newspaper, Telephone and Telegraph Operators. . 


19 


' 30 




.8 


1.0 


Armv, Navv, Marines, Aviation 


38 




1 


.6 




Beautv Parlor 




' 30 






\.6 


Actors, Artists, Dancers, Musicians 


' io 


2 




A 


.1 


Waitresses 




55 






1.8 


Died 


3 


3 




.i 


.1 




221 


166 


Q 


A 


5.3 


Total 


2.361 


3,111 


100 


.0 


100.0 







84 1938 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 

Nothing could prove more conclusively the changing character 
of the high school population, recruited since the depression years 
from the group who ordinarily would have found jobs, and the 
need for adapting high school instruction to those who remain 
in the home environment following graduation from high school. 

In addition to those 1937 graduates who were at home or at 
school, there were 333 boys and 288 girls employed as clerks or 
salespeople, 283 boys and 66 girls in shops or factories, 246 boys 
on farms or in the fishing industry, and 123 boys and 312 girls 
doing office work. Various occupations were reported for the 
remaining 1937 graduates during 1937-38. (See Table 51.) 

Occupations for the Individual Counties 

The occupations of 1937 graduates in 1937-38 varied consider- 
ably among the counties. As few as 10 per cent of the boys and 
as few as 17 per cent of the girls who graduated in 1937 in one 
county continued education in 1937-38 in school or college or 
hospital, while at the opposite extreme 42 per cent of the boys 
and 49 per cent of the girls in another county were able to supple- 
ment their education after high school graduation. (See Table 52.) 

At one extreme as few as 2 per cent of the boys in one county 
and 3 per cent of the girls in another county and at the other 
extreme as many as 31 per cent of the boys and 25 per cent of 
the girls went to liberal arts colleges and universities. Teachers 
colleges and schools for teacher training had no entrants from 
two counties and as many as 20 per cent of the boys and 16 per 
cent of the girls from one county in which a teachers college was 
located. Commercial and vocational schools attracted no boys 
from four counties and 6 per cent of the girls from two counties 
as compared with 19 per cent of the boys and 24 per cent of the 
girls from one county. No boys from two counties and no girls 
from seven counties returned for post-graduate high school work 
or found it necessary to attend college preparatory schools, but 
as many as 11 per cent of the boys from one county and 9 per 
cent of the girls from another continued study at the high school 
level after graduation. From three counties no girls entered 
hospitals for training as nurses, while 13 per cent of the girls 
from one county entered training. The availability of institutions 
of higher education in close proximity to the homes of the gradu- 
ates, financial status, faith in the availability of better positions 
for those with advanced training, interest in further education 
fostered by teachers, parents, and friends, and lack of available 
positions all probably were factors in determining whether gradu- 
ates continued their education beyond high school graduation. 
(See Table 52.) 



Occupations of 1937 White County High School Graduates 85 



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86 



1938 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



The 1937 graduates staying or working at home, including 
married girls not working outside the home, varied from 5 per 
cent for boys in two counties to 53 per cent in one county and for 
girls from 20 to 64 per cent. (See Table 52.) 

The extremes for boys working at farming, fishing, forestry, 
or in CCC camps were 3 and 58 per cent. Boy graduates engaged 
as clerks in stores or as salesmen ranged from 6 to 24 per cent 
among the counties, while corresponding extreme percentages 
for girls were and 24 per cent. The minimum and maximum 
percentages for boys engaged in manufacturing, mechanical, 
mining, and building trades were in two counties and 24 per cent 
in another. No girls were reported as factory workers in twelve 
counties, while there were 10 per cent in the county with the 
highest proportion. 

In one county no graduates were working in offices or as tele- 
phone or telegraph operators, while 14 per cent of the boys and 
25 per cent of the girls in other counties were employed in these 
fields. The business of transportation including work on railroads 
and acting as chauffeurs attracted none of the boys in five coun- 
ties and 7 per cent from one county. From seven counties no 
girl graduates became waitresses, while in one county 6 per cent 
of the girls followed this occupation. No boys from five counties 
went into the army, navy, or aviation, while from one county 7 
per cent entered these services. Beauty parlor work was 
engaged in by no girls from seven counties, while 6 per cent of 
the girl graduates in one county took up this type of work. (See 
Table 52.) 

The high school principals of six counties reported the occu- 
pations of every one of their white boy graduates of 1937, while 
at the opposite extreme two counties reported the occupations 
of 23 per cent of the boys as "other and unknown." Four counties 
reported the occupation of. every one of their 1937 girl graduates, 
but in one county the occupations of 14 per cent were reported as 
"other and unknown." The counties having a large proportion 
whose occupations were other or unknown have a population 
which moves about a great deal. (See Table 52.) 

Maryland Colleges Attended by 1937 Graduates 

The 1937 graduates attended Maryland institutions of higher 
education in 1937-38 in greatest numbers if they were located 
in the county of or adjacent to that of the residence of the gradu- 
ates. The only exception to this is the large enrollment at the 
University of Maryland from Baltimore County. (See Table 53.) 



Occupations of 1937 White County High School Graduates 



87 



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88 1938 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 

ENROLLMENT OF COUNTY WHITE HIGH SCHOOL PUPILS BY YEAR 

The enrollment in the first two years of high school showed 
steadily mounting figures from 1925 to 1937, with the exception 
of a slight decrease in the first year enrollment in 1932, still 
apparent in the third and fourth year enrollments in 1934 and 
1935. Although both the first and second year enrollments in 
1938 showed slight decreases under the 1937 figures, the enroll- 
ment in the third and fourth years continued the upward trend. 
From 1925 to 1938 the per cent of increase in enrollment was 66 
in the first year, 99 in the second year, 131 in the third year, and 
123 in the fourth year, compared with an average increase of 
97 per cent in enrollment for all four years. (See Table 54.) 

TABLE 54 



Enrollment in Each Year of Last Four Years of Maryland County White 
High Schools, by Year, 1925-1938 



Year 


I 


II 


III 


IV 


Post- 
Graduates 


Total 


1925 


6,772 


4,453 


3,281 


2,732 




17,238 


1926 


7,558 


4,777 


3,610 


2,748 




18,693 


1927 


7,871 


5,363 


3,856 


3,067 




20,157 


1928 


8,487 


5,636 


4,257 


3,178 




21,558 


1929 


8,587 


6,100 


4,694 


3,612 




22,993 


1930 


9,038 


6,292 


5,080 


3,981 


' 26 


24,417 


1931 


9,777 


6,969 


5,490 


4,338 


21 


26,595 


1932 


9,662 


7,636 


6,070 


4,646 


153 


28,167 


1933 


10,548 


7,658 


6,720 


5,207 


169 


30,302 


1934 


10,629 


8,016 


6,381 


5,404 


91 


30,521 


1935 


11,072 


8,162 


6,731 


5,110 


153 


31,228 


1936 


11,267 


8,749 


6,927 


5,526 


127 


32,596 


1937 


11,267 


8,907 


7,456 


5,675 


93 


33,398 


1938 


11,256 


8,883 


7,586 


6,080 


113 


33,918 



SUBJECTS OFFERED IN HIGH SCHOOL PROGRAM 

There were increases from 1937 to 1938 in the number of county 
white high school boys and girls taking every subject. Increases 
in per cent of enrollment in 1938 over 1937 occurred in social 
studies, industrial work, and agriculture for boys, in mathematics 
and vocational home economics for girls, and in physical edu- 
cation and art for boys and girls. (See Table 55.) 

Since English is a required subject for four years, all pupils, 
except post-graduates and irregulars, were enrolled. Of the 
35,531 pupils taking English, 33 per cent were taking first year 
work, 26 per cent second year, 22 per cent third year, and 19 per 
cent fourth year English. For the girls there was a smaller pro- 
portion than for boys of the total enrollment taking English in 
the first and second years, and a higher proportion in the third 
and fourth years, indicating greater persistence of girls in com- 
pleting the work of the later years. (See Table 56.) 



County White High School Enrollment by Year and Subject 89 



TABLE 55 

Distribution of Enrollment in Last Four Years of Maryland County White 
High Schools by Subjects Taken for Year Ending June 30, 1938 



Subject 


Number Enrolled 


Per Cent 


Number 
of High 
Schools 
Offering 
Subject 


Per Cent of 
1 otal Enroll- 
ment Enrolled 
in Schools 
Which Oner 
Each Subject 


Boys 


Girls 


Boys 


Girls 


Total 


16,415 


18,519 






150 






16,317 


18,410 


99.4 


99.4 


150 


100.0 


Social Studies 


14,039 


15,513 


85.5 


83.8 


150 


100.0 


Science 


11,903 


11,997 


72.5 


64.8 


150 


100.0 




11,757 


11,614 


71.6 


62.7 


150 


100.0 




2,179 


3,239 


13.3 


17.5 


84 


80.8 


French 


1,603 


2,721 


9.8 


14.7 


115 


89.2 




35 


20 


.2 


.1 


1 


2.8 




27 


10 


.2 


.1 


1 


1.9 


Industrial 


8,676 


27 


52.9 


.1 


90 


82.1 


General Industrial Arts . . . 


8,090 


27 


49.3 


.1 


89 


78.8 


Vocational 


586 




3.6 




10 


17.6 


Home Economics 


29 


10^203 


.2 


55ii 


123 


92.1 




29 


8,415 


.2 


45.4 


98 


81.4 


Vocational 




1,788 




9.7 


44 


28.3 


Agriculture 


1^883 


2 


ills 




52 


29.1 




3,362 


5,308 


20.5 


28^7 


69 


75.8 


Physical Education 


6,007 


6,092 


36.6 


32.9 


44 


55.2 


Music 


7,579 


9,814 


46.2 


53.0 


114 


88.2 


Art 


945 


1,204 


5.8 


6.5 


26 


31.6 



TABLE 56 

County White High School Enrollment in English Distributed by Year of 
English Taken in 1937-38 



Year 


Number 


Per Cent 
















Total 


Boys 


Girls 


Total 


Boys 


Girls 


I 


11,735 


5,930 


5,805 


33.0 


35.4 


31.0 


II 


9.282 


4,402 


4,880 


26.1 


26.3 


26.0 


Ill 


7,953 


3,594 


4,359 


22.4 


21.4 


23.2 


IV 


6,561 


2.843 


3,718 


18.5 


16.9 


19.8 


Total 


35,531 


16,769 


18,762 


100.0 


100.0 


100.0 



Social studies were taken in 1937-38 by 85.5 per cent of the 
boys and 84 per cent of the girls. During the four-year course 
at least two units of social studies, one of which must be United 
States history, are required, but most of the pupils take three 
and even four in the fields of history, civics, and economics. (See 
Table 55 and Table 62, page 96.) 

Approximately 73 per cent of the boys and 65 per cent of the 
county white high school girls took work in science in 1937-38. 
Only one unit of science is required, but many pupils take two or 
three units and some even four units during the high school 
course. (See Table 55 and Table 63, page 97.) 



90 1938 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 

Nearly 72 per cent of the boys and 63 per cent of the girls took 
mathematics in 1937-38. During the four-year course only one 
unit of mathematics must be taken, but, in most cases, especially 
among the boys, two, three, and in a few instances, four years 
of work in mathematics are pursued. (See Table 55 and Table 63, 
page 97.) 

Enrollment in Foreign Languages Shows Little Change 

In 1938, Latin was taught in 84 county white schools enrolling 
81 per cent of the high school enrollment. Although the total 
high school enrollment in the counties has almost doubled, the 
number of pupils taking Latin has not shown great variation 
during the period from 1925 to 1938. In 1925 there were 2,076 
boys taking Latin. The number increased to nearly 2,500 in 1928, 
but receded in 1929 to 2,271 after which there was an increase 
to 2,559 in 1932, the maximum for the entire period. With the 
exception of 1934, there has been a decrease each year until the 
1938 enrollment of 2,179 is a slight increase over the 1937 en- 
rollment. The 3,333 girls taking Latin in 1925 increased to 3,525 
in 1927 after which there was a decrease to 3,446 in 1930. An 
increase to 3,746 in 1934, the peak of the period, was followed by 
a decrease to 3,208 in 1936 and a slight increase to 3,239 in 1938. 
Apparently there is a relatively stable number of boys and girls 
who continue to study Latin, because of the traditional value 
attributed to it, or because it is the only foreign language offered 
in certain smaller high schools. The per cent of high school pupils 
taking Latin was 16 per cent in 1938 compared with 31 per cent 
in 1925. (See Tables 55 and 57.) 



TABLE 57 

Enrollment in the Foreign Languages" for Years Ending June 30, 1925 to 1938 



Year ending June 30 


Latin 


French 


Spanish 


Boys 


Girls 


Boys 


Girls 


Boys 


Girls 


1925 


2,076 


3,333 


1,411 


2,306 


38 


39 


1926 


2,154 


3,497 


1.400 


2,428 


31 


29 


1927 


2,335 


3,535 


1,379 


2,532 


24 


17 


1928 


2,494 


3,510 


1,420 


2,690 


19 


10 


1929 


2,271 


3,475 


1 , 656 


2,751 


34 


26 


1930 


2,338 


3,446 


1 , 567 


2,713 


46 


57 


1931 


2; 534 


3,684 


1,598 


2,786 


22 


13 


1932 


2,559 


3,683 


1,762 


2,967 


53 


26 


1933 


2,421 


3,713 


1,989 


3,237 


46 


26 


1934 


2,460 


3,746 


1,850 


3,149 


30 


28 


1935 


2,272 


3,409 


1,601 


2,966 


36 


52 


1936 


2,106 


3,208 


1,604 


2,872 


36 


48 


1937 


2,141 


3,218 


1 , 589 


2,617 


36 


29 


1938 


2,179 


3,239 


1,604 


2,723 


35 


20 



* Excludes following enrollment in German: 1925— 8B, 10G ; 1926— 6B, 2G ; 1937— 10B, 
3G; 1938— 27B, 10G. 



White County High School Enrollment by Subject 91 

French which was offered in 115 schools attended by 89 per 
cent of the 1938 enrollment shows trends similar to those for 
Latin. With fluctuations occurring for both boys and girls, a 
peak enrollment of 5,226 was reached in 1933, followed by a 
decline to 4,206 in 1937 and an increase to 4,327 in 1938. The 
French enrollment in 1938 represented 12 per cent of county white 
high school pupils as against 22 per cent enrolled in French in 
1925. The proportion of girls taking Latin and French was 
approximately 4 and 5 per cent higher, respectively, than that 
of boys taking these languages. (See Tables 55 and 57.) 

One county high school offered Spanish and one German. These 
two languages were taken by 92 county pupils in 1938. (See 
Tables 55 and 57.) 

Increased Enrollment in Industrial Arts, Trade and Industrial Work, 
Agriculture and Home Economics 

In 1938 industrial arts and/or trade and industrial work were 
taught in 90 county high schools enrolling 82 per cent of all county 
white high school boys. This was an increase of nine schools 
and 1,200 pupils over 1937. Nearly 53 per cent of the total num- 
ber of high school boys took this work which in most of the 
schools was taught in only the first and second years. (See 
Table 58.) 



TABLE 58 

Enrollment in Industrial Work, Agriculture and Home Economics for Years 
Ending June 30, 1925 to 1938, Inclusive 



Year Ending June 30 


Industrial Work 


Agriculture 


Home Economics 


Industrial 
Arts 


Vocational 
Industrial 


General 


Vocational 


1925 


4,333 




853 


6,258 


465 


1926 


4,256 




936 


6,595 


546 


1927 


4,905 




922 


7,304 


618 


1928 


5,349 




949 


7,798 


587 


1929 


5,534 


' 69 


985 


8,085 


516 


1930 


5,721 


117 


933 


7,766 


497 


1931 


6,450 


225 


1,100 


7,753 


566 


1932 


6.043 


418 


1,264 


7,464 


770 


1933 


6,388 
6,536 


520 


1,260 


7,827 


720 


1934 


410 


1,278 


7,908 


780 


1935 


6,873 


403 


1,389 


8,065 


1 ,040 


1936 


6,928 


772 


1,482 


8.259 


1,330 


1937 


7,489 


521 


1,644 


8.184 


1,324 


1938 


8,157 


586 


1,885 


8.444 


1,788 



There has been considerable growth in interest in industrial 
arts since 1925 when the enrollment was 4,333. Each year until 
1931, with the exception of 1926, more boys were given instruction 
in shop work. After the drop in 1932, there has been a steady 



92 1938 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 

increase until the maximum enrollment of 8,157 was found in 
1938. Trade and industrial work for ten periods a week was 
elected by 586 white county boys in 10 high schools in 1938, as 
compared with 69 in 1929. (See Tables 55 and 58.) 

In 1938 agriculture was taught in 52 schools enrolling 29 per 
cent of all county high school boys. There were four more schools 
and 242 more boys enrolled for agriculture than in 1937. The 
course which was offered for only two years in most schools was 
taken by 11.5 per cent of the boys enrolled in county white high 
schools. The enrollment of 1,885 taking agriculture in 1938 was 
more than double the enrollment in 1925. (See Tables 55 and 58.) 

Home economics, general and vocational, was taught in 1938 
in 123 schools enrolling 92 per cent of all county white high school 
girls. This was an increase of six schools and 700 pupils over the 
number in 1937. These courses, which include training in home- 
making as well as cooking and sewing, were taken by 55 per cent 
of all county white high school girls. The girls taking general 
home economics totalled 6,258 in 1925. There was an increase 
to 8,085 in 1929, after which the number declined to 7,464 in 1932, 
increased to 8,259 in 1936, dropped in 1937 to 8,184, and increased 
to 8,444 in 1938, the maximum enrollment in general home eco- 
nomics for the entire period. In 1925 courses in general home 
economics were given for two periods a week during the entire 
four-year course. In 1938 there were 70 high schools which had 
required courses in the first and second years for five periods a 
week, 5 additional schools which had beyond the second year a 
third year elective course, and 23 additional schools which had two 
years of elective work beyond the first two years. (See Tables 55 
and 58.) 

The girls taking vocational home economics have with slight 
fluctuations increased from 465 in 1925 to 1,788 in 1938. These 
girls are required to carry on and manage home projects in which 
the theory and practice of homemaking given in the ten school 
periods a week of home economics and related art and science 
are applied and adapted to home conditions. Eleven schools 
offered major courses in home economics of two years, 10 of three 
years, and 23 of four years. (See Tables 55 and 58.) 

Enrollment in Commercial Subjects 

In 1938 commercial subjects were taught in 69 schools in which 
76 per cent of all county white high school pupils were enrolled 
and were taken by 20.5 per cent of the boys and 29 per cent of 
the girls enrolled. Since the major part of the commercial work 
is offered in the junior and senior years, a much larger proportion 



County White High School Enrollment in the Special 93 
Subjects 

of third and fourth year pupils were enrolled for these courses 
than the above percentages would indicate. (See Table 55.) 

Music, Art, and Physical Education 

Music was offered in 114 schools enrolling 88 per cent of the 
county white high school pupils and was taken by 46 per cent of 
all county high school boys and 53 per cent of the girls during 
1937-38. The number of boys enrolled for music increased from 
7,119 in 1931 to 7,579 in 1938, the peak during the entire period 
being reached in 1933 with 7,714 boys enrolled. For girls en- 
rollment in music increased from 8,645 in 1931 to a maximum of 
9,814 in 1938. (See Tables 59 and 61.) 

TABLE 59 



Enrollment in Music, Art, and Physical Education for Years Ending 
June 30, 1931 to 1938, Inclusive 



Year 


Music 


Art 


Physical Education 


Boys 


Girls 


Boys 


Girls 


Boys 


Girls 


1931 


7,119 


8,645 


315 


378 


3,594 


3,614 


1932 


7,031 


8,477 


671 


714 


3.976 


4,168 


1933 


7,714 


9,128 


741 


737 


4,722 


4,387 


1934 


7,465 


8,865 


529 


541 


4,601 


4,572 


1935 


7,461 


8,840 


537 


538 


4,813 


4,699 


1936 


7,526 


9.134 


418 


571 


5,413 


5.182 


1937 


7,579 


9,422 


535 


594 


5,483 


5,276 


1938 


7,579 


9,814 


945 


1 ,252 


6,007 


6,092 



In 1938 art was offered in eleven counties in 26 high schools, 
an increase of 15 over the number of schools the previous year. 
Thirty-two per cent of all county white pupils in the last four 
years of high school were enrolled in these 26 schools. Slightly 
over 6 per cent of all county pupils in the last four years of high 
school work received instruction in art. The boys enrolled for 
art included 315 in 1931, increased to 741 in 1933, dropped to 418 
by 1936, and reached a maximum of 945 in 1938. For girls taking 
art, the enrollment of 378 in 1931, increased to 737 in 1933, 
receded to 538 by 1935, and increased to 1,252 in 1938, the maxi- 
mum for the period. (See Tables 55 and 59.) 

Physical education courses given as regularly assigned instruc- 
tion were available in 44 county high schools enrolling 55 per cent 
of all white high school pupils. The number of boys enrolled has 
increased from 3,594 in 1931 to 6,007 in 1938, while the cor- 
responding gain for girls has been from 3,614 to 6,092. Approxi- 
mately 35 per cent of the total white high school enrollment had 
work in physical education. (See Tables 55 and 59.) 



94 



1938 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



English Enrollment in Individual Counties by Year 

In two counties less than 30 per cent of the high school English 
enrollment was found in the first year, while in another county 
48 per cent of the enrollment in high school English was in the 
first year. The enrollment in fourth year English ranged be- 
tween 15 per cent in one county and 21 per cent or more in six 
counties. (See Table 60.) 

TABLE 60 



Per Cent of County Enrollment Taking English in Each Year 
of High School, 1937-38 





Number 


Per Cent Enrolled in English in Years 


County 


Enrolled 












in 
English 


I 


II 


III 


IV 


Total and Average 1 


35,531 


33.0 


26.1 


22.4 


18.5 


Allegany 


3,804 


30.9 


26.2 


23.1 


19.8 




2,321 


30.5 


24.8 


24.7 


20.0 




4,855 


34.4 


27.4 


21.0 


17.2 


Calvert 


304 


48.0 


22.4 


12.8 


16.8 


Caroline 


712 


33.4 


26.7 


20.9 


19.0 


Carroll 


1,674 


34.3 


25.2 


23.0 


17.5 


Cecil 


1,287 


35.7 


25.6 


20.1 


18.6 


Charles 


550 


30.8 


27.3 


20.6 


21.3 




934 


29.0 


25.2 


24.2 


21.6 


Frederick 


2,319 


33.4 


26.5 


23.9 


16.2 


Garrett 


1,067 


31.1 


28.2 


23.3 


17.4 


Harford 


1,586 


32.0 


28.9 


21.5 


17.6 




691 


36.4 


24.6 


22.9 


16.1 


Kent 


510 


28.0 


27.3 


23.7 


21.0 


Montgomery 


2,878 


32.4 


23.7 


22.4 


21.5 




3,222 


37.1 


25.8 


22.0 


15.1 




510 


31.1 


26.5 


21.2 


21.2 


St. Mary's 


371 


32.6 


26.7 


22.1 


18.6 


Somerset 


744 


33.6 


26.8 


22.7 


16.9 


Talbot 


660 


32.6 


24.4 


22.4 


20.6 




2,534 


32.1 


27.5 


22.3 


18.1 


Wicomico 


1,190 


30.9 


24.7 


23.3 


21.1 




808 


32.7 


25.1 


22.9 


19.3 



Enrollment in Individual Counties in the Social Studies 

In the individual counties the range in the per cent of boys 
taking the social studies was from less than 70 per cent in two 
counties to 97 per cent or more in five counties and for girls from 
less than 60 per cent in two counties to 97 per cent in two counties. 
(See Table 61.) 

The enrollment in civics, world history (a one-year course), 
industrial history, United States history, problems of democracy, 
and economics and sociology was larger in 1938 than in 1937. 
On the other hand, there were decreases in the number enrolled 
for early and modern European history and economic geography. 
The fluctuations evident in European history courses in the 
period from 1931 to 1938 may be due chiefly to the way these 



White High School Enrollment by Subject and County 



95 



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96 1938 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 

courses were designated. In the later years an attempt to stand- 
ardize this nomenclature has been made. For United States 
history the variations may be due in part to alternation with 
problems of democracy in the smaller schools. 

In schools which offer no work in commercial courses, except 
business training, and in those schools in which business training 
is taught by the regular social studies teacher, it has been classi- 
fied among the social studies. This applied to one or more of the 
high schools in nine counties. Regularly organized classes in 
occupations and guidance were available in one county high 
school. (See Table 62.) 

TABLE 62 



Enrollment in the Various Branches of Social Studies in Maryland County 
W hite High Schools, by Years, 1931 to 1938, and by County, 1938 



Year 

AND 

County 


Civics 


World History 


European 
History 


Industrial 
History 


United States 
History 


Problems of 
Democracy 


Economics and 
Sociology 


Economic 
Geography 


Business 
Training 


Occupations 
and Guidance 


Early 


Modern 


1930-31 


3,379 


3,090 


3,470 


3,434 


796 


5,359 


3,109 


*79 








1931-32 


3,636 


4.137 


3,521 


3,475 


282 


5,981 


3.094 


*436 








1932-33 


4,009 


4 , 135 


3,529 


4,037 




6.790 


3,741 


*338 








1933-34 


4,175 


3,998 


4,218 


4,204 




6.102 


4,108 


*450 








1934-35 


4,022 


4,607 


3,420 


3,923 




7,002 


3,454 


*490 


574 






1935-36 


4,747 


5,373 


3,019 


3,849 


' 75 


6.668 


3.998 


*445 


868 






1936-37 


3,969 


4,265 


4 , 633 


4,327 


170 


7,170 


3.108 


1,355 


953 






1937-38 


4,091 


4,697 


4,389 


4,321 


183 


7,504 


3,239 


1,493 


879 


918 


235 




534 


369 


97 


406 




799 


421 


254 


42 






Anne Arundel 


326 


288 


319 


189 




579 


141 


118 


21 






Baltimore 


299 


673 


887 


970 




861 


248 


36 








Calvert 




21 


64 


58 




52 




21 


' 45 






Caroline 


'l27 


101 




71 




156 


' 22 


45 


25 






Carroll 




159 


359 


262 




391 


232 


122 




' 39 






251 


165 


205 


165 




240 


159 


43 


' 32 


40 




Charles 


63 


62 


136 


79 




101 


112 




44 






Dorchester 


261 


139 




23 


' '27 


181 


137 


"58 


62 


' 19 


235 


Frederick 


50 


936 


i57 


130 




549 


193 


35 










97 


242 


98 


134 




220 


180 


28 


"19 






Harford 


217 


159 


86 


228 




322' 127 


167 


66 






Howard 




34 


71 


86 




172 




88 


24 






Kent 


144 


122 








122 


42 


17 


30 


' 94 




Montgomery 


292 


194 


451 


'314 




604 


137 


111 


51 






Prince George's. . . 


443 


371 


590 


444 


' 71 


703 


224 


107 


126 






Queen Anne's 


77 


70 








119 


97 


9 




' 56 




St. Mary's 


42 


108 








70 


52 


15 


"51 






Somerset 


167 


71 


' ' 9 


' 88 




162 


68 


76 


77 


' 26 




Talbot 


171 


55 


148 


125 




160 


75 


29 


34 


19 






36 


57 


712 


473 


' 85 


539 


342 


63 




558 






268 


219 




22 




246 


124 


51 


111 








226 


82 




54 




156 


106 


.... 


19 


67 .... 



* Economics only. 



County High School Social Studies, Science, Mathematics 
Enrollment 



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Courses in Science in Individual Counties 

Science courses were reported as taken by 58 per cent of the 
boys in one county and 93 per cent in another. Corresponding 
extremes for girls were 56 and 83 per cent. (See Table 61.) 

Although the enrollment in general science and physics was 
larger in 1938 than for any year preceding, the enrollment in 
biology and chemistry was smaller than for the two years pre- 
ceding. Two counties showed no enrollment in physics. One 
county which reported no work in chemistry alternates it with 
physics and this is the case in a number of the smaller schools. 
Two counties reported classes in hygiene, and two others offered 
zoology, bacteriology and senior science as part of the science 
program. (See Table 63.) 



Mathematics Courses in Individual Counties 

The percentage of boys and girls taking mathematics ranged 
from 51 per cent in one county to over 80 per cent. (See Table 61.) 

Enrollment in general mathematics, algebra I, plane and solid 
geometry, and mathematics review showed a gain from 1937 to 
1938. The enrollment in business arithmetic classified as mathe- 
matics in those schools in which these classes were instructed by 
a teacher certificated in mathematics included 967 pupils in 17 
counties. Only one county did not give instruction in general 
mathematics. (See Table 63.) 



The Foreign Languages by Counties 

In one county only one per cent of the boys and three per cent 
of the girls had instruction in Latin, while in another county 25 
per cent of the boys, and in still another 32 per cent of the girls 
took Latin. (See Table 61.) 

French was taken by as few as four per cent of the boys and 
seven per cent of the girls in one county, and by as many as 26 
per cent of the boys and 40 per cent of the girls in another county. 
In the latter county a small proportion of pupils took Latin. (See 
Table 61.) 

One county high school gave instruction in Latin, French, and 
Spanish, another in Latin, French, and German, 64 schools offered 
Latin and French, 18 taught Latin only, 49 French only, leaving 
11 regular and six junior high schools without instruction in a 
foreign language. (See Table 55, page 89, and Table XXVI, 
pages 326-331.) 



High School Subject Offerings in Individual Counties 99 
Industrial Arts, Agriculture, and Home Economics 

One or more high schools in every county gave instruction to 
boys in either industrial arts, industrial education, or agriculture 
in 1937-38. Two counties offered agriculture, but no industrial 
arts. In the 21 counties in which work in industrial arts was 
given, the per cent taking it varied from 13 to 80. In addition to 
industrial arts, Cumberland, Hagerstown and Sparrows Point and 
three aditional counties offered training in trades and industries. 
In the six counties which offered this training the per cent of boys 
enrolled ranged from 2 to 15 per cent. (See Table 61.) 

Cecil, Kent and Talbot Counties had no high school which gave 
instruction in agriculture to white boys. In the 20 counties in 
which agriculture was taught, the per cent of all county boys 
taking the subject ranged between 3 and 54 per cent. (See 
Table 61 and Table XXVI, pages 326 to 331.) 

Every county gave instruction in general or vocational home 
economics during 1937-38. The per cent of county girls taking 
general home economics varied from 23 to 84 per cent in the 19 
counties in which it was offered. Courses in vocational home 
economics involving the carrying on of home projects were taken 
by from 3 to 72 per cent of the girls in 14 counties. Four counties 
which offered vocational home economics gave no instruction in 
general home economics. (See Table 61 and Table XXVI, pages 
326 to 331.) 

Offerings in Commercial Work 

All, except Calvert, Queen Anne's and St. Mary's, offered com- 
mercial subjects to white high school pupils. The three exceptions 
did offer work in business arithmetic or junior business training, 
but this was entirely non-vocational. The per cent of the county 
enrollment taking commercial work varied from 7 to 52 per cent 
for the boys and from 10 to 61 per cent for girls. (See Table 61 
and Table XXVI, pages 326 to 331.) 

Formerly most of the commercial work was limited to ste- 
nography, typewriting, and bookkeeping offered in the last two 
years of the high school course. The number of boys taking 
stenography and bookkeeping has shown little change since 1931. 
There were increases over 1937 for the girls taking stenography, 
office practice, and salesmanship, and for boys and girls taking 
typing, bookkeeping, commercial law, and business economics. 
(See Table 64.) 

The decreases in the enrollment for junior business training 
and business arithmetic can be accounted for in the classification 
of the former among the social studies if it is taught by the social 
studies teacher and the latter as mathematics if it is taught by 
a teacher certificated in mathematics. (See Tables 62, 63 and 64.) 



71)908 



100 



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102 1938 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 

Commercial geography was offered in 12 counties, but it might 
be considered in connection with economic geography, classified 
as a social study and taught in all but five counties. Typing II 
was given in two counties, office practice in six counties, sales- 
manship in two counties, commercial law was offered in five coun- 
ties, business economics in four counties, and spelling in one 
county. (See Table 64.) 

Physical Education, Music, and Art 

Baltimore County offered the most extensive opportunities 
for physical education through the employment of trained leaders 
on the staff of the Playground Athletic League. Approximately 
98 per cent of the boys and 95 per cent of the girls in this county 
were enrolled in physical education classes. It was a regular part 
of the curriculum in 14 other counties, although fewer than 20 per 
cent of the pupils in five of these counties were reported in these 
classes. (See Table 61 and Table XXVI, pages 326 to 331.) 

Music was taught in the high schools of all counties, except 
Cecil, Queen Anne's and Somerset. In one county of the 20 
offering music, 87 per cent of the boys and 93 per cent of the girls 
had instruction in music in 1938, while at the other extreme was 
14 per cent for boys and 26 for girls. (See Table 61 and Table 
XXVI, pages 326 to 331.) 

Instrumental and choral music making possible participation 
in an orchestra, band or glee club was an elective in the music 
course in 59 white high schools of 17 counties. There were 36 
schools in 10 counties which had orchestras made up of 431 boys 
and 22 girls. In 55 schools in 17 counties the glee clubs attracted 
893 boys and 2,028 girls. (See Table 65.) 

Courses in art were offered in 11 counties in 1937-38 and in 
these counties were taken by from 2 to 35 per cent of the boys 
and by from 3 to 53 per cent of the girls. (See Table 61 and Table 
XXVI, pages 326 to 331.) 

HIGH SCHOOL FAILURES AND WITHDRAWALS BY SUBJECT 

Failures in One or More Subjects 

Of the total number of high school boys, 1,300 freshmen who 
represented 23.6 per cent of the freshmen enrolled, 958 sopho- 
mores or 23.5 per cent of the sophomore enrollment, 759 junior 
boys, 22.7 per cent of juniors enrolled, and 176 seniors, comprising 
6.8 per cent of the senior boys, failed from one to four major sub- 
jects in 1938. Although the total number of boys failing de- 
creased for each succeeding year of high school, the percentage 
failing was almost constant for the first three years of high school, 
but dropped considerably in the senior year. In every case fail- 



Offerings in Special Subjects; Withdrawals and Failures 103 



ures in one subject affect the largest and failures in four subjects 
the smallest number of pupils. The percentage of boys failing 
one subject was 10.1 per cent for freshmen, 12.2 for sophomores, 
rose to 12.7 for juniors, and declined to 5.3 per cent for seniors. 
The per cent of boys failing two subjects was 5.8 for freshmen,, 
decreased to 5.2 for sophomores and juniors, and dropped to .8 
per cent for seniors. For boys failing three subjects, the highest 
per cent was 3.9 for freshmen and the lowest .4 per cent for 
seniors. The percentage of boys failing in four subjects decreased 
from a maximum of 3.8 per cent for freshmen to a minimum of .3 
for seniors. (See Table 66.) 

Of the high school enrollment for girls there were 663 freshmen 
who comprised 12.1 per cent of the first year girls, 565 sophomores, 
representing 12.3 per cent of the second year girls, 578 juniors, 
or 14.1 per cent of the third year girls, and 109 seniors, 3.2 per 
cent of the fourth year girls who failed from one to four major 
subjects during 1937-38. Although the total number of girls 
failing fluctuated in the four years of high school, the percentage 
of girls failing increased each succeeding year from the first to 
the third, but showed a sharp decline in the fourth year. The per 
cent of girls failing one subject was 6.7 in the freshmen year, in- 
creased to 8.7 in the junior year, and declined to 2.7 in the senior 
year. For girls failing two subjects, the per cent for the fresh- 
men, 2.2 rose to 3.4 for the juniors and dropped to .4 per cent for 
seniors. The per cent of girls failing three subjects was 1.7 per 
cent for freshmen and decreased in each succeeding year until 
there were none at all in the fourth year. For girls failing four 
subjects the maximum per cent was 1.5 for freshmen and the 
minimum .1 per cent for seniors. (See Table 67.) 

There were more boys than girls failing from one to four sub- 
jects in every grade of the high school course. Apparently some 
of those pupils who fail in the freshman year continue in high 
school to become failures in the succeeding years, until the com- 
plexity of the work and the requirements for graduation force 
them to withdraw in the fourth year. Only the number not the 
percentage of pupils failing from one to four subjects in each 
county has been given. It would be desirable for each county to 
compute its percentages and for each high school principal to 
compute and make a study of the percentages for his particular 
school. (See Tables 66 and 67.) 

Withdrawals and Non-Promotions by Each Subject 

The number and per cent of withdrawals and non-promotions 
in every subject in the white county high schools were lower for 
both boys and girls in 1938 than for the preceding vear. (See 
Table 68.) 



104 



1938 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



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1938 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



TABLE 68 

Number and Per Cent of Withdrawals and Failures in Maryland County 
White High Schools by Subject, for Year Ending June 30, 1938 





Number 


Per Cent 




Total 


Boys 


Girls 


Total 


Boys 


Girls 




c 

S 
a 


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a 


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2,344 
1,571 
2,144 
1,724 
151 


2,043 
1,971 


1,359 
975 


1,542 
1,291 
1,284 
992 


985 


501 


7 


6 


8 


9 


5 


3 




596 


680 


7 


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11 


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1,991 
1,549 
417 


1,226 
1,046 
59 


918 


707 


7 


6 


8 


9 


6 


4 


Science 


678 


557 


7 


6 


8 


8 


5 


4 


Latin 


250 


92 


167 


3 


8 


3 


11 


3 


5 




118 


175 


55 


112 


63 


63 


3 


4 


3 


7 


2 


2 




1,130 
215 


1,163 
72 


476 


543 


654 


620 


6 


6 


7 


9 


5 


5 


Agriculture 


215 


72 


11 


4 


11 


4 





















The combined percentage for white high school boys and girls 
withdrawn and not promoted was highest for mathematics and 
lowest for French. 



Per Cent Withdrawn and 
Not Promoted Combined 



Subject 


Boys 


Girls 




19 


11 


Social Studies 


17 


10 




17 


8 


Commercial Subjects 


16 


10 




16 


9 




15 






14 


8 




10 


4 



In every subject the percentage of withdrawals and failures 
was higher for boys than for girls. The order from highest to 
lowest in the per cent who withdrew and failed was the same for 
boys and girls in the various subjects, except that English, com- 
mercial subjects, and science ranked third, fourth, and fifth for 
boys, and ranked fifth, third, and fourth for girls. (See Table 68.) 

Withdrawals and Failures in Individual Counties 

The range in the combined per cent of withdrawals and non- 
promotions by subject for the individual counties is shown next: 



Withdrawals and Failures by High School Subject 



107 



Voca- 
tional 
Agricul- 
ture 


Boys 


1 „• I CMO mxmcMCN© • CM © CM H • ■ C- -CO -CM 'Tf 


& 


mo hii montt'Tf cs oo t- • x © rH h o> • o> »h oo 

rHCM HH IOHH rH • rH rH . — , rH rH • CMrH 

tM CM 


Commercial 
Subjects 


Girls 


N.P. 


O rH in W iflfl)!C -XX ••»}<© r)< rH CM m • LO in • • X •^f C5 m 
CM© • ... 
CO CD 




x m c— in -ri< m • ># k x ?: w x m ■ © m • ■Mtotcio 

in CO -iH rH • • • H 


Boys 


N.P. 


O© ««C1 • m © th X © X t)< t- O CM t> X • -XCMXTfCO 

lO CO 


& 


com c- cm cooiio • oo © t- oo ©CM © ^£ -—it- • ■ cm t> co co o 

l>X iH • CM tH -r-l • -tH tH 
rfOO 


French 


Girls 


N.P. 


X CM CM X rH ^ X • »— i CM • © CM CM CM — 'CO • CM CM X • X ■ t— 

cooo • • • .... 


& 


CO t— CM CO rH CD CM -CO — 01— < «t-»C0tH • X CM rH CO • • ■HHLd 

©oo ... 


Boys 


N.P. 


CM CM C-O 0C0C» ■BLCt-t-KaBt" • 03 10 LO 00 -t-COCOC-CO 
iHCO iH CM • • iH 




m x eot> co co co • x m • • • cm x lo cm • © cm cm • c- co cm cm x 

m-H • ... tH • 


Latin 


Girls 


N.P. 


[ - 3" l.O CO X — i.O X Ol 01 — CO • 1-0 • • CO CM LO ■ — « CO CO I- o 
COOS —1 rH -tH rH 




Ol O COCO i-i — < CO (.- ■ — < • CM -0 1 -CO CO CO Ol • • • rH CM Ti< 
©rH • ■ ■ ... 


Boys 


N.P. 


oco Hin ox^oscocoo -CMCNmci[-t-cDxinxrHco-H<cox 

in_l HrH CM — ( — I CM CM 'HH rH rH CO— I tH 
CM CO 




05in COirt Ol CO CO CO CO ■ • -CMCO •— I • • Tf CM -CO -COi-HCOCD 

m i-i ih • • • ... . . 


Science 


Girls 


N.P. 


t-rH T*m lOTft-OrtCC^HCOiOCNint-COHMCO -OCMCM^X 
lO X iH 
in lO 




x oa m c- io t~ t- co t~ CO co — co lo — co i.o i.o co co co us co 10 co -r 

fc- LO 

CO X 


Boys 


.1 cm h oc jr. cot-cia^t-Nt-toxNt-Mioo^oioictocc;; cm 
p, | gg 




COIC X Ol t>C750—iCOOC75C-int-L-C75-^LOCO^HCOr-HX01iOOO 

TfO tH rH T-l TH rHrHrH HH 


Social Studies 


Girls 


N.P. 


t-t- -tfin X CO CO C5 CM m in CM CO m rH tJ» in i-H rH in © © -cP CM X 

o m rH 




XX CD t- CO t~ L- CO T f LO 00 CO I- X t- — < LO i.O X CO t- CO © © 

rH X 
© © 


Boys 


N.P. 


•rj-co x x co co o i oi c ~* © cm © co in x r- cm lo © o 

CM OJ 




CDCM X-h WXC10t-OCXC5iOC10Ct-I!N[-ONIBHat"»H 

CMX H rH rH rH rH 

CM CO 



O HO © t> 

X CM 
CO X 



CCCDT. ONi.Ot>iffLOr<cOCOXNNI>CDrfCft!rirfrft- 



CO CM © t- 
OS X 
ICO t> 



THO©LOt>'rJ< T }<cO-r«t-COrHCOrJ<LO-rJ<CMC^COXLOC~X 



©CO>COOt>cr;XHXO:LO — XCMiOOJCOXXCOt-rHCM 



ICO X X rH 
C- t~ rH 

C5 CM 



co c- cr. oi co cr. x co co t- co x -h x co rH co en x r-. c~ o o 



rH CO XX 

o io 
in in 



XCMXlOrHQMLOXCM-'tfrHCOT}' .H«H • Tf fl LO ' 



lOiOCOLOiOrfiCfjrfCOCPCOt'COHiiOKCDiOCOCOiOLO 



05©'*t[-©©t-XC-©'~i[-l.O©Tt<-HO©X©©< 



CS CD X • 

wx i 

X X 



t>xo5xxo:xcot-xt>x — cM©©mt>-rj«rHt>co- 



— 

I : :< : 

" x t- feoo t- 

>a co x -xx 

8 coc o; 9 oc- 09 

Eh rj 



•eg a cu £ M 



£■ cc » 
S o c 
S » 8- • 
Br5il 





So j$ 



$c~>Z£-ZZZr,£^ r=c = c^^ c£j § 5 
«c5U'om;yCfcCBKr<§fc3fM!XtHri^P ! 



¥ S-or O S 

o 



108 



1938 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



Per Cent of Withdrawals and Non-Promotions Combined, 1937-38 



Boys Girls 

Lowest Highest Lowest Highest 

Subject County County County County 

English 8 25 3 11 

Mathematics 11 31 6 15 

Social Studies 7 26 4 25 

Science 7 23 4 16 

Latin 42 28 

French 27 13 

Commercial Subjects 10 33 22 

Agriculture 4 53 



In a few counties the percentage of withdrawals and non-pro- 
motions was greater for girls than for boys. This was the case in 
one county in science, in four counties in Latin, and in commercial 
subjects in one county. (See Table 69.) 

RESULTS OF IOWA SILENT READING TESTS 

The Iowa Silent Reading Test Advanced Form B was given in 
November, 1937, to 9,827 first and 8,328 second year pupils in the 
high schools of the 23 counties. Since Form A had been given 
to 9,295 first and 7,110 second year white county high school 
pupils in April, 1935, a comparison of the results in total scores 
in Tests 1 to 5, inclusive, has been made. (See Table 70.) 

TABLE 70 



Results of Parts 1-5 of Iowa Silent Reading Test Given to First and Second 
Year White High School Pupils November, 1937 and April, 1935 



Score 


Grade 
Equivalent 


No. Making 
Each Score 
Nov. 1937 


Per Cent Making Each Score 


Cumulative Per Cent 


Year I 


Year II 


Year I 


Year II 


I 


II 


Nov. 
1937 


April 
1935 


Nov. 
1937 


April 
1935 


Nov. 
1937 


April 
1935 


Nov. 
1937 


April 
1935 


200-209. . . 






6 






.1 








100.0 




190-199.. . 




*3 


14 




!i 


.2 


A 




99^9 


99.9 


ioo!6 


180-189. . . 




7 


33 


!i 


.3 


.4 


.8 


100 '. 6 


99.8 


99.7 


99.6 


170-179. . . 




26 


80 


.3 


.5 


1.0 


1.6 


99.9 


99.5 


99.3 


98.8 


160-169. . . 




51 


158 


.5 


1.2 


1.9 


2.2 


99.6 


99.0 


98.3 


97.2 


150-159. . . 




100 


194 


1.0 


2.1 


2.3 


4.0 


99.1 


97.8 


96.4 


95.0 


140-149. . . 


13.8 


180 


291 


1.8 


3.1 


3.5 


5.4 


98.1 


95.7 


94.1 


91.0 


130-139... 


13.2-13.7 


246 


480 


2.5 


4.6 


5.8 


7.5 


96.3 


92.6 


90.6 


85.6 


120-129. . . 


12.7-13.2 


368 


565 


3.7 


6.0 


6.8 


9.2 


93.8 


88.0 


84.8 


78.1 


110-119. . . 


12.0-12.6 


578 


840 


5.9 


7.6 


10.1 


11.3 


90.1 


82.0 


78.0 


68.9 


100-109. . . 


11.4-11.9 


783 


911 


8.0 


9.4 


10.9 


12.3 


84.2 


74.4 


67.9 


57.6 


90- 99. . . 


10.7-11.3 


1,040 


1,066 


10.6 


11.0 


12.8 


12.1 


76.2 


65.0 


57.0 


45.3 


80- 89. . . 


9.9-10.6 


1,267 


1,080 


12.9 


12.2 


13.0 


10.4 


65.6 


54.0 


44.2 


33.2 


70- 79. . . 


9.1- 9.8 


1,383 


937 


14.1 


11.5 


11.2 


8.5 


52.7 


41.8 


31.2 


22.8 


60- 69... 


8.2- 9.0 


1,319 


717 


13.4 


11.0 


8.6 


6.5 


38.6 


30.3 


20.0 


14.3 


50- 59. . . 


8.1 


1,166 


531 


11.9 


8.8 


6.4 


4.2 


25.2 


19.3 


11.4 


7.8 


40- 49. . . 




769 


268 


7.8 


5.9 


3.2 


2.2 


13.3 


10.5 


5.0 


3.6 


30- 39. . . 




364 


96 


3.7 


3.1 


1.1 


.9 


5.5 


4.6 


1.8 


1.4 


20- 29. . . 




131 


43 


1.3 


1.2 


.5 


.4 


1.8 


1.5 


.7 


.5 


Under 20 . . 




46 


18 


.5 


.3 


.2 


.1 


.5 


.3 


.2 


.1 


Total 




9,827 


8,328 


















Median . . . 




78.1 


94.4 



















Failures and Withdrawals; Results of Reading Tests 10 ( J 

The per cent of Maryland white county pupils who had scores 
below 58, (the lowest grade equivalent published by the authors 
of the test) was for first year pupils 22.8 in November, 1937, and 
17.5 per cent in April, 1935, and for second year pupils 10.2 per 
cent in November, 1937, and 7 per cent in April, 1935. This in- 
dicates that over a fifth of the county white high school first year 
pupils in November, 1937, and over a sixth in April, 1935, were 
below T the standard considered median by the authors of the test 
for pupils beginning eighth grade work, while for second year 
pupils a tenth in November, 1937, and 7 per cent in April, 1935, 
had reading ability considered average for pupils beginning the 
work of the eighth grade. (See Table 70.) 

The median for first year pupils in November, 1937, (78.1) was 
represented by a grade equivalent of 9.8. In 20 counties the first 
year high school pupils were in their eighth school year since the 
elementary school course had seven grades, while in three counties 
the pupils being in schools with the 8-4 or 6-3-3 plan of organiza- 
tion were in their ninth year. November standard grade equiva- 
lents for these groups w T ould have been 8.2 and 9.2, respectively. 
The median attained was therefore well above average for both 
groups. In April, 1935, the median, 86.7, was represented by a 
grade equivalent of 10.5 for first year pupils. April standards 
for pupils with the 7-4 or 6-5 plan would have been 8.8, and for 
those with the 8-4 or 6-3-3 plan of organization 9.8. Again the 
standard achieved was well above average. (See Table 70.) 

For second year pupils the median score of 94.4 in November, 
1937, corresponded w r ith the median expected of pupils starting 
the eleventh grade. Most of these pupils had had 9.2 or 10.2 years 
of school work in November, 1937, so that their achievement was 
well above average. In April, 1935, the median score of 103.9 
corresponded with a grade level of 11.6. (See Table 70.) 

It, therefore, appears that Maryland county white first year 
high school pupils in November, 1937, had had the type of training 
in elementary school which enabled all except 23 per cent to 
reach a level of ability considered median for pupils beginning 
eighth grade work. For April, 1935, the corresponding percentage, 
probably due to the withdrawal between November and April of 
the less able pupils, had declined to 17.5 per cent. The further 
withdrawal of pupils brought the percentage for second year 
pupils in November, 1937, to 10.2 and in April, 1935, to 7 per cent. 
(See Table 70.) 

The attention drawn to the needs of the pupils with reading 
difficulties which affect the ability to do work in all of the high 
school subjects brought high school principals and teachers to 
inauguration of various plans for instruction in remedial English. 
These were discussed at the high school principals' conferences 
held in the spring of 1937. 



110 



1938 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



In addition to the State-wide testing program for white high 
school pupils, it was found from the comprehensive reports of 
principals to the three State high school supervisors, that a num- 
ber of standard tests were given with careful follow-up of the 
results. The tests used in various schools are classified below 
according to type: 

Intelligence Tests 

Dearborn Group Test of Intelligence — Grantsville (I) 

Henmon Nelson Test of Mental Ability— Highland (I), Slate Ridge (I) 

Miller Mental Ability Test— Bowie 

Otis Classification Test — Preston (I-II) 

Otis Self -Administering Test of Mental Ability — New Windsor (I), 
North East (III), Elkton, Elkridge, Takoma-Silver Spring, Upper 
Marlboro, Surrattsville, Maryland Park, Trappe (I-IV) 

Terman Group Intelligence Test — Annapolis (IV), Glen Burnie (IV), 
Emmitsburg, Taneytown, Stevensville (I-IV), Easton (I), Del- 
mar ( I ) 

Battery of Tests 

Myers-Ruch High School Progress Test — Laurel (IV) 
Otis and Orleans Standard Graduation Examination — New Windsor (I) 
Progressive Achievement Test Advanced — Gaithersburg (II) 
Sones Harry Test — Annapolis, Glen Burnie, Westminster, Sykesville, 
Manchester, Highland, Slate Ridge, Jarrettsville, Baden 

Reading 

Experiments and Tests in Reading, McCall, Cook, and Others — Union 
Bridge 

Iowa Silent Reading Test — Follow-up after the State-wide test — Mt. 

Airy, Charles Carroll, Rising Sun, Elkridge, Ellicott City, Lisbon, 

Clarksville, Rockville, Baden 
New Stanford Reading Test — Easton (English failures) 
Reading Test for Grade 7 and First Year High School prepared by Miss 

Wiedefeld — Glen Burnie 
Sangren-Woody Reading Test — Highland (I) 

Shank's Test of Reading Comprehension — Midland (7-9), Trappe 
Thorndike McCall Reading Scale — Brandywine 
Traxler Silent Reading— Sparks (III) 

English 

Logasa-Wright Tests for Appreciation of Literature — Sherwood (III-IV) 
Pressey Grammar Test — Sherwood (III-IV) 

Standard High School Spelling Scale, Simmons and Bixler — Glen Burnie 
(I-IV) 

Mathematics 

Columbia Research Bureau Tests in Algebra and Geometry — Oldtown 
Knight's Standard Service Tests in Algebra and Geometry — Surrattsville 
Orleans Algebra and Geometry Prognosis Tests — Sparks 
Progressive Achievement Test in Mathematics, Advanced — Takoma- 
Silver Spring 



Testing in Individual High Schools; The Teaching Staff 



111 



Social Studies 

National Current Events Test— Annapolis (III-IV), Glen Burnie (III-IV) 
Stephenson and Millet's Test on Social Usage — Hagerstown 
Strang, Knowledge of Social Usage — Woodland Way- 
Wesley Test in Social Terms — Surrattsville 

Science 

Columbia Research Bureau Test in Physics — Oldtown 
Ruch Popenoe Test in General Science — Laurel (I) 

Latin 

Hutchinson Latin Grammar Scale — Glen Burnie 
Orleans-Solomon Latin Prognosis Test — Sparks, Dundalk 
Pressey Test in Latin Syntax — Glen Burnie 

French 

American Council Beta Test in French — Glen Burnie, Linthicum Heights, 

Brooklyn Park 
Columbia Research Bureau French Test — Glen Burnie 
Luria Orleans Modern Language Prognosis Test — North East (I-II) 

Stenography 

Holt's Prognostic Test of Stenographic Ability — Maryland Park 

THE HIGH SCHOOL TEACHING STAFF 

In 1937-38 in the last four years in the county high schools, a 
white teaching staff, equivalent to the full-time service of 1,362 
teachers, was employed, 77 more than for the preceding year. 
Every subject had a larger white teaching staff on a full-time 
basis than in 1937, with the exception of time given to adminis- 
tration and supervision. (See Table 71.) 

English, with 232 teachers on a full-time basis, employed the 
services of more teachers than any other subject. The number 
of teachers of social studies on a full-time basis was 200, while 
science required 165 and mathematics 164 teachers. French, 
Spanish, and German had approximately 50 teachers and Latin 
required 42 teachers on a full-time basis. (See Table 71.) 

From 1937 to 1938 there was an increase of 10 teachers in 
English, of 8 in mathematics, of 7 in the social studies, and of 2 in 
science. (See Table 71.) 

Thirty-six high schools reported having librarians or teacher- 
librarians which on a full-time basis required the equivalent of 
24 individuals, 7 more than for the preceding year. (See Table 71.) 

The full-time equivalent of 119 teachers was required for in- 
struction in the commercial subjects. Home economics with 95 
white teachers on a full-time basis actually required the services 
of 124 different teachers instructing in 123 schools. Time de- 



112 



1938 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



voted by these teachers to related science was classified with 
science. Some teachers also taught in grades 7 (8) and this time 
was not included in Table 71. Industrial arts and trades and in- 
dustries with a full-time staff of 70 teachers included 93 individ- 
uals who taught in 90 schools. For the last four years of high 
school work there was an increase of 5 commercial, 13 home eco- 
nomics, and 9 industrial arts and trade teachers on a full-time 
basis from 1937 to 1938. (See Table 71.) 

TABLE 71 



Number of Teachers Distributed by High School Subjects in County White 
High Schools, Year Ending June 30, 1938 



Subjects 


Number of Teachers 
on Full-Time Basis 
Distributed by Time 
Devoted to Different 
Subjects 


Number 
of High 
Schools 


Number of Cases Where 
Special Teachers Instruct 
in More Than One School 
Each Week or Term 


Approximate 
Number of 
Different 
Teachers of 
Special 
Subjects 


1937 


1938 


Teachers 


Schools 


English 


222.4 


232.4 


150 








Social Studies 


193.3 


200.3 


150 








Science 


163.0 


164.7 


150 








Mathematics 


156.3 


164.2 


150 








French, Spanish, 
















49.0 


50.4 


115 










41.9 


42.4 


.84 










17.4 


24.3 


36 








Commercial 


113.9 


119.0 


69 








Home Economics 


81.9 


94.7 


123 


"is 


' 38 


124 


Industrial Arts 


61.3 


70.0 


90 


15 


33 


93 




43.7 


44.5 


114 


22 


73 


65 


Physical Education . . . 


33.4 


36.4 


44 


1 


2 


44 




28.6 


33.1 


52 


8 


16 


45 


Art 


2.7 


11.0 


26 


2 


9 


20 


Administration and 














Supervision 


76.5 


74.4 












1,285.3 


1,361.8 











Baltimore City had 64 white commercial teachers in senior, 47 
in junior high, and 7 in vocational schools. 

Music with the equivalent of nearly 45 teachers on a full-time 
basis was taught in 114 county white high schools by 65 different 
teachers. This means that many of them also taught subjects 
other than music. There was little change from 1937 to 1938 in 
the number of music teachers on a full-time basis. (See Table 71.) 

Physical education taught by 44 individuals in 44 different 
schools included the equivalent of 36.4 teachers on a full-time 
basis. This does not include time given to girls' and boys' ath- 
letics by teachers who had a full teaching assignment of other 
subjects. There was an increase of 3 teachers over the preceding 
year in the number of physical education teachers on a full-time 
basis. (See Table 71.) 



The White County High School Teaching and Clerical Staff 113 

There were 33 white teachers of agriculture on a full-time 
basis, since time given to teaching related science was allocated 
to science. Actually there were 45 teachers of agriculture who 
gave instruction in 52 schools. There were 4.5 more white teach- 
ers of agriculture on a full-time basis than were in service the 
preceding year. (See Table 71.) 

Art with the equivalent of 11 teachers on a full-time basis was 
taught by 20 different teachers in 26 county white high schools. 
There was an increase of 8.3 art teachers over the number em- 
ployed in 1937. (See Table 71.) 

Administration and supervision required the equivalent on a 
full-time basis of over 74 principals and vice-principals, 2 less 
than during the preceding year. Fifteen principals in large county 
high schools in eight counties did no teaching but devoted all 
their time to administration and supervision. (See Table 71.) 

Six counties employed clerks in 23 large schools at an annual 
salary cost of $18,288. The average clerk's salary of $809 is 
much lower than that of a teacher, and the principal is relieved 
of many clerical and routine duties making it possible for him to 
devote his time to constructive professional supervision. (See 
Table 72.) 

TABLE 72 



Number of Clerks in County Schools, 1937-38 





Number 




Average 


County 


of 


Total 


Annual 




Clerks 


Salaries 


Salary 




23 


$18,288 


$809 


Montgomery 


7 


8,205 


1,243 




7 


4,375 


625 




5 


2,969 


594 




2 


1,741 


870 




1 


580 


580 




1 


418 


418 



GROWTH OF STAFF IN COUNTY JUNIOR, JUNIOR-SENIOR, AND 
SENIOR HIGH SCHOOLS 

Until the fall of 1926, the counties operated their school sys- 
tems on the 7-4 or 8-4 plan, i. e., with seven or eight elementary 
grades and four years of high school. In the fall of 1926, Alle- 
gany, which had had the 8-4 plan, started the 6-3-3 plan in its 
city schools, i. e., six elementary grades, three junior high and 
three senior high school years. All 12 grades were in some cases 
in the same building, but in other cases the elementary and junior 
high school grades were together, or the junior and senior high 



114 1938 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 

school years were in the same building. Allegany still continues 
to have two of its rural high schools on the 8-4 plan. Montgomery 
started experimenting with the 6-3-3 plan in the fall of 1927 and 
now has its entire system on this basis. Prince George's with 
the 7-4 plan throughout the county has had the 6-5 plan in one or 
two schools for eight years. Washington County has had the 
6-3-3 plan in Hagerstown schools for seven years with the 8-4 
plan in the rest of the county. Frederick has had the 6-5 plan in 
Brunswick for seven years with the 7-4 plan in the rest of the 
county. Baltimore County has had the 6-5 plan in most of the 
county for five years. Caroline County reorganized the Federals- 
burg School on the 6-5 plan in 1937-38 after having tried and dis- 
continued the plan at Denton several years previously. 

The Baltimore City school system is organized on the 6-3-3 plan. 

The number of teachers employed in junior, junior-senior, and 
senior high schools grew from 154 in one county in October, 1926, 
to 723 in ten counties in October, 1937. Montgomery had the 
largest number, 210 teachers in junior, junior-senior, and senior 
high schools, Allegany was second with 190, and Baltimore Coun- 
ty third with 164. (See Table 73.) 

TABLE 73 



Teachers in County White Junior, Junior-Senior, and Senior High Schools 







Alle- 


Mont- 


Prince 


Wash- 


Fred- 


Caro- 


Balti- 


Dor- 


Anne 


Car- 


Oct. 


Total 


gany 


gomery 


George's 


ington 


erick 


line 


more 


chester 


Arundel 


roll 


1926. . 


154 


154 




















1927. . 


182 


161 


21 


















1928. . 


202 


165 


37 


















1929. . 


207 


165 


42 


















1930. . 


245 


166 


51 


28 
















1931. . 


398 


174 


96 


33 


80 


15 












1932. . 


424 


178 


101 


33 


79 


15 


i3 


*5 








1933. . 


575 


180 


109 


23 


79 


15 


13 


148 








1934. . 


576 


177 


123 


25 


79 


17 




155 








1935. . 


625 


183 


155 


26 


79 


17 




159 




*6 




1936. . 


669 


185 


179 


36 


81 


17 




160 




6 


5 


1937. . 


723 


190 


210 


41 


80 


18 


9 


164 




6 


5 



Baltimore City had 1,132 white and 201 colored principals and 
teachers in junior and senior high schools in 1937-38. 

RESIGNATIONS FROM COUNTY HIGH SCHOOLS 

Between October, 1936, and October, 1937, there were 131 res- 
ignations from the regular four-year and junior and junior-senior 
high schools in the counties, as compared with 115 for the pre- 
ceding year. This was a larger number than for any year since 
1931-32. The largest number of resignations from the county 
high schools, 193, occurred between October, 1928, and October, 
1929. (See Table 74.) 



Junior-Senior High Schools; High School Resignations and 115 

Turnover 

Marriage continued to be the chief cause of resignations, 44 
having left all types of high school for this purpose. This is 
exactly the same number that left because of marriage between 
October, 1927, and October, 1928. There were 26 who left the 
county high schools to take teaching positions in Baltimore City, 
other states, or in private schools, while 23 entered work other 
than teaching. There were 10 dropped for inefficiency, and 9 
withdrew because of illness or retirement. Five secured admin- 
istrative or supervisory positions, or were appointed to the staff's 
of the State Teachers Colleges. In addition to the resignations 
23 took positions in counties other than the one in which they 
had been teaching, and 16 teachers were on leave of absence. (See 
Table 74.) 

TABLE 74 



Causes of Resignation Reported for Teachers Who W ithdrew from the Mary- 
land County Svhite Regular, Junior, Junior-Senior and Senior High Schools 
Between October of One Year and October of the Following Year 



October 

to 
October 


Married 


Teaching in Baltimore 
City, Another State 
or in Private Schools 


Work Other Than 
Teaching 


Inefficiency 


c 

0) 

B 

O) 


Administrative, Super- 
visory or State Teachers 
College Positions in 
the State 


Provisional Certificate 
or Failure to Attend 
Summer School 


Death 


Illness 


Moved Away 


Abolished Positions 


Rejected by 
Medical hoard 


Other and Unknown 


Total 


Transfer to 
Another County 


Leave of Absence 


Transfer to Other 
Type of School in 
the Same County 


1927-1928. 


44 


43 


22 


23 


2 


5 


2 


2 


5 


3 






14 


165 


38 


8 


10 


1928-1929. 


49 


64 


23 


21 


5 


11 


7 




4 


3 






6 


193 


52 


18 


11 


1929-1930. 


48 


53 


19 


21 


6 


2 


6 


3 


4 


4 






16 


182 


37 


11 


26 


1930-1931. 


43 


39 


18 


39 


4 


2 


12 


3 


6 


1 






10 


177 


28 


4 


72 


1931-1932. 


29 


6 


8 


28 


5 


2 


18 


3 


3 


2 


9 


'2 


18 


133 


16 


7 


32 


1932-1933. 


24 


4 


11 


8 


4 


2 


6 


2 


3 


5 


13 


6 


10 


98 


8 


6 


128 


1933-1934. 


43 


17 


20 


7 


8 


6 


3 


3 


7 


3 


2 




7 


126 


13 


4 


31 


1934-1935. 


29 


19 


26 


2 


4 


3 


2 


3 


6 


2 


1 


2 


12 


111 


19 


22 


1 


1935-1936. 


30 


21 


22 


13 


3 


3 


3 


3 


8 


4 


1 


1 


3 


115 


12 


15 


3 


1936-1937. 


44 


25 


23 


10 


7 


5 


3 


3 


2 


1 






8 


131 


23 


16 


2 



TURNOVER IN SECONDARY SCHOOLS 

The number and per cent of teachers new to the county white 
regular, junior and senior high schools, 241 or 15 per cent in 1938, 
were larger than for any year since 1933. There were 88 addi- 
tional high school positions in 1938 as compared with 50 addi- 
tional the preceding year. The continued increases in high school 
enrollment, especially in those counties growing in population, 
have necessitated appointing additional teachers to the staffs as 
well as the desire on the part of more schools for teachers of 
vocational work, of art, and of physical education and for li- 
brarians or teacher-librarians. (See Table 75.) 



116 1938 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



TABLE 75 

Number and Per Cent of White Regular, Senior High, Junior High, and Jun- 
ior-Senior High School Teachers New to the Schools of Each Individual 
County During the School Year, 1937-38, with Comparisons for 
Preceding Years 



Year 

AND 

County 


New to 
County 


V\ o n cf a in 
V^Ildllgt; ILL 

N^umber of 
Te&cliin^ 
Positions 
October 

of One Year 
to 

October 

s\ f Ti^ol 1 nwi n c 

KJL JL UI1U WIII5 

Year 


Number New to County Who Were 


Num- 
ber 


Per 
Cent 


Inex- 
peri- 
enced 


But 
New 

to 
State 


From 
An- 
other 
County 


Experience 

In Counties 
but not 

in 
Service 
Preceding 
Year 


d 

From 
Ele- 
mentary 
Schools 
in Same 
County 


Substi- 
tutes 
and 

Others 


X KJ Lai d 1 1 vl 




















A ver2ij2je * 




















1 Q^O— ^1 


°348 


25.0 


+ 107 


205 


32 


39 


71 


10 


30 


1931—32 


°247 


18.3 


4-94 


172 


19 


27 


50 


2 


4 


1 Q^9_Q^ 


°134 


10.2 


25 


81 


21 


16 


23 


1 


8 


1 


°108 


7.9 


+ 14 


70 


17 


9 


14 


1 


6 


1 QQ4-^^ 


°172 


12.2 


+ 36 


122 


17 


16 


28 


3 


2 


1 Q^^— Ifi 


°205 


14.0 


+ 60 


149 


17 


16 


20 


8 


11 




°199 


13.3 


+ 50 


123 


36 


13 


26 


8 


6 


1 Q^7— 


°241 


15.0 


+ 88 


129 


66 


25 


21 


10 


15 




1 


3.0 




1 














1 


3.3 




1 














3 


5.8 


_l_ 1 




3 










Wricn i n err on 


9 


7.6 


+ 4 


5 


1 


'2 






i 


Queen Anne s. . . 


2 


8.0 


4-2 


2 












Harford 


6 


9.7 




4 












Carroll 


9 


11.0 


'+2 


2 


'4 


'2 






i 


Allegany 


23 


11.4 


\ o 


9 


7 








4 


Kent 


3 


12.5 




2 




i 








Baltimore 


22 


13.3 


+3 


10 


3 


7 






'1 


Frederick 


14 


15.9 


+ 3 


8 


2 


2 










7 


16.7 


+ 2 


6 












Howard 


5 


17.8 


+ 2 


4 












Cecil 


9 


18.0 


+ 2 


8 








i 




Calvert 


2 


18.2 




2 












Anne Arundel. . . 


16 


19.5 


'+6 


4 


6 


2 




'2 






9 


20.9 




6 


2 






1 




Caroline 


9 


22.0 


'+4 


4 


1 


i 




2 


i 


Charles 


7 


25.0 


+ 2 


6 










1 


Worcester 


10 


25.0 


+ 3 


6 


2 


i 








Montgomery 


55 


25.9 


+ 30 


20 


22 


3 




'2 


'i 


Prince George's. 


37 


27.6 


4-15 


13 


13 


4 






5 


St. Mary's 


7 


43.8 


+ 4 


6 












Baltimore City*/ 


11 


2.3 


+ 17 


9 








1 




45 


7.1 


—2 


33 


6 




4 


1 


i 


Entire State 


°297 


10.9 


+ 103 


171 


72 


25 


26 


12 


16 



Excludes teachers who transferred from one county to another. 

* In Baltimore City the top row includes senior and the bottom row junior high school 
teachers. 



Of the 241 teachers new to the county white high schools in 
1937-38, there were 129 inexperienced teachers, 66 with experi- 
ence outside the counties, 21 who formerly had experience in the 
counties but were not teaching in 1936-37, 10 from elementary 
schools, and 15 substitutes. There were also 25 high school 
teachers who transferred from one county to another. (See 
Table 75.) 



Turnover in Maryland White High Schools 



117 



Among the counties the number of new appointments ranged 
from 1 to 55 and the per cent of turnover ran from 3 to approxi- 
mately 44 per cent. (See Table 75.) 

The turnover in Baltimore City of 45 in junior and 11 in senior 
high schools for white pupils in 1938 was smaller than for the 
preceding year, but larger than for any year since 1932. There 
were 42 inexperienced teachers appointed to the junior and senior 
high schools in 1938. (See Tables 75 and 76.) 

TABLE 76 

Turnover of White Junior and Senior High School Teachers in Baltimore City 





Total 
Number 
New to 
Baltimore 
City White 
Junior and 
Senior High 
Schools* 




Teachers New to Baltimore City Schools 




Change in 
Number 
of 

Teaching 
Positions 




Who Were Experienced 


Year 


Inex- 
per- 
ienced 


From 
Other 
States 


But Not 

in 
Service 
Preced- 
ing 
Year 


In 

County 
Preced- 
ing 
Year 


In Other 
Type of 

Baltimore 
City 
School 


Other 


1929- 30. . . . 

1930- 31. . . . 

1931- 32 

1932- 33 

1933- 34. . . . 

1934- 35. . . . 

1935- 36. . . . 

1936- 37. . . . 

1937- 38 


83 
108 
108 
39 
6 
32 
33 
62 
56 


+ 33 
+ 54 
+81 
—30 
+ 38 
+22 
+ 12 
+ 17 
+ 15 


51 
66 
71 
27 
4 
20 
21 
48 
42 


13 
20 
22 
4 

3 
7 
3 
6 


4 

2 

2 
4 
2 

5 
5 


11 
15 
11 
6 

*4 

3 
4 


34 
28 
32 
97 

i 

2 


4 
7 
2 
2 

i 

'2 
1 



* Excludes transfers from one type of school to another. 



Of the 129 inexperienced teachers appointed to the high school 
staffs in the counties during 1937-38, 84 graduated from colleges 
in Maryland, 8 from colleges in Delaware and Virginia, respec- 
tively, 6 each from schools in Pennsylvania and Washington, 
D. C, and 5 had attended schools in New York State. Of those 
graduating from Maryland colleges, 33 were from Western Mary- 
land College, 26 from the University of Maryland, 10 from Wash- 
ington College, and 6 from Goucher. (See Table 77.) 

Of 66 teachers appointed in the Maryland counties after having 
had experience in other states, 11 had received their training at 
schools in Maryland and Pennsylvania, respectively, and 7 each 
had attended schools in Virginia and Wisconsin. (See Table 77.) 



118 



1938 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



TABLE 77 

State of College Attended, and for Maryland, College Attended by Inexperi- 
enced White High School Teachers in Junior, Junior-Senior, Senior and Reg- 
ular High Schools; Also State of College Attended for Teachers with Teach- 
ing Experience in Other States, Who Were Employed in Maryland 
Counties, for School Year, 1937-38 



State of 
College 
Attended 



Inexperienced Teachers Employed for School Year, 1937-1938 



Total 


129 


9 


4 


10 


2 


4 


2 


8 


6 


6 


8 


6 


4 


4 


2 


20 


13 


2 


6 


1 


1 


5 




6 






84 
33 
26 
10 
6 
2 
2 
2 
1 
1 
1 
8 
8 
6 
6 
5 
2 
2 
2 
6 


6 

3 
3 


3 
2 


8 
1 


2 
2 


3 

2 
1 


1 


5 
1 

3 
1 


4 

3 


4 
2 


5 
1 

3 


2 
2 


3 
12 
1 


4 
2 
1 
1 


1 

i 


13 
7 
5 


7 
2 
1 
1 


2 

i 

1 


5 
4 
1 






3 
1 
1 




3 
1. 
1 
1 


Western Maryland 


University of Maryland. . 


i 


1 

3 
1 






1 




















Hood 










1 








































1 
1 






















1 












1 


































Maryland Institute 






1 








































1 
































































1 


















Delaware 






1 








2 
1 






















1 


1 






3 












2 


1 


1 
1 








1 


2 












1 




1 


1 






l 




1 












Washington, D. C 




2 




1 
1 


2 


1 
1 




























1 
















2 








1 
1 


















1 
















Ohio 


























1 
1 

2 






































1 
























6 Other States 


1 


1 
























2 
























































Teachers with Experience in Other States Employed for School Year, 1937-1938 


Total 


66 


7 


6 


3 




1 


4 






2 


2 










22 


13 










1 


3 


2 




















Maryland 


11 
11 

7 
7 
3 
3 
3 
3 
3 
2 
2 
2 
2 
7 


1 
2 










1 






1 


1 










3 
1 
2 
4 
2 


4 
4 
1 


















2 


1 




1 
























Virginia 


1 
1 




























2 


1 
1 




















1 


























































1 


Missouri 






1 

i 






1 






1 




































1 

2 
2 
2 


1 
1 
















Tennessee 






































Washington, D. C 


1 
























































































i 
l 
l 


i 
1 


























1 
















Ohio 






































































1 
















7 Other States 


2 


























3 










1 











































MARYLAND 1937 COLLEGE GRADUATES WHO MET CERTIFICATE 
REQUIREMENTS AND WHO RECEIVED COUNTY HIGH SCHOOL 

POSITIONS 

The Maryland colleges reported on their 1937 graduates from 
the counties and Baltimore City who were eligible to receive Mary- 
land high school certificates and who actually received county 



Colleges of Teachers New to Maryland High Schools; Men 119 

Teachers 

high school positions. Of 112 Maryland county 1937 graduates 
eligible, the colleges reported county high school positions in 
1937-38 for 71 or 63 per cent. 

The excess in placement of graduates of the University of 
Maryland, Washington College, Goucher, and Johns Hopkins Uni- 
versity in Table 77 over Table 78 is undoubtedly due to the inclu- 
sion in Table 77 of graduates of preceding years. 

TABLE 78 

Maryland Students Who Completed in June, 1937, at Colleges Indicated, the 
Education Courses Necessary for Certification Compared with the 
Number of Graduates Who Took Positions in the County 
High Schools in the Fall of 1937 





Number of Graduates 


College or University 


Who Met Requirements 


Who Received 


for Certification from 








Md. County 








High School 




Maryland 


Baltimore 


Positions 




Counties 


City 




Western Maryland 


a53 


b3 


a37 




c28 


d!6 


18 


Washington 


16 


1 


8 




4 


13 


5 


Hood 


4 




2 


Notre Dame 


3 


ii 


1 




1 






St. Joseph's 


3 


6 





a Includes 4 teachers in service, 
b Includes 1 teacher in service. 

c Includes 4 who completed work in summer session. 

d Includes 1 who completed work in summer session and 10 who were in service who 
completed requirements in industrial and commercial subjects. 



MEN EMPLOYED ON COUNTY HIGH SCHOOL TEACHING STAFFS 

In 1937-38 there were 522 men employed on the white teaching 
staffs giving instruction in the last four years of high school 
work. They represented 38.7 per cent of the total staff. This 
was an increase of 34 in number over the preceding year and a 
larger number than has been reported since 1922-23. In every 
county there were fewer men than women teaching in the countv 
high schools. (See Table IX, page 303.) 

NUMBER OF PUBLIC HIGH SCHOOLS FOR WHITE PUPILS 

There were 150 white high schools in the Maryland counties 
in 1937-38, two more than for the preceding year. Of these 
schools 136 were classified as first group, and 14 as second group. 



120 1938 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 




Approved White High Schools in Maryland 



121 



The change in the number of high schools occurred in Montgom- 
ery County which opened the Montgomery Hills Junior High 
School, and Prince George's County which opened the Greenbelt 
High School. Two counties had only 2 high schools, while one 
county had as many as 12 high schools for white pupils. (See 
Table 79 and Chart 20.) 



TABLE 79 

Number of Approved White High Schools, Year Ending July 31, 1938 



Group 



Total 



82 

148 
150 
152 
153 
151 
152 
153 
152 
149 
151 
150 
151 
148 
150 

11 

6 
10 
2 



*69 

*130 
*136 
*137 
141 
141 
142 
144 
140 
136 
136 
136 
136 
135 
136 

9 
4 



U3 

tl8 
tl4 
tl5 
12 
10 
10 
9 
12 
13 
al5 
al4 
bl5 
bl3 
cl4 

m 
u 



County 



Caroline 

Carroll 

Cecil 

Charles 

Dorchester . . . . 

Frederick 

Garrett 

Harford 

Howard 

Kent 

Montgomery . . 
Prince George's 
Queen Anne's. . 

St. Mary's 

Somerset 

Talbot 

Washington 

Wicomico 

Worcester 

Baltimore City. 

State 



Total 



4 
4 
10 
12 

5 
2 
4 
6 
8 
7 
5 

23 

173 



° First group schools have as a minimum an enrollment of 30, an attendance of 25, and 
two teachers. They give a four-year course. Second group schools have as a minimum an 
enrollment of 15, an attendance of 12. They give a two-year course. Schools in Baltimore 
County giving a one-year course are classified as second group schools. 

* Includes the schools classified as group 1 and group 2, prior to 1928. 

t Classified as group 3 prior to 1928. 

t Each t represents one junior high school. 

a Includes 7 junior high schools. 

b Includes 10 junior high schools. 

c Includes 11 junior high schools. 



SIZE OF WHITE TEACHING STAFF IN COUNTY HIGH SCHOOLS 

In 1937-38 the median county white high school had a staff of 
6 teachers including the principal. The three one-teacher high 
schools included the first year of approved high school work in a 
junior high school organization. The three high schools having 
the largest staffs were at Catonsville and Frederick with 38 
teachers each, and at Hagerstown with 37 teachers. (See Table 80.) 



122 



1938 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



TABLE 80 



Size of Teaching Staff in Last Four Years of Maryland County White High 
Schools, Year Ending June 30, 1938 



Number 
of 

Teachers 


Total No. Schools 


Allegany 


Anne Arundel 


Baltimore 


Calvert 


Caroline 


c 
>-< 

CS 

O 


| Cecil 


Charles 


Dorchester 


Frederick 


Garrett 


Harford 


Howard 


Kent 


Montgomery 


Prince George's 


Queen Anne's 


| St. Mary's 


Somerset 


Talbot 


Washington 


Wicomico 


Worcester 


Total 


150 

3 
11 
15 
18 
18 
11 
11 
10 
12 
5 
5 
2 
5 
2 
1 

2 
2 
1 
2 
1 

1 

1 
1 

3 
2 
1 
1 

1 
2 


11 

1 
1 
2 

2 


6 
2 

i 


10 
2 


2 


5 


9 


8 


5 


6 


7 


6 


8 


4 


4 


10 


12 


5 


2 


4 


6 


8 


7 


5 


1 


2 


1 




i 


1 
1 
1 
1 
1 

1 
1 


1 

2 


1 

2 
1 


1 

2 


1 

3 
1 


1 
2 
1 
1 




1 




2 






1 


1 
2 
1 

1 


2 
2 
1 
1 
1 


1 

3 
1 
1 


1 
1 

i 
i 


3 


4 


2 




1 


i 

1 


1 
1 


1 

2 


1 
1 

2 
1 
1 


3 
1 


i 


1 




6 






1 


l 

4 
1 

i 


7 




l 






1 
1 






8 


1 


i 


1 
1 
I 










2 




i 
l 
l 


1 






9 


1 


2 




1 


i 






10 








11 


2 


















1 












1 
1 




12 




























1 








13 














1 














1 


l 


1 










l 


14 






1 












1 




















15 
























1 
















17 






















1 








l 
















18 






















1 






1 
















19 


1 










































20 




1 






l 




































21 






1 






























23 






1 








































28 
























l 


















29 


i 

1 


i 


1 








































30 






































1 




31 




























1 












32 




























l 
















33 




l 










































37 






































1 






38 






1 














1 































































TABLE 81 



Distribution of Maryland County White High Schools According to the Num- 
ber of Teachers Employed on a Full-Time Basis, 1925-1938 



Year 


Total 
Number 
Schools 


Number of High Schools Having Following Number of Full-Time 
Teachers 


1 


2 


3 


4 


5 


6 


7 


8 


9 


10 


Over 
10 


1925 


150 


19 


20 


26 


29 


14 


5 


7 


5 


7 


5 


13 


1926 


154 


15 


21 


25 


28 


18 


8 


11 


4 


3 


5 


16 


1927 


153 


8 


22 


23 


26 


20 


10 


12 


6 


3 


8 


15 


1928 


152 


6 


21 


26 


27 


16 


10 


14 


1 


6 


7 


18 


1929 


152 


6 


18 


21 


30 


21 


6 


14 


5 


3 


4 


24 


1930 


152 


7 


13 


22 


27 


20 


13 


8 


6 


'4 


6 


26 


1931 


153 


4 


13 


21 


26 


22 


11 


9 


6 


6 


5 


30 


1932 


152 


4 


12 


13 


29 


18 


15 


9 


6 


8 


6 


32 


1933 


149 


6 


13 


11 


25 


18 


13 


13 


4 


11 


4 


31 


1934 


151 


5 


14 


13 


22 


21 


10 


15 


8 


9 


4 


30 


1935 


149 


5 


13 


13 


25 


17 


11 


13 


7 


10 


5 


30 


1936 


151 


6 


13 


12 


21 


20 


9 


14 


13 


8 


4 


31 


1937 


148 


3 


12 


14 


23 


14 


12 


12 


11 


9 


4 


34 


1938 


150 


3 


11 


15 


18 


18 


11 


11 


10 


12 


5 


36 



Size of Staff and Enrollment in County White High Schools 123 

The number of county high schools having fewer than 5 teach- 
ers has shown a very evident decrease from 1925 to 1938. Where- 
as in 1925 there were 94 high schools staffed with one to four 
teachers, inclusive, by 1938 the number had decreased to 47. The 
number of one-teacher high schools has been reduced from 19 in 
1925 to only 3 in 1937 and 1938, and those having two teachers 
from 20 to 11. On the other hand, schools employing from 5 to 
8 teachers, inclusive, increased from 31 in 1925 to 50 in 1938, and 
those having 9 or more teachers from 25 to 53. (See Table 81.) 

SIZE OF ENROLLMENT IN COUNTY WHITE HIGH SCHOOLS 

TABLE 82 



Size of Enrollment in Last Four Years of Maryland County White High 
Schools, for Year Ending June 30, 1938 



Average Number 
Belonging 


Total No. Schools 


c 

< 


Anne Arundel 


Baltimore 


Culvert 


Caroline 


Carroll 




| Charles 


| Dorchester 


Frederick 


Carrel I. 


Harford 


Howard 




= 
: 

t 


2 
- 
'Z 
~ 

= 


Queen Anne's 




- 

•s. 
i, 
E 

CQ 


Talbot 


Washington 


Wicomico 


Worcester 


Total 


150 

10 
8 
23 
19 
11 
12 
11 
11 
6 
4 
3 
5 
2 
1 
2 

1 
1 
1 
3 
1 
1 
1 

2 

2 


11 
2 

i 

2 
1 


6 
2 


10 
2 


2 
1 


5 


9 


8 
1 


5 


6 


7 


6 


8 


4 


4 


10 


12 

1 
1 
2 


5 


2 


4 
1 


6 

1 
1 

2 


8 


7 
1 


5 


26- 40 


41- 50 


1 
1 
1 


1 

3 


i 

1 
1 


1 

2 
1 


3 
1 

i 


2 


1 
1 
1 


i 
i 

l 
l 
l 


51- 75 






1 
1 


1 

2 
3 
1 

i 


2 


2 
2 




■£ 


' 1 

3 


3 
2 


1 
1 

i 
l 

'i 


76- 100 


1 


2 




101- 125 


126- 150 


1 

i 
l 


i 
l 


i 


2 
2 


i 


1 




1 


151- 175 




1 




i 


2 
1 


176- 200 


2 


1 


i 


1 
1 














201- 225 










1 






1 




226- 250 


i 




1 
















l 
l 






251- 275 
































1 


276- 300 






















l 




1 








2 


1 






301- 325 


i 






















l 








326- 350 




























1 
















351- 375 














l 






1 


























401- 425 
























1 
















426- 450 






1 








































451- 475 


























1 
















476- 500 


















l 




1 








l 
















501- 525 












1 




























526- 550 






















l 
























551- 575 


i 












































626- 650 




1 
1 
























l 


















701- 725 




































1 




751- 775 


























1 












801- 825 


i 
l 


1 

i 










































901- 925 


1 










































926- 950 










































951- 975 












































1,076-1,100 


















1 




























1,126-1,150 








































1 






l,326x-l,350 






1 















































































124 1938 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 

In 1937-38 the median county white high school had an average 
enrollment of from 126 to 150 pupils. There were 10 small schools 
in which the average high school enrollment was under 40, while 
in the three largest high schools it was 1,099, 1,144, and 1,330. 
(See Table 82.) 

There has been considerable change in the distribution of en- 
rollment in the county high schools. In 1925 there were 109 
high schools or 72 per cent which enrolled 100 pupils or less. By 
1930 this number had dropped to 83 or 55 per cent, and by 1938 
to 60 or 40 per cent of all high schools for white pupils. The 
opposite side of the picture is presented when the number of high 
schools having over 200 pupils is shown. In 1925 there were 19 
or 12.5 per cent, in 1930 there were 30 or 20 per cent, in 1935 there 
were 39 or 26 per cent, and in 1938 there were 45 or 30 per cent 
with an average enrollment of over 200 pupils. (See Table 83.) 

TABLE 83 



Distribution of Maryland County White Public Secondary Schools by Size of 
Pupil Groups, 1925, 1930, 1935, and 1938 



Average Number 
Belonging 


Number 


Cumulative Per Cent 


1925 


1930 


1935 


1938 


1925 


1930 


1935 


1938 


Total 




152 


152 


149 


150 
















1- 


25 


26 


7 


2 




17 


1 


4 


6 


1 


3 




26- 


50 


31 


21 


16 


"is 


37 


5 


18 


4 


12 





12.0 


51- 


75 


37 


35 


25 


23 


61 


8 


41 


4 


28 


8 


27 .4 


76- 


100 


15 


20 


15 


19 


71 


7 


54 


6 


38 


9 


40.0 


101- 


125 


7 


17 


22 


11 


76 


3 


65 


8 


53 


6 


47.3 


126- 


150 


9 


6 


8 


12 


82 


2 


69 


7 


59 





55.3 


151- 


175 


5 


10 


9 


11 


85.5 


76 


3 


65 





62.6 


176- 


200 


3 


6 


13 


11 


87 


5 


80 


2 


73 


7 


69.9 


201- 


250 


4 


6 


8 


10 


90 


1 


84 


1 


79 


1 


76.6 


251- 


300 


2 


5 


5 


8 


91 


4 


87 


4 


82 


5 


81.9 


301- 


400 


6 


9 


6 


5 


95 


3 


93 


3 


86 


5 


85.2 


401- 


500 


4 


2 


6 


6 


97 


9 


94 


6 


90 


5 


89.2 


501- 


600 


1 


1 


3 


3 


98 


6 


95 


3 


92 


5 


91.2 


601- 


700 


1 


2 


4 


2 


99 


3 


96 


6 


95 


2 


92.5 


701- 


800 




3 


1 


3 


99 


3 


98 


6 


95 


9 


94.5 


801- 


900 


i 




2 


1 


100 





98 


6 


97 


2 


95.2 


901- 


1,000 




i 


1 


4 






99 


3 


97 


9 


97.9 


1,001- 


1,100 






1 


1 






99 


3 


98 


6 


98.6 


1,101- 


1,200 




. . „ 


1 


1 






99 


3 


99 


3 


99.3 


1,201- 


1,300 






1 


. . . . 






100 





100 







1,301- 


1,400 






















100 '. 6 


Median 


63.8 


92.3 


119.8 


134.3 

















However, it must be remembered that the 30 per cent of the 
schools in which the average enrollment was over 200 pupils en- 
roll over two-thirds of all county white high school pupils. 



Size of Staff and Enrollment in County White High Schools 125 



In 1925 the median number of white pupils enrolled in 152 
county high schools was 63.8 with a median staff of 4.3 teachers. 
The number of pupils has increased steadily each year until 1938, 
when the median enrollment in high schools, 134.3, was more 
than double the number in 1925. The corresponding increase 
from 1925 to 1938 in the size of staff in the median high school 
was 2.6, making the median staff just under 7 in 1938. (See 
Table 84.) 

TABLE 84 

Median Number of Pupils Belonging and Median Number of Teachers in 
Service in Maryland County White Public Secondarj 7 Schools, 1925-1938 



School Year 
Ending in June 



1925 
1926 
1927 
1928 
1929 
1930 
1931 
1932 
1933 
1934 
1935 
1936 
1937 
1938 



Number 
of 

Secondary 
Schools 



152 
154 
154 
153 
152 
152 
153 
152 
149 
151 
149 
151 
148 
150 



Median 



Number 
of Pupils 
Belonging 



63.8 
69.0 
75.3 
83.7 
86 
92 
101 
110 
118 
118 
119.8 
126.8 
130.2 
134.3 



Although the median white enrollment in county high schools 
was 110 per cent greater in 1938 than in 1925, the size of the 
median teaching staff was only 60 per cent greater. It was pos- 
sible in the smaller schools to absorb small increases in enrollment 
without increasing the teaching staff. (See Table 84.) 

RATIO OF PUPILS TO HIGH SCHOOL TEACHERS 
TABLE 85 

Ratio of White High School Pupils to County Principals and Teachers 



Average No. 



Year Belonging 

1923 20.0 

1924 19.8 

1925 20.1 

1926 20.3 

1927 20.4 

1928 21.0 

1929 21.5 

1930 21.6 



Average No. 



Year Belonging 

1931 21.9 

1932 22.3 

1933 24.4 

1934 24.8 

1935 24.7 

1936 25.1 

1937 24.9 

1938 24.0 



126 



1938 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



The average number of pupils per teacher and principal in the 
last four years of county white high schools was 24 in 1938, a 
decrease of .9 under the number in 1937. In the sixteen-year pe- 
riod from 1923 to 1938 the ratio of high school pupils per teacher 
has increased 20 per cent. (See Table 85.) 



CHART 21 



AVERAGE NUMBER BELONGING PER TEACHER AND PRINCIPAL 
IN WHITE HIGH SCHOOLS 

County 1936 1937 1938 

Co. Average 25.1 24.9 

Baltimore 
Allegany 
Washington 
Frederick 
Anne Arundel 
Garrett 
Harford 
St. Mary' s 
Cecil 

Pr. George* s 
Somerset 
Howard 
Wicomico 
Carroll 
Dorchester 
Charles 
Kent 
Calvert 
Queen Anne's 
Talbot 
Worcester 
Montgomery 
Caroline 

Belto. City* 

State 




* Data for senior high schools in Baltimore City. 



Ratio of White High School Pupils per Teacher 127 

In 1937-38 the county with the smallest ratio had 18.1 pupils 
per white high school teacher and principal, while the county with 
the highest ratio had 32.3 pupils per teacher and principal. Five 
counties had a higher ratio of pupils per teacher in 1938 than in 
1937. (See Chart 21.) 

In Baltimore City senior high schools there were 27 pupils be- 
longing per teacher and principal in 1938, a decrease of .8 under 
1937. Two counties had a higher pupil-teacher ratio than Balti- 
more City. (See Chart 21.) 

SALARIES OF WHITE HIGH SCHOOL TEACHERS 

The average salary per county white high school principal and 
teacher which, with the exception of a slight reduction in 1930, 
had increased steadily from 1917 to 1932, after a small decrease 
in 1933 showed a marked drop in 1934 to SI, 394 and rose steadily 
again to $1,587 in 1938, the maximun average salary paid in the 
sixteen-year period. The basic State minimum salary schedule 
established by the 1922 legislature was in effect during the entire 
period from 1923 to 1938, except for the temporary percentage 
reductions in salary enacted by the legislatures in 1933 and 1935 
which affected salaries paid in 1934, 1935, 1936, and 1937. (See 
Table 86 and Chart 22.) 



TABLE 86 

Average Salary Per County White High School Principal and Teacher, 

1923-1938 





Average 




Average 




Salary 




Salary 


Year Ending June 30 


White 


Year Ending June 30 


White 




Hitrh School 




High School 




Teachers 




Teachers 


1923 


$1,436 
1,477 
1,485 
1,517 
1,534 
1 , 544 
1,557 
1,550 


1931 


$1,559 
1,571 
1,532 
1,394 
1,398 
1.469 
1.488 
1,587 


1924 


1932 


1925 


1933 


1926 


1934 


1927 


1935 


1928 


1936 


1929 


1937 


1930 


1938 







During 1937-38 committees of teachers and school officials in 
a number of counties have been studying the bases for construc- 
tion of a sound salary schedule which would take into considera- 
tion the additional years of professional preparation required of 
teachers and the need of giving recognition to the successful ex- 
perience of those teachers who remain in the service. 



128 



1938 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



CHART 22 

Average Annual Salary Per White High School Teacher and Principal, 

1923 to 1938 



i.000 



\ too 



800 



400 




1925 1927 1929 1931 1953 1935 1937 939 



In the individual counties in 1937-38 the average salary per 
member of the high school teaching staff varied from $1,345 to 
$1,903, being less than $1,450 in eight counties and more than 
$1,600 in five counties. The 1938 average salary, which included 
the restoration of all cuts in the basic minimum salary schedule 
effected by the 1933 and 1935 legislatures, was higher than the 
average salary prior to the depression years in sixteen counties. 
(See Chart 23.) 

In Baltimore City the average annual salary paid to a white 
senior high school teacher and principal in 1938 was $2,517, an 
increase of $104 over the annual salary of 1937. It was $930 
more than the average salary paid in the counties and $614 more 



Average Salary Per White High School Teacher 



129 



than the average paid in the county having the highest average 
salary. (See Chart 23.) 



CHART 23 



AVERAGE SALARY PER PRINCIPAL AND TEACHER IN WHITE HIGH SCHOOLS 



County 1933 
Co.Av. $1532 



Bait. 

Wash. 

Mont. 

All. 

A. A. 

Harf. 

Cecil 

Q. A. 

Fred. 

Garr. 

Calv. 

Sora. 



1771 
1593 
1612 
1655 
1556 
1550 
1510 
1611 
1434 
1526* 
1463 
1455 



Talbot 1452 

Chas. 1447 

P. G. 1519 

Kent 1438 

Howard 1442 

Dorch. 1485 

Caro. 1399 

Wico. 1397 

Carr. 1339 

Wore. 1405 

St. M. 1405 



1936 
$1468 

1816 
1527 
1605 
1656 
1440 
1491 
1380 
1461 
1437 
1364 
1349 
1317 
1335 
1363 
1396 
1342 
1282 
1323 
1278 
1355 
1249 
1291 
1225 



1937 1938 
$1488| 



188- 
151 
1638 
1630 
1443 
1491 
1390 
1400 
1442 
1344 
1365 
1330 
13641 
137ll 
1477 
1340 
1335 
1322 
1275 
1351 
1295! 
1268| 
121$ 






Bgjto. 2196 2352 241 
State 1715 1703 17371 



* Data for senior high schools in Baltimore City. 



130 



1938 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



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Changes in White High School Enrollment, Staff, Salaries 131 



CHANGES IN HIGH SCHOOL ENROLLMENT, TEACHING STAFF, 
AND SALARY BUDGET 

Twelve counties showed increases in enrollment in the last four 
years of high school from 1937 to 1938. Comparisons of high 
school enrollment in each county for 1920, 1925, 1930, 1935, 1937, 
and 1938 are included in the left section of Table 87. 

In comparing white teaching staff employed in the last four 
years of high school in 1938 with 1937, sixteen counties had more 
teachers and seven counties showed no change. A comparison of 
1938 with 1932 indicates that sixteen counties employed more 
teachers and seven counties fewer teachers in 1938 than in 1932. 
Similar comparisons may be made with 1920, 1925, and 1930. 
(See middle part of Table 87.) 

Although the total county white high school enrollment in the 
last four years of high school was 5,868 or 21 per cent greater in 
1938 than it was in 1932, the number of high school teachers em- 
ployed increased by 158 or 13 per cent, while the expenditures for 
high school teachers' salaries increased by $282,000 or 15 per 
cent. (See Table 88.) 

TABLE 88 



Change from 1932 to 1938 in Last Four Years of County White High School 
Enrollment, Teaching Staff, and Salaries 









Number of 


Salaries of 




Year 


Enrollment 


Teachers 


Teachers 


1932 




28,547 


1,204 


$1,891,000 


1933 




30,778 


1,183 


1,807,000 


1934 




31,036 


1,169 


1,635,000 


1935 




31,786 


1,203 


1,677,000 


1936 




33,111 


1,244 


1,829,000 


1937 




33,959 


1,285 


1.915,000 


1938 




34,415 


1,362 


2,173,000 


Change 1932-1938 






+ 5,868 


+ 158 


+ $282,000 


Per Cent 




+20.6 


+ 13.1 


+ 14.9 



COST PER WHITE HIGH SCHOOL PUPIL 

The current expense cost per county white high school pupil be- 
longing for the last four years of high school work was $90.87 in 
1938, higher than at any time since 1932, but below expenditures 
per county high school pupil belonging from 1923 to 1932, in- 
clusive. (See Table 89.) 



132 1938 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 

TABLE 89 

Current Expense Cost* Per County White High School Pupil Belonging 



Cost per County 
White High School 
Year Pupil Belonging 
}923 $91.12 

1924 96.44 

1925 95.16 

1926 97.20 

1927 9 8 .43 

1928 95.82 

1929 96.00 

1930 97.60 



Cost per County 
White High School 
Pupil Belonging 



Year 

1931 $98.54 

1932 94.78 

1933 82.62 

1934 76.21 

1935 77.58 

1936 80.48 

1937 82.47 

1938 90.87 



* Excluding general control and fixed charges. 

CHART 24 



COST PER WHITE ELGH SCHOOL PUPIL BELONGING 
FOR CURRENT EXPENSES EXCLUDING GENERAL CONTROL 



County 


1933 


1936 


1937 


Co. Av. 


$ 83 


$ 80 


$ 82 


Montgomery 


97 


106 


107 


Calvert 


104 


115 


116 


Charles 


103 


106 


101 


Q. Anne*s 


102 


100 


98 


St. Mary*s 


91 


86 


90 


Caroline 


90 


JO 


qo 


Garrett 


97 


88 


86 


Talbot 


86 


85 


93 


Worcester 


102 


91 


92 


Kent 


97 


94 


91 


Carroll 


100 


94 


92 


Dorchester 


104 


88 


86 


Howard 


96 


74 


82 


Cecil 


84 


82 


83 


Wicomico 


76 


75 


85 


Somerset 


95 


88 


84 


A. Arundel 


81 


71 


75 


Washington 


72 


74 


75 


Pr. Geo. 


86 


75 


76 


Allegany 


76 


73 


77 


Harford 


73 


76 


76 


Frederick 


71 


77 


75 


Baltimore 


67 


69 


74 


Balto. Citjrt 95 


97 


106 


State 


86 


85 


89 




t Cost per pupil belonging in senior high schools in Baltimore City. 



Cost Per White High School Pupil 



133 



In the individual counties the average current expense cost in 
1937-38 ranged from $77 to $126 per white high school pupil be- 
longing, three counties spending under $80 and four counties 
spending over $110 per pupil. (See Chart 24.) 

Every county showed an increased expenditure per pupil from 
1937 to 1938. All except four counties which spent less and two 
counties in which the average expenditure per pupil was the same 
had a higher per pupil cost for current expenses in 1938 than in 
1933. (See Chart 24.) 



Analysis of Current Expense Cost Per White High School Pupil 

The average current expense cost of $90.87 per county white 
high school pupil included $66.38 for teachers' salaries, $5.36 for 
textbooks, materials, and "other costs of instruction," $6.28 for 
operation of buildings, $3.29 for maintenance of buildings, and 
$9.56 for auxiliary agencies, which include transportation, li- 
braries, and health. Each of these items showed increases over 



TABLE 90 



Cost, Excluding General Control, Per Pupil Belonging, in Last Four Years 
of White High Schools, for Year Ending July 31, 1938 



County 


Salaries 


Other 
Costs of 
Instruction 


Operation 


Mainte- 
nance 


Auxiliary 
Agencies 


Total 
Current 
Expenses 


Capital 
Outlay 


County Average 


*$66 


38 


$5 


36 


$6 


28 


$3 


29 


$9 


56 


$90 


87 


$18 


84 


Allegany 


*59 


72 


6 


61 


6 


20 


3 


47 


4 


71 


80 


71 


4 


74 


Anne Arundel . . . 


62 


69 


5 


44 


5 


97 


1 


46 


11 


26 


86 


82 


32 


13 


Baltimore 


*59 


31 


3 


94 


4 


82 


2 


25 


6 


32 


76 


64 




95 


Calvert 


74 


88 


2 


96 


6 


54 


1 


17 


38 


81 


124 


36 




33 


Caroline 


79 


65 


3 


07 


7 


19 


1 


52 


12 


97 


104 


40 


16 


24 


Carroll 


*69 


23 


5 


65 


6 


48 


2 


61 


15 


61 


99 


58 


4 


50 


Cecil 


65 


32 


6 


50 


7 


62 


1 


43 


9 


21 


90 


08 


129 


85 


Charles 


70 


48 


2 


77 


8 


38 


10 


06 


22 


23 


113 


92 


1 


50 


Dorchester 


68 


22 


3 


08 


8 


90 


3 


04 


14 


11 


97 


35 






Frederick 


57 


44 


4 


35 


3 


83 


1 


13 


11 


45 


78 


20 


5 


oi 


Garrett 


61 


59 


6 


60 


4 


52 


4 


44 


26 


16 


103 


31 


21 


36 


Harford 


65 


82 


3 


39 


5 


99 


3 


52 




61 


79 


33 


1 


19 


Howard 


62 


75 


5 


52 


5 


81 


2 


82 


14 


88 


91 


78 


17 


37 


Kent 


71 


14 


2 


66 


6 


67 


3 


36 


15 


93 


99 


76 




16 


Montgomery 


*94 


15 


11 


55 


10 


91 


5 


91 


3 


16 


125 


68 


34 


90 


Prince George's . 


61 


65 


6 


62 


5 


10 


7 


11 


4 


24 


84 


72 


26 


53 


Queen Anne's . . . 


79 


08 


4 


86 


9 


69 


2 


78 


17 


27 


113 


68 


9 


31 


St. Mary's 


56 


09 


2 


53 


7 


11 


2 


26 


40 


90 


108 


89 


5 


52 


Somerset 


63 


20 


3 


76 


4 


96 


3 


47 


13 


97 


89 


36 




22 


Talbot 


76 


43 


4 


48 


6 


69 


1 


21 


14 


25 


103 


06 


159 


36 


Washington 

Wicomico 


67 


73 


4 


17 


5 


63 


2 


27 


6 


36 


86 


16 


4 


55 


65 


14 


3 


83 


7 


42 


3 


28 


9 


77 


89 


44 


26 


54 


Worcester 


74 


96 


3 


93 


6 


55 


3 


04 


13 


24 


101 


72 


3 


09 


Baltimore City. . 


*93 


38 


4 


92 


11 


97 


3 


00 


2 


24 


115 


51 


51 


91 


Total State 


*74 


12 


5 


23 


7 


91 


3 


21 




46 


97 


93 


28 


32 



* Includes salary of supervisor. 
See Table XIX, page 313 for expenditures in white high schools. 



134 1938 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 

expenditure per pupil for the preceding year, maintenance, sal- 
aries, and costs of instruction other than salaries showing the 
largest per cent of increase. (See Table 90.) 

Salary Cost Per Pupil 

The salary cost per white high school pupil ranged between $56 
in an Equalization Fund county where the classes were large, sal- 
aries were at the minimum, and the program of studies was lim- 
ited, and $94 in a non-Equalization Fund county where the cur- 
riculum was varied including many electives and special subjects, 
and a high salary schedule was in effect. These amounts included 
the aid from Federal vocational funds. (See Table 90.) 

Reimbursement from Federal Government Towards Salaries of Vocational 

Teachers 

Reimbursement from the Federal government towards salary 
costs and supervision of vocational education in the county white 
high schools amounting to $98,262 was received by 20 counties 
during 1937-38, as against $68,643 expended for vocational educa- 
tion from State and county funds. This was an increase of $32,- 
464 in Federal aid over corresponding figures for white day high 
schools for the preceding year. The increase resulted from the 
additional Federal funds made available for expansion of the vo- 
cational education program by the George-Deen Act. In previous 
years it was necessary to match Federal funds with local funds 
(State or county). The provisions of the George-Deen Act make 
it possible to pay from 50 to 100 per cent of the salary cost from 
Federal funds and to provide for salaries and travel expense of 
county supervisors where the program of vocational education in 
the various fields was sufficiently extensive. 

Among the 20 counties which received Federal reimbursement 
for white day high schools, one county received as little as $720, 
while at the opposite extreme two counties received approximately 
$15,000. (See Table 91.) 

Agriculture 

Federal aid towards the salaries of white teachers of agricul- 
ture in day high schools amounted to $42,411, more by $6,874 than 
for 1937. In 1938 agriculture was taught in 52 white day high 
schools of 20 counties, St. Mary's being the additional county of- 
fering the work in 1938. The number of white pupils enrolled 
for agriculture increased from 1,778 to 1,885 in 1938. 

Home Economics 

Reimbursement from the Federal government towards salary 
costs and supervision of vocational home economics in county day 
white high schools totalled $33,304 in 1938, an increase of $14,687 



Federal Aid toward Salaries of Vocational Teachers 



135 



over 1937. With the addition of St. Mary's County, vocational 
home economics was taught in 44 white day high schools in 14 
counties in 1938. Instruction in vocational home economics was 
given to 1,788 white pupils, 488 more than in the preceding year. 
For the first time in 1938, Federal aid amounting to $1,580 was 
received by 5 counties which paid an additional amount to an out- 
standing teacher who spent part of her time in supervising the 
home projects and the general as well as the vocational home 
economics program throughout the county. The teacher in each 
of these five counties who was selected by the county superintend- 
ent and State Supervisor of Home Economics worked in coopera- 
tion with the State Supervisor of Home Economics. (See Table 
91 and note under Table 91.) 

TABLE 91 



Federal Aid for Vocational Education in Maryland Countv White Day 
Schools for Year Ending July 31, 1938 



County 


Enrollment and Expenditures from Federal Funds for 


Total 
Federal 
Aid 


Total 
from 
State 
and 
County 


Agriculture 


Vocational 
Home Economics 


Industrial 
Education 




















Funds 




Enroll- 




Enroll- 




Enroll- 












ment 


Aid 


ment 


Aid 


ment 


Aid 






Total Counties. 


1,885 


$42,411 


1,788 


$33,304 


586 


$22 


547 


$98,262 


$68,643 


Allegany 


75 


1,916 


116 


t2,350 


134 


* T 4 


867 


*f9,133 


5,902 


Anne Arundel . 


30 


450 


116 


2,000 






2,450 


1,150 


Baltimore 


135 


2,085 






110 


t2 


350 


t4,435 


4,135 


Calvert 


51 


924 


"62 


600 






1,524 


1,525 


Caroline 


135 


3,570 


15 


*445 


" ' 8 




260 


*4,275 


2,056 


Carroll 


35 


537 


30 


635 








1,172 


1,172 


Charles 


45 


843 


47 


896 








1,739 


1,738 


Dorchester. . . . 


82 


1,321 












1,321 


1,321 


Frederick 


210 


*3,792 








x200 


*x3,992 


3,739 


Garrett 


198 


4,009 


284 


t3^590 








t7,599 


7,134 


Harford 


127 


3,102 


120 


t2,117 








t5,219 


4,967 


Howard 


90 


1,792 


224 


2,449 








4,241 


4,242 


Montgomery . . . 


134 


*4,295 


167 


t5,778 


' 75 


*t4 


854 


*tl4,927 


8,635 


Prince George's 
Queen Anne's. . 


38 


1,590 


287 


t5,765 


76 


1 


966 


f9,321 


7,163 


93 


2,816 


83 


1,339 








4,155 


3,014 


St. Mary's 


54 


*1,169 


147 


2,300 








*3,469 




Somerset 


94 


1,020 












1,020 


1^020 


Washington .... 


125 


4,173 


' 90 


3^040 


i83 


°8 


050 


°15,263 


7.922 


Wicomico 


24 


720 












720 


720 


Worcester 


110 


2.287 












2,287 


1,088 



*tlncludes following federal aid for fsupervision and *travel: 



Allegany at$400 bf*$1.678 $2,078 

Baltimore bt300 300 

Caroline *25 25 

Frederick *$53 53 

Garrett at465 465 

Harford at253 253 

Montgomery *57 at262 bt*l,244 1,563 

Prince George's. at200 200 

St. Mary's *19 19 



x Co-ordinator for county. 

° Includes $2,050 for part-time industrial education. 

a Supervision given to general as well as vocational home economics, 
b Supervision given to industrial arts as well as industrial education. 



136 1938 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 
Industrial Education 

The Federal aid towards salary costs and supervision for all- 
day and part-time classes in trades and industries in county day 
white high schools amounted to $22,547 in 1938, an increase of 
$10,903 over 1937. Most of the expansion in the program was 
found in Montgomery and Allegany Counties, both of which em- 
ployed a supervisor of industrial education. 

The State Program for Vocational Guidance 

A program of vocational guidance was inaugurated for the 
county high schools early in 1938 through the appointment of a 
State supervisor. Funds for beginning this program were pro- 
vided by the General Education Board through the American 
Youth Commission. The work was taken over and financed by 
the State from March 1 until June 30, 1938, and since the latter 
date is being paid for jointly from State and Federal Vocational 
Funds. 

The supervisor will assist counties in developing sound pro- 
grams of occupational information and guidance within their 
schools. He will study and investigate : 

(1) Employment conditions in the State, as a guide to occupational 

information 

(2) Means of establishing courses of occupational guidance in individ- 

ual schools 

(3) Information available in the field of occupational information and 

guidance 

(4) Equipment, books, and pamphlets needed in the schools for effective 

work in this field 

All this information will be gathered not only to make it pos- 
sible for the pupil to build up a basis of information about his own 
interests and abilities, and about wages, working conditions, and 
possibilities of continuous employment, before making his choice 
of the field in which he wishes vocational training, but also to as- 
sist the pupil to make a program adjustment within the school in 
order that his or her educational experiences may be most profit- 
able. 

County Study of Relationships Between School and Employment Services 

Frederick County in cooperation with the American Youth 
Commission under the direction of the Divison of Standards and 
Research of the United States Employment Service has become a 
laboratory for an occupational research study with two main ob- 
jectives in view: (1) To define the need for guidance, employ- 
ment, and occupational adjustment service for youth in the areas 
studied; (2) to articulate the services of the local public schools, 
the local State employment offices, and the occupational research 
material which have been developed by the Division of Standards 
and Research since 1933 in order to render service to youth in 
the most economical and effective manner. 



Guidance; Analysis of Per Pupil Costs other than Salaries 137 

Expenditures Per Pupil for Costs of Instruction Other Than Salaries 

The amount spent per white high school pupil for books, ma- 
terials, and "other costs of instruction" in 1938 fell between $2.53 
and $11.55 in the individual counties. The latter was a non- 
Equalization Fund county offering a program with many elec- 
tives, which made available a rather comprehensive testing ser- 
vice, and which provided clerical service in the large high schools, 
while the former county was an Equalization Fund county which 
supplied for current expenses only the minimum amount required 
by law. State aid dedicated to textbooks and materials was 90 
cents per pupil, exclusive of funds for this purpose provided in 
the Equalization Fund. (See Table 90.) 

Cost Per Pupil for Operation and Maintenance of School Buildings 

The range in cost per white high school pupil for heating and 
cleaning buildings ran from $3.83 in the county which spent 
least to $10.91 in the county which spent the most. The variation 
in maintenance expenditures per white high school pupil ranged 
from $1.13 in one county to $10.06 in another county in which the 
Federal government maintained the high school building at In- 
dian Head. In some counties repairs made through the Works 
Progress Administration relieved the county of expenditures for 
maintenance. (See Table 90 and Tables 164 and 165, page 252.) 

Cost Per Pupil for Auxiliary Agencies 

The cost per white high scool pupil for auxiliary agencies was 
as low T as 61 cents in one county which provides little high school 
transportation at public expense, while in two other counties in 
which a large proportion of the white high school pupils were 
transported at public expense it averaged $38.81 and $40.90 per 
high school pupil. Since the term "auxiliary agencies" covers 
such diverse items as transportation, libraries, and health, further 
analysis has been made of the costs and services rendered under 
this classification. (See Table 90.) 

Increase in White High School Pupils Transported at Public Expense 

Public expenditures for transporting 14,556 county white high 
school pupils amounted to $288,958 in 1938, an increase of 586 
pupils and $17,537 in expenditures over corresponding figures for 
1937. On the average, 42.9 per cent of county white high school 
pupils were transported at public expense in 1938 which was 1.1 
per cent higher than the corresponding percentage for the pre- 
ceding year. The cost to the public per county white high school 
pupil transported was $19.85, an increase of 42 cents over the 
amount for 1937. In addition the cost of high school transpor- 
tation was supplemented by payments by the parents in three 
counties. (See Table 92.) 



138 



1938 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



The high school pupils transported at public expense numbered 
as few as 64 in one county and as many as 2,180 in another. 
Thirteen counties transported more white high school pupils in 
1938 than in 1937. As few as 4 per cent of the white high school 
pupils were transported at public expense in one county, whereas 
at the opposite extreme this was the case for nearly 100 per cent 
of all white high school pupils. Twelve counties showed increases 
in the per cent of white high school pupils transported, the in- 
crease in one county being as much as 10 per cent. (See Table 
92.) 



TABLE 92 



Public Expenditures for Auxiliary Agencies in County White High Schools 
for Year Ending July 31, 1938 



County 


Transportation 


Libraries 


Health 


Pupils Trans- 
ported at Public 
Expense 


Amount 
Spent 
From 
Public 
Funds 


Cost 
Per 
Pupil 
Trans- 
ported 


Total 
Expen- 
ditures 


Amount per 


Total 
Expen- 
ditures 


Amount 
Per 
Pupil 


Num- 
ber 


Per 
Cent 


School 


Teacher 


Total and 




























Average 


14,556 


42 


9 


*$288,958 


*$19 


85 


$17,077 


$113 


84 


$12 


54 


$2,316 


$.07 


St. Mary's 


366 


99 


7 


13,813 


37 


74 


454 


227 


11 


30 


69 


10 


.03 




209 


90 


5 


8,434 


40 


36 


104 


52 


02 


9 


46 






Garrett 


693 


66 


4 


23,990 


34 


62 


1,867 


311 


17 


45 


87 


' ' 4 




Charles 


404 


74 


1 


11,560 


28 


6 1 


260 


51 


96 


10 


07 


50 


' .09 


Queen Anne's. . 


324 


65 


1 


8,049 


24 


84 


293 


58 


56 


11 


71 


72 


.15 


Kent 


292 


58 


6 


6,982 


23 


91 


780 


195 


06 


32 


51 






Carroll 


1,043 


63 


9 


22.423 


21 


50 


1,786 


198 


46 


23 


94 








493 


74 


6 


8,544 


17 


33 


838 


209 


44 


30 


35 






Talbot 


277 


42 


9 


8,089 


29 


20 


675 


112 


43 


20 


88 






Dorchester ... 


438 


48 


4 


12,265 


28 


00 


32 


5 


40 




78 






Somerset 


339 


46 


2 


9,599 


28 


31 


254 


63 


51 


8 


47 






Worcester 


442 


56 


7 


9,632 


21 


79 


210 


41 


99 


5 


25 






Caroline 


420 


60 


3 


7,900 


18 


81 


517 


103 


45 


14 


21 


' ,34 


' !05 


Frederick 


1,029 


45 


2 


23.036 


22 


39 


1.759 


251 


28 


20 


94 






Anne Arundel . 


1.358 


63 




22,0^0 


16 


24 


595 


99 


08 


7.29 


381 


' !l8 


Wicomico 


511 


41 


8 


9,706 


18 


99 


1,220 


174 


31 


23 


65 






Cecil 


599 


48 


8 


10,371 


17 


31 
















Washington .... 


696 


28 





14,013 


20 


13 


i,iio 


138 


72 


12 


26 


'246 


' !l6 


Baltimore 


2,180 


46 


1 


*26,962 


*12 


37 


1,145 


114 


51 


8 


09 








814 


22 


9 


14,708 


18 


07 


363 


33 


02 


2 


99 


380 


' !ii 


Prince George's 


775 


26 





10,852 


14 


00 


982 


81 


84 


8 


12 


250 


.09 


Montgomery . . . 


790 


30 


6 


*5.899 


*7 


47 


1,060 


105 


97 


7 


74 


889 


.36 


Harford 


64 


4 


3 


*81 


*1 


27 


773 


96 


61 


12 


90 







* Excludes amounts paid directly by parents or guardians of pupils. 



Public expenditures for transporting white high school pupils 
were as low as $81 in one county and as high as $26,962 in another. 
All except five counties spent more in 1938 than they spent in 1937 
for transporting white high school pupils. The increases are ex- 
plained by the following changes in policy which took place. In 
Howard county in which pupils had formerly paid toward the 



Transportation and Libraries for White High School Pupils 139 



cost of transportation, the county took over the entire cost. A 
number of the counties restored cuts in contracts of bus drivers 
made during the depression and a number of counties improved 
their bus equipment. 

In the three counties in which the parents contributed at least 
$15.00 annually toward the cost of transporting each white high 
school pupil, the public expenditure per pupil transported was 
$1.27, $7.47, and $12.37. In the remaining 20 counties the cost to 
the public per white high school pupil transported covered a 
range from $14.00 to S40.00. In all but seven counties the cost per 
white high school pupil transported was higher in 1938 than in 
1937. Road conditions, the distance pupils are carried, the size 
and type of vehicle are factors which must be considered in com- 
paring the cost per pupil transported in individual counties. (See 
Table 92.) 

Expenditures for High School Libraries 

Partly as a result of the suggestion of the State Superintendent 
of Schools that a portion of 1938 State funds be spent to increase 
the supply of books available for high school libraries, and partly 
as a result of the emphasis placed on libraries by the high school 
supervisors, twenty-two counties expended $17,077 from public 
funds towards the maintenance of libraries used by white high 
school pupils in 1938, an increase of $10,033 over the amount spent 
in 1937. The public funds spent for libraries varied among the 
counties from none at all in one county to $1,867 in the county 
wmich devoted the most money to this purpose in 1938. All ex- 
cept five counties spent more for libraries used by white high 
school pupils in 1938 than they spent in 1937. (See Table 92.) 

The regional conferences of high school principals and high 
school supervisors held at Hagerstown, Towson and Cambridge in 
May, 1938 had as their topic "School and Community Libraries.'" 
A statement was presented showing for each county the total ex- 
penditures from public funds for school libraries during the ten- 
year period from 1928 to 1937, and the expenditure for the ten- 
year period per pupil enrolled in 1936-37. For the 23 counties 
the ten-year expenditures for libraries in white schools aggregated 
$167,311 or less than one dollar per pupil enrolled in 1936-37. 
When separated into expenditures for libraries for white elemen- 
tary and high schools, the totals were $103,100 and $57,207 re- 
spectively, and the amount per elementary pupil 93 cents and per 
high school pupil $1.68. 

One of the high school principals summarized a questionnaire 
regarding high school libraries sent out by the State high school 
supervisors. Of the 149 county white high schools, 13 had full- 
time librarians, 41 had part-time teacher-librarians, 15 used 



140 



1938 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



pupil-librarians, and 16 had classroom libraries. The total num- 
ber of books reported in high school libraries was 187,365, which 
averaged 5 per high school pupil enrolled. The range in individual 
counties in library books per white high school pupil was from 
3 to 12. (See Table 93.) 



TABLE 93 



High School Libraries in Maryland Counties, 1937-38 
Personnel and Books Available 









XT-. 

i\0 


. of High Schools Having 








nign 


1 otal 










No. of Books in 












High School 


County 


School 


No. of 


Full- 


x art- 






Libraries 


Enroll- 


High 


Time 


Time 


i upil- 


Class- 








ment 


Schools 


Libra- 


Teacher- 


Libra- 


room 












rian 


Libra- 


rian 


Library 




Per 










rian 






Total 


Pupil 


Total Counties . . 


39,554 


149 


13 


41 


15 


16 


187,365 


5 


Allegany 


*5,629 


11 


3 


2 




1 


21,316 


4 


Anne Arundel . . . 


2,063 


6 


2 


1 






9,547 


5 




TO, 1 l I 


i n 

1U 


4 


4 






24,291 


4 


Calvert 


232 


2 








i 


1,264 


5 


Caroline 


f773 


5 




2 


i 




9,135 


12 


Carroll 


tl,610 


9 


t 


U 




1 


12,125 


8 


Cecil 


1,208 


8 






i 


2 


5,610 


5 




547 


5 










2,098 


4 


Dorchester 


897 


°6 




'2 




i 


3,406 


4 


Frederick 


f2,369 


7 


i 


3 






12,140 


5 


Garrett 


1,002 


6 






1 




5,079 


5 


Harford 


1,489 


8 




3 


1 




6,306 


4 




617 


4 






2 


'2 


4,107 


7 


Kent 


496 


4 




2 


1 




3,827 


8 


Montgomery 


*4,227 


10 




8 




i 


15,893 


4 


Prince George's 
Queen Anne's. . . 


13,082 


11 


l 


3 




2 


9,568 


3 


500 


5 






i 


3 


3,994 


8 


St. Mary's 


344 


2 






1 




1,734 


5 




699 


4 




i 


1 


i 


4,466 


6 


Talbot 


632 


x6 






1 


1 


2,887 


5 


Washington 


*3,461 


8 


l 


2 


4 




11,585 


3 




1,140 


7 


l 


3 






10,915 


10 


Worcester 


760 


5 




1 






6,072 


8 



* Includes grades 7 and 8 in junior high schools, 
f Includes grade 7 in junior high schools. 

t Two teachers give part-time service so that library in Westminster has service every period. 
° Hurlock uses its town library eight hours a week in addition, 
x Easton pupils use Talbot County library. 



The status of libraries in high schools having full-time libra- 
rians in 1937-38 is shown in Table 94. 

SERVICES OF MARYLAND PUBLIC LIBRARY ADVISORY COMMISSION 

In addition to the use of their own high school and local library 
facilities a number of teachers took advantage of the privilege of 
securing books from the Maryland Public Library Advisory Com- 
mission with offices in the Enoch Pratt Library Building, 400 
Cathedral Street, Baltimore, Maryland. The most vital work of 



Libraries for County White High Schools 141 
TABLE 94 



County High Schools Having Full-Time Librarians, 1937-38 



County 
High School 


High 
School 
Enrollment 


Books in 
Total 


Library 
Per Pupil 


Number 
of 

Magazines 


Books 
Purchased 
in 19c> t-diS 


Allegany 












FYirt Mill* 


1 744 


2 098 


I 


32 


228 


Allegany 


1^525 


7^543 


5 


21 


185 


Beall 


860 


2,000 


2 


8 


71 


Anne Arundel 












Annapolis 


950 


4,347 


4 


41 


345 


Glen Burnie 


791 


2,600 


3 


29 


266 


Baltimore 














1,578 


6,000 


4 


19 


668 




1 ,067 


3 , 750 


4 


18 


350 


Sparrows Point 


862 


1,866 


2 


13 


155 


Kenwood 


780 


1,755 


2 


13 


27 


Frederick 














1,163 


3,368 


3 


41 


284 


Prince George's 












Hyattsville 


742 


3,153 


4 


60 


150 


Washington 














1,120 


4,465 


4 


34 


169 


Wicomico 














734 


5,539 


8 


26 


477 



* Also has part-time teacher-librarian. 



the Commission is to teach communities how to provide them- 
selves with books and to foster the development of service rather 
than to distribute throughout the State books and other printed 
material from a central reservoir. 

Because of the limited State appropriation for books the Li- 
brary Commission was not in a position to supply all of the books 
requested. Also the requirement that the cost of transporting 
cases and packages of books be met entirely by the school re- 
questing them deterred some teachers who had requested a supply. 
The number of books sent to county white high school teachers 
which totalled 3,937 was 855 greater than for the preceding year. 
Twelve counties showed an increase in the number of volumes 
borrowed from the Commission for white high school pupils. 
(See Table 95.) 

Traveling libraries are collections of books loaned for a period 
of four months, at the end of which time they may be returned 
and exchanged for another collection or renewed for four more 
months. Thirty books are included in cases sent by parcel post; 
thirty-five in those sent by express. They are not fixed collections, 
but are selected to suit individual needs. The cost of transporta- 
tion must be met by the schools and guarantee of reimbursement 
for lost or damaged books is required. 



142 



1938 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



The package libraries of from one to twelve books are made up 
to meet special requirements for school essays, debates, individual 
needs, or professional needs of teachers. These are loaned for one 
month to anyone living in Maryland who is without access to a 
public library. For traveling and package libraries borrowed in 
1938, see Table 95. 

TABLE 95 



Services of the Maryland Public Library Advisory Commission to the County 
White High Schools, School Year 1937-38 







Traveling Libraries 


Package Libraries 




1 otal 


(30 to 35 books in each) 


(1 to 12 books in 


each) 
















I EjAK 


XT,-, r\f 

IN O. OI 


Number of 




Number of 




AND 


Volumes 














County 
















Supplied 






















Traveling 






Package 






Schools 


Teachers 


Libraries 


Schools 


Teachers 


Libraries 






Supplied 


Supplied 


Supplied 


Supplied 


Supplied 


Supplied 


1931 


3,236 


31 


47 


77 


27 


32 


125 


1932 : . 


4,562 


31 


48 


105 


49 


54 


189 


1933 


6,266 


35 


45 


148 


47 


57 


331 


1934 


4,148 


35 


39 


91 


37 


63 


324 


1935 


6,172 


42 


79 


148 


48 


67 


338 


1936 


3,723 


31 


46 


95 


24 


29 


134 


1937 


3,082 


el8 


e21 


61 


37 


48 


281 


1938 


3,937 


el6 


el7 


54 


35 


37 


405 


Allegany 


al8 


a. . . . 


a. . . . 


a. . . . 


al 


al 


all 


Anne Arundel . . . 


bc260 


bcl 


bcl 


bcl 


bc3 


bc3 


bc37 


Baltimore 


f781 


fl 


fl 


f3 


f5 


f5 


fl50 


Calvert 


c. . . . 


c. . . . 


c. . . . 


c. . . . 


c. . . . 


c. . . . 


c. . . . 


Caroline 


f8 


f. . . . 


f 


f. . . . 


fl 


fl 


f2 


Carroll 


c581 


c. . . . 


c. . . . 


c. . . . 


c3 


c3 


c39 


Cecil 


c494 


c5 


c6 


cl3 


c5 


c6 


cl2 


Charles 


bc5 


be. . . . 


be 


be. . . . 


bc2 


bc2 


bc2 


Dorchester 


c6 


c. . . . 


c. . . . 


c. . . . 


cl 


cl 


c3 


Frederick 


cl53 


c2 


c2 


c3 


cl 


cl 


c24 


Garrett 


155 


2 


2 


5 








Harford 


bc243 


bc2 


bc2 


bc5 


"bc2 


'bc2 


bci9 


Howard 


6 








1 


1 


6 


Kent 


f. . . . 


f! ! '. '. 


('.'.'.'. 


{'.'.'.'. 


f.... 


f. . .. 


f 


Montgomery. . . . 


cef673 


cef . . . . 


cef ... . 


cefl8 


cefl 


cefl 


cefl6 


Prince George's. 


189 


2 


2 


5 


1 


1 


6 


Queen Anne's. . . 


c39 


cl 


cl 


cl 


cl 


cl 


cl 


St. Mary's 


145 








2 


2 


23 


Somerset 
















Talbot 


bcf4 


bef ; ; \ ; 


bcL ; ; ; 


bcL ! ! ; 


befi 


bed 


bcf2 




d 


d 


d. . . . 


d. . . . 


d 


d 


d. . . . 


Wicomico 


cl04 


c. . . . 


c. . . . 


c. . . . 


cl 


cl 


c34 


Worcester 


73 








3 


4 


18 



a Cumberland Public Library supplied the schools in Cumberland from its own collection. 
In addition, The Library Commission took care of some of the needs of Cumberland schools 
and supplied other schools of the county as shown above. Circulation of Public Library not 
shown here. 

b Limited library service given to schools by County Library. Circulation not shown here. 

c Library privileges extended to any who can conveniently go to the county seat on the days 
when the library is open. Circulation not shown here. 

d County-wide library takes care of book service to schools. Circulation not shown here. 

e All traveling libraries borrowed by School Board and re-circulated to schools of the county 
from that office, therefore, number of schools and teachers served is not available. Circulation 
not shown here. 

f Improved library facilities and the appointment of teacher-librarians or full-time librarians 
account for better library service within the schools. There is less dependence upon outside 
sources for supplementary reading, but a greater demand for direction and supervision of 
library activities. 



Activities of Maryland Library Adivsory Commission 



143 



Several new library facilities were established during 1937-38: 
A library at Williamsport in Washington County ; the new Rock- 
ville Public Library in Montgomery County; the C. Burr Artz 
Memorial Library of Frederick ; and the Cecil County Library. In 
addition in 1937 the revitalization of the Middletown Public Li- 
brary accompanied the appointment of a full-time custodian paid 
from W.P.A. funds. The Berlin Library was completely reorgan- 
ized and installed in new quarters, with two full-time custodians 
paid by W.P.A. The Centreville Public Library building was re- 
modeled in 1936 and the Pocomoke Public Library has been placed 
in the new municipal building erected as a government project. 
Preliminary work in the establishing of rural library service in 
St. Mary's County was carried on as a W. P. A. recreational pro- 
ject. The Cumberland Library was given added support by the 
organization of the "Friends of the Library" group which looks 
forward to having 200 charter members. For further detail on 
public library service, see section on Elementary Schools, pages 54 
to 57. 

Extensive Works Progress Administration library projects were 
carried on in nine counties and in the office of the Commission 
under the supervision of the Maryland Public Library Advisory 
Commission. School and library books to the total of 44,202 w T ere 
reconditioned so that they could be put back into use and 13,461 
books in school libraries were organized and catalogued at a cost 
of $74,852. Books from five white high schools in three counties 
were brought to the Commission office for organization and cata- 
loguing. In addition one colored high school library and a number 
of white elementary school libraries were organized and cata- 
logued. Those counties which had no library projects had no 
suitable workers available. 

A course in library science for school librarians and teacher- 
librarians inaugurated at Western Maryland College in the sum- 
mer of 1936 was also given in 1937 and 1938. Twelve high school 
teachers and one elementary teacher were enrolled in 1938. In 
addition to the public school teachers, one member of the class 
came from a private school in St. Mary's County and five repre- 
sented public libraries. 

There were 52 dues paying members of the State Association 
of School Librarians which was organized to stimulate school 
library service and further professional interest. It holds one of 
its two annual meetings at the time the State Teachers' Associa- 
tion is in session. 

Expenditures for Health 

Expenditures for health service for white high school pupils by 
the county boards of education in ten counties totalled $2,316 in 



144 1938 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 

1938, $555 less than in 1937. The expenditure per pupil in these 
ten counties ranged between 3 cents and 36 cents. (See Table 92.) 

Since the work of the county health offices affecting schools has 
been described in detail on pages 58 to 65, it is suggested that the 
high school principals and teachers will find much of interest to 
them in reading this material. 



CAPITAL OUTLAY FOR WHITE HIGH SCHOOL PUPILS 

The capital outlay for county white high schools in 1938 totalled 
$616,723, a decrease of $729,748 under the outlay in 1937. One 
county had no capital outlay for white high schools and four 
counties spent less than $1,000 for this purpose. On the other 
hand, in one county the capital outlay for white high schools in 
1938 was over $153,000. For white senior high schools the Balti- 
more City capital outlay was $682,630 in 1938. (See Table 172, 
page 253, and Table XX, page 314.) 

The average capital outlay per county white high school pupil 
belonging was $18.84 in 1938, a decrease of $23.32 under 1937. 
The capital outlay per pupil ranged from less than $1.00 in five 
counties to $130 in one county and $159 in another county. The 
outlay per white senior high school pupil in Baltimore City was 
approximately $52. (See Table 90, page 133.) 



SUPERVISION OF COUNTY WHITE HIGH SCHOOLS 

In 1937-38 the high schools for white pupils in 5 western, 8 
central and 10 eastern counties of Maryland were under the super- 
vision of the three State high school supervisors, one of whom is 
assigned to each of these sections. Two of the counties in the cen- 
tral section, Baltimore and Montgomery, and Allegany in the 
western section, each has a full-time county supervisor of high 
schools. One in the eastern section, Anne Arundel, and one in the 
western section, Carroll, employed a part-time supervisor who 
devoted over three-fourths of his time to supervision of high 
schools. In addition to the three State supervisors of high schools, 
the State supervisors of home economics, of trades and industries, 
and of agriculture work with the teachers of these special subjects. 
The part-time supervisor of agriculture is also in charge of train- 
ing teachers of agriculture at the University of Maryland. 

At the programs of the regional principals' conferences in May, 
1938 the question of improvement of libraries was considered by 
taking up the following topics: The Present Library Situation 
in Maryland County High Schools; Development and Improve- 
ment of School and Community Libraries ; the Place of the School 
Library in the Educational Program; and How Library Facili- 
ties and Services Have Been Improved in Individual Schools. 



Capital Outlay; Supervision of County White High Schools 145 



The State Committee on Revision of the Commercial Course, 
under the direction of the State Supervisors of High Schools and 
the guidance of Dr. E. W. Barnhart, Chief of the Commercial 
Education Service, Department of the Interior, prepared in out- 
line form tentative courses of study in typewriting, stenography, 
bookkeeping, elementary business training, business arithmetic, 
salesmanship, economic geography, and social practices in busi- 
ness, which were sent to the commercial teachers of the State in 
August, 1937, for use during 1937-38. The purpose of this ma- 
terial is to give each teacher an opportunity to study it carefully 
and to make suggestions for additions, eliminations, or changes 
before final revision. 

To supplement the course of study material, during 1937-38 the 
high school principals and the teachers of commercial work sent 
questionnaires to the graduates of the commercial course in 1935, 
1936, and 1937, requesting information on types of position held 
and duties performed. The questionnaires were summarized for 
each high school and sent to the State Department of Education, 
where an extensive study of the material is being made. 

A committee of high school teachers of English sent in sug- 
gestions regarding placement by years of the content of the Eng- 
lish course of study which became the basis of the bulletin pre- 
pared by a State supervisor of high schools during the summer of 
1938. 

The director of vocational education and State supervisors of 
vocational agriculture, home economics, and trades and industries 
worked on a revision of the State plan for approval of the Divi- 
sion of Vocational Education, U. S. Department of the Interior. 

The supervisors of the State Department of Education ex- 
pressed a desire to use the "Evaluative Criteria of the Coopera- 
tive Study of Secondary School Standards," a project of the 
American Council on Education, in several high schools of the 
State experimentally for the purpose of finding out whether or 
not this material could be used as a means and basis of a program 
of improvement of secondary schools throughout the State. The 
teaching staffs in two high schools in the eastern, central and west- 
ern sections of the State cooperated with the staffs in making 
the surveys. 

For the individual school the evaluation meant: (1) deter- 
mination of a philosophy of education for the school and the pur- 
poses and objectives of the school; (2) determination on the basis 
of study, of the nature and needs cf its community and the second- 
ary population thereof; and (3) application of the Criteria to 
the school by the staff as a means of evaluating the school in its 
various phases. 



SCHOOLS FOR COLORED CHILDREN 



DECREASE IN COLORED ELEMENTARY SCHOOL ENROLLMENT 

The Maryland county colored elementary schools enrolled 24,133 
pupils in 1938, a decrease of 565 pupils under the enrollment in 
1937. Five counties had slightly higher enrollments in 1938 than 
in the preceding year, while only Anne Arundel and Prince 
George's enrolled more pupils in 1938 than in 1923. (See Table 
96.) 

TABLE 96 

Total Enrollment in Maryland Colored Elementary Schools, for Years 
Ending June 30, 1923, 1937 and 1938 



County 



Number Enrolled in 
Colored Elementary 
Schools 



1923 



1937 



1938 



County 



Number Enrolled in 
Colored Elementary 
Schools 



1923 


1937 


1938 


1,373 


834 


827 


1,150 


845 


813 


916 


782 


808 


1,188 


785 


719 


1,188 


711 


681 


1,093 


671 


631 


848 


594 


599 


548 


341 


344 


440 


352 


329 


377 


256 


254 


267 


237 


234 


*15.675 


*27,539 


t*27,185 


*46,745 


*52,237 


*51,318 



Total Counties . 

Anne Arundel . . 
Prince George's 

Baltimore 

Montgomery. . . 

Charles 

Somerset 

Wicomico 

Worcester 

Dorchester. . . . 

Calvert 

St. Mary's 



*31,070 



,853 
,781 
,942 
,898 
,803 
,255 
,675 
,088 
,947 
,343 
,405 



*24,698 

2,892 
2,844 
1,945 
1,694 
1,483 
1,476 
1,369 
1,324 
1,319 
1,087 
1,058 



*24,133 

2,872 
2,872 
1,928 
1,701 
1,456 
1,413 
1,307 
1,286 
1,268 
1,075 
1,002 



Talbot 

Frederick 

Harford 

Kent 

Caroline 

Queen Anne's. . . 

Howard 

Cecil 

Carroll 

Washington .... 
Allegany 

Baltimore City. . 

Total State 



* Totals exclude duplicates. 

t Includes estimate of enrollment in grades 7 and 8 of junior high schools and enrollment 
in vocational schools. 

For enrollment in counties arranged alphabetically, see Table II, page 294. 



The Baltimore City colored elementary school enrollment of 
27,185 pupils included 354 fewer pupils than were enrolled in 1937, 
the first decrease noted in the colored elementary enrollment in the 
City. The City enrollment exceeded that in the counties by over 
3,000 colored elementary pupils. Since 1923 the colored elemen- 
tary school enrollment in Baltimore City has increased by 11,510 
pupils as compared with a decrease of 6,937 pupils in the counties 
over the same period. The migration of the colored population 
from surrounding states as well as from the counties has un- 
doubtedly had its influence on the colored enrollment in Baltimore 
City. (See Table 96.) 

146 



Colored School Enrollment 



147 



A comparison of the colored enrollment in the counties and in 
Baltimore City in elementary and secondary public and non-public 
schools from 1927 to 1938 indicates the change which has come 
about. In 1927 the colored enrollment in the counties was greatly 
in excess of that in the City. Because the county enrollment has 
decreased gradually and the City enrollment has increased rapidly, 
since 1935 the City enrollment has exceeded the county enroll- 
ment. For the public schools the excess for the City did not 
appear until 1936. County colored public school enrollment has 
been decreasing each year since 1933, while the City enrollment 
has shown steady annual gains for the period from 1927 to 1937, 
the first decrease appearing in 1938. In Catholic schools for 
colored children the City enrollment has greatly exceeded the 
county enrollment and since 1932 this has also been the case for 
non-Catholic private schools. (See Table 97.) 

TABLE 97 



Comparison of Colored Enrollment in Counties and Baltimore City in Public 
and Non-Public Schools, 1927 to 1938 

















Non-Catholic 


Year 


Total 


Public Schools 


Catholic Schools 


Non-Public Schools 






















Baltimore 




Baltimore 




Baltimore 




Baltimore 




Counties 


City 


Counties 


City 


Counties 


City 


Counties 


City 


1927 


29,736 


17,479 


29,244 


16,454 


492 


1,025 






1928 


29,492 


18,659 


28,994 


16,958 


498 


1,184 






1929 


29,495 


23,165 


28,937 


22,018 


558 


1,147 






1930 


29,466 


24,391 


28,712 


22,978 


633 


1,334 


" 121 


' 79 


1931 


29,667 


24,776 


28,910 


23,452 


653 


1,254 


104 


70 


1932 


29,758 


26,377 


29,047 


25,083 


658 


1,234 


53 


60 


1933 


30,120 


27,546 


29,458 


26,028 


651 


1,439 


11 


79 


1934 


29,781 


28,789 


29,166 


27,202 


607 


1,449 


8 


138 


1935 


29,473 


29,901 


28,927 


28,353 


543 


1,403 


3 


145 


1936 


29,372 


31,071 


28,872 


29,504 


497 


1,438 


3 


129 


1937 


29,251 


31,724 


28,728 


30,284 


523 


1,440 




117 


1938 


29,031 


31,733 


28,467 


30,064 


541 


1,566 


' 23 


103 



Data regarding birth rates according to place of birth have been 
furnished by the Bureau of Vital Statistics of the State Depart- 
ment of Health for 1920, 1930, 1935, 1936, and 1937, and according 
to residence of mother for 1935, 1936, and 1937. With the ex- 
ception of increases in Calvert, Harford, and Worcester in 1930, 
and in Harford in 1937, every county shows a lower recorded 
birth rate in 1937 than in 1920. The birth rate according to 
residence of mother shows increases for eight counties from 1935 
to 1937. (See Table 98.) 



148 1938 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 

TABLE 98 



Recorded and Resident Birth Rates per 1,000 Colored Population 

(Reported by Bureau of Vital Statistics, Maryland State Department of Health) 



County 


Recorded Birth Rates 


Resident Birth Rates* 


1920 


1930 


1935 


1937 


1935 


1936 


1937 




28.6 


23.5 


20.7 


19.8 


22.9 


21.8 


23.0 


Allegany 


29.3 


18.7 


15.0 


18.4 


15.0 


20.3 


18.4 


Anne Arundel 


29.1 


25.6 


20.2 


20.6 


25.3 


26.4 


27.3 




25.2 


15.1 


9.3 


9.2 


16.8 


15.4 


16.3 


Calvert 


Q1 Q 




on n 


29 . 9 


29.0 


36. 5 


30.1 




26.1 


24.5 


20.7 


21.2 


21.7 


19.0 


21.7 


Carroll 


OA C 

oU . 


OO 1 


17.4 


15.7 


19. 7 


22. 5 


19.6 


Cecil 


26.3 


20.4 


25.7 


20.9 


25.3 


21.5 


19.7 




35.5 


30.8 


29.4 


29.1 


31.0 


31.4 


30.8 




31 .0 


22.2 


19.7 


21 .8 


19.5 


19.3 


21.2 


Frederick 


29.6 


26.1 


19.8 


16.9 


20.2 


20.5 


16.4 




19.2 


29.1 


20.1 


23.2 


22.0 


18.8 


26.5 




30.3 


20.2 


21.3 


17.7 


24.4 


28.1 


24.8 




29.0 


23.4 


19.4 


16.9 


20.1 


19.6 


17.3 




28.3 


22.7 


19.2 


16.9 


21.5 


20.0 


21.5 


Prince George's 


27.0 


21.7 


17.9 


13.9 


26.2 


21.4 


22.1 




22.3 


19.4 


18.7 


17.6 


18.9 


15.1 


21.5 




33.3 


27.4 


24.5 


21.6 


25.0 


24.2 


22.3 




31.2 


22.2 


22.2 


20.0 


23.4 


20.9 


20.6 


Talbot 


28.1 


19.8 


22.1 


22.4 


21.4 


16.8 


20.8 




19.7 


13.4 


12.6 


11.9 


13.0 


13.7 


12.6 




30.9 


25.9 


23.9 


21.8 


21.5 


17.9 


20.4 




26.8 


28.3 


23.4 


25.5 


24.0 


23.4 


26.1 


Baltimore City 


26.1 


22.6 


19.5 


20.1 


18.5 


17.4 


18.9 


Entire State 


27.5 


23.1 


20.0 


20.0 


20.5 


19.4 


20.5 



* Prior to 1935 birth rates were calculated on births occurring in the indicated areas and 
are shown under the heading "Recorded Birth Rates." For 1935, 1936 and 1937 birth rates 
are shown by residence of mother as well as according to location of birth. 



COUNTY COLORED ELEMENTARY SCHOOLS OPEN OVER 170 DAYS 

The dates for the opening of colored elementary schools in 1937- 
38 ranged from September 7 to October 4, while closing dates 
covered the period from May 13 to June 24. (See Table 99.) 

In 1938 the county colored elementary schools were open on an 
average of 170.4 days, two and one-half days longer than in 1936- 
37. The average length of session varied among the counties from 
approximately 160 days in Queen Anne's, the minimum number 
required, to over 190 days in Baltimore County. The colored 
elementary schools were in session for 180 days or more in eight 
counties in 1937-38. In Baltimore City the colored schools were 
open 190 days. (See Table 99.) 

As a result of the enactment of Chapter 552 of the Laws of 
1937, after September 1, 1939, the minimum session required in 
colored schools will be 180 days. 



Colored Birth Rates; Length of Session in Colored Schools 149 



TABLE 99 

Length of Session in Colored Elementary Schools, Year Ending June 30, 1938 



County 



County Average 

Baltimore 

Allegany 

Cecil 

Washington. . . . 

Carroll 

Montgomery 

Frederick 

Harford 

Prince George's. 

Talbot 

Howard 

Wicomico 



Average 
Days 
in 
Session 



170.4 

190.5 
189.0 
188.5 
185.0 
184.8 
184.7 
183.3 
180.0 
171.5 
168.4 
165.8 
164.0 



School Year 
1937-38 



First 
Day 
of 
School 



9/7 
9/9 
9/9 
9/7 
9/7 
9/13 
9/8 
9/13 
9/7 
10/1 
9/27 
9/13 



Last 
Day 
of 
School 



6/24 

6/17 

6/L5 

6/10 

6/8 

6/15 

6/10 

6/9 

5/31 

6/3 

5/31 

5/13 



County 



Dorchester. . . 

Charles 

Caroline 

St. Mary's 

Worcester .... 

Somerset 

Anne Arundel . 

Calvert 

Kent 

Queen Anne's. 

Baltimore City 

Total State 



Average 
Days 
in 
Session 



163.9 
163.5 
163.0 
163. Q 
163.0 
161.9 
161.3 
160.7 
160.5 
160.1 

190.0 

180.8 



School Year 
1937-38 



First 
Day 
of 
School 



9/20 
9/27 
9/21 
10/4 
9/13 
9/15 
9/8 
9/8 
10/4 
10/1 

9/14 



Except for two schools in Calvert County open fewer than 160 
days, no colored schools in 1937-38 had fewer than the minimum 
number of days required by law. In the preceding year, there 
were 15 schools in 6 counties which were open fewer than 160 
days. Of the two schools which had short sessions, one was open 
155 days and the other 133 days, the latter school having opened 
a month late. (See Table 100.) 

TABLE 100 

Number of Maryland County Colored Schools in Session Fewer Than 160 
Days, the Number of Davs Required by Law, by Year and bv Count v 

for 1938 



Year Number County Number 

1929 53 Calvert *2 

1930 41 

1931 34 

1932 12 

1933 32 

1934 10 

1935 17 

1936 20 

1937 15 

1938 2 



One school open 155 days and one school open 133 days. 



ATTENDANCE IN COLORED ELEMENTARY SCHOOLS IMPROVES 

The average attendance in the county colored elementary 
schools was 88.1 per cent in 1938, an increase of 3.1 per cent over 
the corresponding figure for 1937. In all but one county where 



150 



1938 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



the attendance remained the same, there was a higher percentage 
of attendance in 1938 than in the preceding year. Among the 
counties the per cent of attendance ranged from 81 in Calvert to 
nearly 94 in Allegany. In eight counties, 90 per cent or more of 
the colored elementary pupils belonging on the average attended 
school during 1937-38. (See Table 101.) 

TABLE 101 

Per Cent of Attendance in Colored Elementary Schools for School Years 
Ending in June, 1923, 1936, 1937 and 1938 



County 



County Average 

Allegany 

Queen Anne's. . 

Washington 

Wicomico 

Talbot 

Cecil 

Somerset 

Kent 

Prince George's . 

Frederick 

Anne Arundel . . 
Caroline 



1923 


1936 


1937 


1938 


County 


1923 


1936 


1937 


1938 


76.2 


84 





85 





88 


1 


Montgomery 


80 


8 


83 


4 


84 


4 


88.1 


















75 


4 


88 


7 


87 


2 


87.9 


87.4 


92 


6 


92 





93 


5 


Harford 


79 


9 


84 


4 


87 


7 


87.7 


73.1 


90 


2 


91 


3 


92 


3 


St. Mary's 


62 


9 


85 


6 


85 


4 


87.6 


81.7 


90 


4 


89 





91 


7 


Carroll 


72 





82 


1 


83 


6 


87.4 


84.8 


87 


3 


89 


9 


91 


5 


Dorchester 


74 


2 


77 


8 


82 


5 


86.6 


84.3 


87 


9 


89 


8 


91 


2 


Charles 


66 


8 


79 


4 


80 


4 


84.2 


74.4 


83 


9 


88 


5 


90 


8 


Howard 


71 





78 


1 


78 





83.6 


80.5 


86 


2 


87 


7 


90 


5 


Worcester 


80 


1 


78 


7 


79 


1 


82.5 


73.4 


84 


4 


87 


9 


90 





Calvert 


65 


3 


73 


1 


73 


6 


81.2 


76.4 


85 


3 


85 


4 


89 


8 


















84.6 


86 


5 


86 





89 


7 


Baltimore City .... 


*87 





*86 


8 


*86 


9 


*89.0 


71.2 


85 





85 


6 


88 


5 


















76.4 


83 


3 


83 


8 


88 


2 


Total State 


79 


9 


85 


4 


86 





88.5 



* Includes grades 7 and 8 of junior high schools. 

For attendance in 1938 by counties arranged alphabetically, see Table VII, page 301. 



TABLE 102 

Number Belonging and Per Cent of Attendance in Maryland County Colored 
Schools, by Months, for School Year Ending in June, 1938 





Average Nc 


. Belonging 


Per Cent of 


Attendance 


Month 














Elementary 


High 


Elementary 


High 




*17,482 


f3,644 


94 


7 


95 


9 




22,832 


4,156 


90 





93 


8 




23,349 


4,169 


89 


1 


93 


2 




23,292 


4,102 


85 


2 


91 


6 




23,241 


4,009 


85 


3 


93 







23,179 


3,946 


86 


4 


93 


2 




23,097 


3,867 


86 


9 


93 


1 




22 , 948 


3,784 


87 


9 


92 


3 




22,805 


3,735 


88 


8 


93 


3 




J7.386 


°2,139 


92 


9 


95 


2 




22,908 


3,953 


88 


1 


93 


2 



* For elementary schools attendance was not reported in September by Howard, Kent, 
Queen Anne's, St. Mary's and Talbot Counties. 

t For high schools attendance was not reported in September by Howard and St. Mary's 
Counties. 

t For elementary schools attendance was not reported in June by Anne Arundel, Calvert, 
Caroline, Charles, Dorchester, Howard, Prince George's, Queen Anne's, St. Mary's, Somerset, 
Wicomico and Worcester Counties. 

° For high schools attendance was not reported in June by Caroline, Howard, Prince 
George's, St. Mary's, Somerset, Wicomico and Worcester Counties, 



Attendance in Colored Schools 



151 



In Baltimore City the average per cent of attendance in the 
colored elementary schools in 1938 was 89 as against 86.9 in 1937. 
The average per cent of attendance for the State as a whole was 
88.5 in 1938. (See Table 101.) 

The average enrollment in the county colored schools reached 
its maximum in November, with 23,349 pupils belonging in the 
elementary and 4,169 pupils belonging in the high schools. The 
highest percentages of attendance in the colored schools were 
made in September and June, while the lowest percentages were 
reported in December. (See Table 102.) 

There were 2,521 or 10.7 per cent of the enrollment in the county 
colored elementary schools who were present under 100 days, and 
4,177 pupils, 17.8 per cent of the county colored elementary school 
enrollment, who attended school fewer than 120 days in 1938. 
These numbers and percentages were lower than corresponding 
figures recorded for any year from 1928 to 1938. (See Table 103.) 

TABLE 103 



Number and Per Cent of County Colored Elementary Pupils Present Under 
100 and 120 Days, by Year, 1928 to 1938, and by County, 1938 





Number Present 


Per Cent Present 


Year and County 












Under 


Under 


Under 


Under 




100 Days 


120 Days 


100 Days 


120 Days 



Number and Per Cent Present Under 100 and 120 Days by Year 



1928 


6,610 


9,563 


24 


8 


35 


9 


1929 


5,987 


9,045 


22 


9 


34 


6 


1930 


4 , 937 


7,842 


19 


3 


30 


6 


1931 


4,342 


7 , 039 


16 


7 


27 


1 


1932 


3,807 


6,139 


14 


8 


23 


8 


1933 


3 , 609 


6,074 


13 


9 


23 


4 


1934 


4,070 


6,603 


15 


9 


25 


9 


1935 


3,968 


6,391 


15 


8 


25 


5 


1936 


3 , 907 


6,370 


16 





26 





1937 


3,358 


5,555 


14 


1 


23 


4 


1938 


2,521 


4,177 


10 


7 


17 


8 


Number and Per Cent Present Under 100 and 120 Days, by County, 1937-38 


Queen Anne's 


3 


19 




5 


3 


4 




5 


12 


2 


2 


5 


2 


Cecil 


16 


18 


4 


8 


5 


5 




58 


85 


7 


3 


10 


8 


Baltimore 


131 


199 


7 


1 


10 


9 


Carroll 


17 


37 


5 


4 


11 


7 


Washington 


17 


29 


7 





12 





182 


337 


6 


7 


12 


3 




58 


104 


7 


4 


13 


2 




104 


170 


8 


2 


13 


3 


Kent 


46 


99 


6 


6 


14 


3 


Somerset 


119 


203 


8 


9 


15 


1 




180 


273 


11 





16 




Talbot 


64 


140 


8 





17 


5 




57 


118 


8 


7 


18 







138 


240 


11 


2 


19 


4 




109 


206 


11 


2 


21 


1 


Anne Arundel 


377 


593 


13 


5 


21 


3 


Howard 


96 


140 


16 


8 


24 


5 




275 


416 


19 


9 


30 







245 


382 


19 


9 


31 





Calvert 


224 


357 


21 


2 


33 





152 1938 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 

The percentage of pupils present under 100 days in the in- 
dividual counties varied from less than 1 per cent to over 21 per 
cent. For pupils who attended fewer than 120 days, the percent- 
ages ranged from approximately 3 per cent to 34 per cent. De- 
creases under 1937 in the per cent of colored elementary pupils 
present under 100 days appeared in all except two counties and 
under 120 days in all the counties. (See Table 103.) 

NUMBER OF LATE ENTRANTS 

The number and per cent of late entrants after the first 15 days 
after the opening of county colored elementary schools in Sep- 
tember or October, 1937, because of negligence, indifference, or 
employment included 930 pupils, or 3.7 per cent of the total en- 
rollment. The chief cause of late entrance reported, negligence 
or indifference, affected 2.5 per cent of the county colored pupils, 
while employment caused the late entrance of 1.2 per cent of the 
colored elementary enrollment. (See Table 104.) 

TABLE 104 



Number and Per Cent of County Colored Elementary School Pupils Entering 
School After the First 15 Days, Because of Employment, Indifference, or 
Neglect, for Year Ending June 30, 1938 



County 


Total 
Number 
Entering 
Late 


Per Cent Entering Late by Cause 


Rank 


Total 


Indiffer- 
ence or 
Neglect 


14 Years 
or More, 
Employed 


Under 
14Years, 
Illegally 
Employed 


Indiffer- 
ence or 
Neglect 


14 Years 
or More, 
Employed 


Under 
14 Years, 
Illegally 
Employed 




930 


3.7 


2.5 


.7 


.5 








Queen Anne's. . 












1 


1 


1 


Allegany 


' ' "l 


' ' !9 


' ".9 






7 


1 


1 


Talbot 


11 


1.3 


.7 


' ' ^6 




4 


14 


1 


Prince George's 


46 


1.5 


.9 


.3 


".3 


8 


7 


13 




23 


1.6 


.8 


.6 


.2 


6 


13 


12 


Carroll 


6 


1.8 


1.2 




.6 


9 


1 


16 


Caroline 


14 


2.0 


.3 


1.6 


.1 


2 


20 


9 


Kent 


17 


2.3 


.5 


.3 


1.5 


3 


4 


21 


Dorchester .... 


32 


2.4 


.8 


.6 


1.0 


5 


10 


20 


Wicomico 


35 


2.6 


1.9 


.7 




10 


15 


1 




10 


2.7 


2.4 


.3 




15 


4 


1 




54 


2.8 


2.0 


.6 


' ".2 


11 


11 


10 


St. Marv's 


33 


3.1 


2.8 


.3 




17 


6 


1 


Washington .... 


9 


3.5 


2.3 


1.2 




13 


19 


1 


Frederick 


33 


3.9 


2.3 


1.6 




12 


21 


1 


Montgomery . . . 


70 


4.0 


3.2 


.4 


' ' A 


18 


8 


14 




34 


4.1 


2.4 


1.0 


.7 


14 


17 


17 


Worcester 


62 


4.6 


2.8 


.8 


1.0 


16 


16 


19 


Howard 


31 


5.1 


3.9 




. 5 


19 


12 


15 




86 


5.7 


4.5 


i!o 


.2 


20 


18 


11 


Anne Arundel . 


199 


6.8 


5 . 5 


.5 


.8 


21 


9 


18 


Calvert 


123 


11.0 


6.6 


2.3 


2.1 


22 


22 


22 



Among the counties the percentage of late entrants in the 
colored elementary schools for indifference or neglect or employ- 
ment ranged from none at all to 11 per cent. (See Table 104.) 



Colored Late Entrants to and Withdrawals from 153 
Elementary Schools 

FEWER WITHDRAWALS FROM COLORED ELEMENTARY SCHOOLS 

There were 1,709 pupils, 6.8 per cent of the colored elementary 
enrollment in 1938, who withdrew from school because of removal, 
transfer, death, or commitment to institutions, a decrease of 147 
pupils or .5 per cent under the withdrawals for these causes re- 
ported in 1937. In the individual counties, these withdrawals 
included from less than 2 per cent of the colored enrollment to 
15 per cent. (See Table 105.) 



TABLE 105 

Withdrawals by Cause from Maryland County Colored Elementary Schools 
by Year, 1928 to 1938, and by County for 1937-38 



Year 

AND 

County 



Withdrawals for 
Removal, Trans- 
fer, Commitment 
or Death 



Number 



Per Cent 



Withdrawals for Following Causes 



Total 
Number 



Total 
Per Cent 



Per Cent Withdrawing for 



Employ- 
ment 







Over and 


Mental 




Under 


and 




Compul- 


Physical 


Poverty 


sory At- 


Inca- 




tendance 


pacity 




Age 



Other 
Causes 



Withdrawals by Year 



1928 


2,130 


7 


4 


2,231 


7.8 


4.1 


1 





1 


2 


1.1 


.4 


1929 


2,109 


7 


5 


2,171 


7.6 


3.7 


1 


1 


1 


5 


.9 


.4 


1930 


2,100 


7 


6 


1,717 


6.2 


2.9 


1 





1 


2 


.8 


.3 


1931 


1,883 


6 


8 


1,405 


5.0 


2.2 




9 


1 





.6 


.3 


1932 


1,719 


6 


3 


1,146 


4.2 


1.2 


1 





1 





.6 


.4 


1933 


1,652 


6 





1,069 


3.9 


1.5 




7 


1 





.5 


.2 


1934 


1,773 


6 


5 


980 


3.6 


1.2 




7 




9 


.6 


.2 


1935 


1,746 


6 


5 


996 


3.7 


1.4 




7 




9 


.6 


.1 


1936 


1,809 


6 


9 


927 


3.5 


1.4 




6 




9 


. 5 


.1 


1937 


1,856 




3 


752 


2.9 


1.2 




5 






.4 


.1 


1938 


1,709 


6 


8 


706 


2.8 


1.1 




6 




5 


.5 


.1 



Withdrawals By County, 1937-38 



Carroll 


26 




7 


4 


1 


2 




3 


.6 






.3 




Anne Arundel 


141 


4 


8 


38 


1 


3 




4 


.3 




.3 


.3 




Washington . 


15 


5 


8 


5 


1 


9 


1 


5 








.4 




Pr. George's . 


253 


8 


5 


61 


2 







6 


' ' .8 






. 5 


' ' !i 


Kent 


36 


4 


9 


15 


2 


1 


1 


3 


.3 




A 




.1 


Harford 


46 


5 


5 


18 


2 


2 




5 


.1 


1 


.2 


' A 




St. Mary's . . 


90 


8 


5 


23 


2 


2 




9 






.3 


.3 




Queen Anne's 


99 


15 





15 


2 


4 




7 


!6 




.6 


.3 


' ' .2 


Calvert 


60 


5 


4 


27 


2 


4 


1 





.2 


1 


.0 


2 




Frederick .... 


54 


6 


4 


21 


2 


5 


1 


3 


. 5 




.4 


.3 




Dorchester . . 


85 


6 


5 


34 


2 


6 




8 


.2 




.9 


.4 


' ' .3 


Howard 


38 


6 


3 


16 


2 


6 




6 


.2 




.6 


1.0 


.2 


Cecil 


39 


10 


6 


10 


2 


7 


1 


1 


.3 


1 


.1 


.2 




Allegany .... 


4 


1 


7 




3 





1 


7 




1 


.3 






Somerset. . . . 


103 


7 


1 


45 


3 


1 


1 


5 






.9 






Charles 


120 


8 





47 


3 


1 


1 


2 


1.2 




.4 


' ' .2 


"a 


Worcester. . . 


107 


8 





43 


3 


2 


1 


4 


. 5 




.6 


. 5 


.2 


Baltimore. . . 


119 


6 


1 


64 


3 


3 


1 


6 


.3 




.3 


1.1 




Wicomico . . . 


62 


4 


6 


46 


3 


4 


1 


1 


.9 




.9 


.4 


' A 


Montgomery 


116 


6 


6 


63 


3 


6 


1 


2 


.6 




.6 




.5 


Caroline 


38 


5 


5 


29 


4 


2 


1 


2 


.1 


2 


. 5 


A 




Talbot 


58 


6 


8 


75 


8 




3 


4 


1.3 




.8 


3.0 


' " .2 



154 1938 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



The total number of withdrawals for causes other than those 
mentioned in the preceding paragraph included 706 colored ele- 
mentary pupils or 2.8 per cent, a decrease of 46 and of .1 per cent 
under similar figures for 1937, a smaller number and per cent 
than ever before reported. These withdrawals included 1.1 for 
employment, .6 per cent due to mental or physical incapacity, .5 
per cent because of poverty, .5 per cent who were below or above 
compulsory attendance age, and .1 per cent for other causes. (See 
Table 105.) 

In the individual counties these withdrawals in the colored 
elementary schools ranged from approximately 1 per cent to 9 per 
cent. (See Table 105.) 



EFFICIENCY IN GETTING AND KEEPING CHILDREN IN SCHOOL 

In order to sum up the various measures of school attendance 
which include per cent of attendance, late entrance, and with- 
drawals for preventable causes, the counties have been arranged 
in order according to their average rank in these three items for 
colored elementary schools. That county is considered highest 



TABLE 106 



An Index of School Attendance in County Colored Elementary Schools for 
School Year Ending June 30, 1938 



County 


Per Cent of 


Rank in Per Cent of 






















Attend- 


*Late 


tWith- 


Attend- 


*Late 


tWith- 




ance 


Entrants 


drawals 


ance 


Entrance 


drawals 


County Average 


88 


1 


3 


7 


2 


8 








Queen Anne's 


92 


3 






2 


4 


2 


1 


8 


Allegany 


93 


5 




9 


3 





1 


2 


14 


Prince George's 


89 


8 


1 


5 


2 





9 


4 


4 


Washington 


91 


7 


3 


5 


1 


9 


3 


14 


3 


Kent 


90 





2 


3 


2 


1 


8 


8 


5 


Carroll 


87 


4 


1 


8 


1 


2 


17 


6 


1 


Anne Arundel 


88 


5 


6 


8 


1 


3 


2 


21 


2 


Somerset 


90 


5 


1 


6 


3 


1 


7 


5 


15 


Cecil 


90 


8 


2 


7 


2 


7 


6 


11 


13 


Talbot 


91 


2 


1 


3 


8 


7 


5 


3 


22 


Wicomico 


91 


5 


2 


6 


3 


4 


4 


10 


19 


Frederick 


89 


7 


3 


9 


2 


5 


10 


15 


10 


St. Mary's 


87 


6 


3 


1 


2 


2 


16 


13 


7 


Dorchester 


86 


6 


2 


4 


2 


6 


18 


9 


11 


Harford 


87 


7 


4 


1 


2 


2 


15 


17 


6 


Caroline 


88 


2 


2 





4 


2 


12 


7 


21 


Baltimore 


87 


9 


2 


8 


3 


3 


14 


12 


18 


Montgomery 


88 


1 


4 





3 


6 


13 


16 


20 


Howard 


83 


6 


5 


1 


3 


6 


20 


19 


12 


Calvert 


81 


1 


11 





2 


4 


22 


22 


9 


Charles 


84 


2 


5 


7 


3 


1 


19 


20 


16 


Worcester 


82 


5 


4 


6 


3 


2 


21 


18 


17 



* Late entrance for employment, negligence, and indifference. The county having the 
smallest percentage of late entrants is ranked first. 

t Withdrawals for causes other than removal, transfer, commitment to institutions, or 
death. The county having the smallest percentage of withdrawals is ranked first. 



Index of Attendance; Colored Enrollment by Grades 



155 



which has a high percentage of attendance accompanying a 
low percentage of late entrance and withdrawal. A county which 
makes little effort to get its children to school at the beginning 
of the school term and permits them to withdraw before the close 
of the year may keep them in regular attendance while they are 
enrolled, but it is undoubtedly not helping all of its pupils to secure 
an education as well as a county which brings all of its children 
into school when the schools are opened, discourages withdrawals, 
and keeps up a high percentage of attendance. (See Table 106.) 

ENROLLMENT BY GRADES 

The enrollment in the county colored elementary schools in 
1938 was lower than for the preceding year in the first, third, 
fourth, seventh, and eighth grades. On the other hand the en- 
rollment in every year of high school showed increases in 1938 
over corresponding figures for 1937. (See Table 107.) 



TABLE 107 

Enrollment by Grades in Maryland County Colored Schools, School Years 
Ending in June, 1935, 1937 and 1938, and as of October, 1921 



Grade 


Number in Each Grade, 1938 


Number in Each Grade 


Increase 
1921 to 
1938 


Boys 


Girls 


Total 


1937 


1935 


1921 


1 


2,350 


2,054 


4,404 


4,641 


4,990 


9,804 


*5,400 


2 


1,876 


1,732 


3,608 


3,549 


3,781 


4.237 


*629 


3 


1,745 


1,619 


3,364 


3,476 


3,709 


3,741 


*377 


4 


1,745 


1,647 


3,392 


3,526 


3,625 


3,126 


266 


5 


1 ,596 


1,582 


3,178 


3,124 


3,278 


2,011 


1,167 


6 


1,442 


1.456 


2,898 


2,824 


2,964 


1,348 


1 ,550 


7 


1,215 


1,364 


2,579 


2,599 


2,683 


859 


1.720 


8 


7 


17 


24 


27 


31 


170 


*146 


Special Class . 


14 


8 


22 








22 


I 


689 


1,022 


1,711 


1,642 


1,326 


168 


1.543 


II 


480 


693 


1,173 


1,069 


754 


98 


1,075 


Ill 


316 


487 


803 


764 


507 


51 


752 


IV 


209 


t342 


t551 


438 


367 


6 


545 


Grand Total. . 


13,684 


14,023 


27,707 


27,679 


28,015 


25,619 


2,088 



f Includes one girl post-graduate in Dorchester County. 
* Decrease. 



When the 1938 grade enrollment is compared with that for 
1921, it is evident that there has been a marked reduction in 
enrollment in grades 1 to 3, and grade 8 in contrast with a notice- 
able gain in enrollment in grades 4 to 7 and every year in high 
school. This grade persistence through school is the result of 
more effective instruction resulting from improvement in the 
many elements which make up a good school system. 

It will be noted in comparing the first two columns in Table 107 
that the boys exceed the girls in grades 1 to 5, inclusive, and in all 
other grades, except the special class, there are more girls than 
boys. 



156 



1938 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



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Colored Enrollment by Grades; Elementary School 157 
Graduates 



The enrollment by grade in 1938 is given in detail for the in- 
dividual counties in Table 108. For the first time a special class 
for colored pupils was reported in Wicomico County with an en- 
rollment of 22 boys and girls. 

DECREASE IN GRADUATES OF COLORED ELEMENTARY SCHOOLS 

There were 1,790 graduates from the county colored elementary 
schools in 1938 who comprised 7.6 per cent of the total colored 
elementary school enrollment, a decrease of 133 in number and 
.5 in per cent under corresponding figures for 1937. This was due 
in several counties to the requirement that pupils have command 
of specific knowledge and use of subject matter before they be 
recognized as graduates of the elementary school. The graduates 
included 778 or 6.5 per cent of the boys and 1,012 or 8.8 per cent 
of the girls enrolled in the county colored elementary schools. 
(See Table 109.) 

TABLE 109 



Colored County Elementary School Graduates 



Year 


Number 


Per Cent* 


Boys 


Girls 


Total 


Boys 


Girls 


Total 


1923 


350 


637 


987 


2.3 


4.3 


3.3 


1924 


427 


706 


1,133 


2.9 


4.9 


3.9 


1925 


487 


705 


1,192 


3.4 


5.0 


4.2 


1926 


483 


820 


1,303 


3.5 


6.1 


4.8 


1927 


542 


909 


1,451 


4.0 


6.8 


5.4 


1928 


542 


984 


1,526 


4.0 


7.5 


5.7 


1929 


733 


1,077 


1,810 


5.5 


8.4 


6.9 


1930 


728 


993 


1,721 


5.6 


7.9 


6.7 


1931 


884 


1,101 


1,985 


6.7 


8.6 


7.6 


1932 


835 


1,134 


1,969 


6.4 


8.9 


7.6 


1933 


805 


1.105 


1,910 


6.1 


8.6 


7.4 


1934 


861 


1,136 


1,997 


6.7 


9.0 


7.8 


1935 


874 


1,190 


2,064 


6.9 


9.7 


8.2 


1936 


929 


1,244 


2,173 


7.4 


10.4 


8.9 


1937 


793 


1,130 


1,923 


6.5 


9.7 


8.1 


1938 


778 


1,012 


1,790 


6.5 


8.8 


7.6 



* Per cent of total elementary enrollment, exclusive of withdrawals for removal, transfer, 
commitment, and death, who graduated. 



In the individual counties the percentage of boys graduated 
varied from less than 4 per cent in Anne Arundel, Talbot, and 
Baltimore Counties to 13 per cent in Cecil. For girls the percent- 
ages ran from under 4 per cent in Baltimore County to nearly 14 
per cent in Carroll. In every county except Cecil and Dorchester 
there was a higher percentage of girls graduated than of boys. 
(See Chart 25.) 



158 



1938 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



CHART 25 



PER CENT OF GRADUATES IN TOTAL COUNTY COLORED 
ELEMENTARY SCHOOL ENROLLMENT - 1938 



County 

Total and 
Co. Ay. 

Kent 

Cecil 

Carroll 

Allegany 

Howard 

Charles 

St. Mary's 

Q. Anne's 

Frederick 

Wicomico 

Harford 

Montgomery 

Somerset 

Worcester 

Washington 

Caroline 

Talbot 

Calvert 

Pr. George* s 

Dorchester 

A. Arundel 

Baltimore 



Number 
Boys Girls 

778 



45 

22 
15 
12 
31 
69 
42 
25 
21 
45 
36 
68 
44 
46 
6 
21 
14 
22 
76 
42 
56 
20 



W^M Per Cent Boys 

1012 ^W^^W^7777777n 

42 EH3 



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Per Cent 
Girls 



5-55 



zza 



17 E 

22 

15 
31 



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Colored Elementary School Graduates and Non-Promotions 159 



NON-PROMOTIONS IN COLORED ELEMENTARY SCHOOLS 

There were 4,495 colored elementary pupils who were not pro- 
moted in 1938 or 19.2 per cent of the colored elementary school 
enrollment. This was an increase of 141 or .9 per cent over cor- 
responding figures for 1937, but a smaller number than was re- 
ported in any year preceding since 1923. The non-promotions in 
1938 included 2,676 boys or 22.3 per cent of the boys and 1,819 
girls or 15.8 per cent of the girls enrolled in county colored ele- 
mentary schools. (See Table 110.) 

TABLE 110 



Number and Per Cent of Non-Promotions in County Colored Elementary 

Schools* 



Year Ending in June 


Number 


Per Cent 


Boys 


Girls 


Total 


Boys 


Girls 


Total 


1923 


5,722 


4,616 


10,338 


38.3 


31.1 


34.7 


1924 


5,173 


4,104 


9,277 


35.5 


28.5 


32.0 


1925 


4.800 


3.700 


8,500 


33.2 


26.3 


29.8 


1926 


4,359 


3,334 


7.693 


31,5 


24.6 


28.1 


1927 


4,015 


3,091 


7,106 


29.5 


23.3 


26.4 


1928 


3.647 


2,657 


6,304 


27.1 


20.2 


23.7 


1929 


3,230 


2.361 


5,591 


24.2 


18.5 


21.4 


1930 


3,311 


2.343 


5,654 


25.4 


18.6 


22.0 


1931 


2,929 


2,022 


4,951 


22.3 


15.8 


19.1 


1932 


2,977 


1.983 


4,960 


22.9 


15.5 


19.2 


1933 


3,041 


2,230 


5,271 


23.2 


17.4 


20.3 


1934 


3,133 


2,184 


5.317 


24.3 


17.3 


20.8 


1935 


2.848 


1.959 


4.807 


22.4 


15.9 


19.2 


1936 


2.768 


1 .904 


4,672 


22.2 


15.9 


19.1 


1937 


2.601 


1,753 


4,354 


21.5 


15.0 


18.3 


1938 


t2 . 676 


tl,819 


t4,495 


22.3 


15.8 


19.2 



* Exclusive of withdrawals for removal, transfer, dtalh. or commitment to institutions, 
t Includes 2 boys and 2 girls in special class in Wicomico County. 



Among the counties the percentage of non-promotions for boys 
varied from under 11 per cent in five counties to 35 per cent in 
two counties. For girls the percentage of failure ranged from 6 
per cent or less in three counties to approximately 25 per cent 
in two counties. Cecil was the only county in which the percent- 
age of failures was higher for girls than for boys. (See Chart 26.) 

Reduction in Number and Per Cent of County Colored Pupils Over-Age 

The reduction in number and per cent of colored elementary 
pupils over-age is found in every county in the State. While the 
range in 1921 was from 53 per cent in the county having the 
lowest per cent of colored elementary pupils over-age to nearly 
75 per cent in the county having the highest per cent over-age, 
16 years later the corresponding percentages were 7 and 43, re- 



160 



1938 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



CHART 26 



NUMBER AND PER CENT OF COUNTY COLORED ELEMENTARY PUPILS 
NOT PROMOTED - 1938 



County 



Number 



Co.Av. 



Boys Girls 
1819 



Per Cent Boys EZlPer Cent Girls 



Total & 2676 C3XHHMMUHHBHHHMI 



32 
29 
17 



Kent 
Q. A. 

Carroll 
Cecil 18 
Allegany 16 
Wash. 12 
Charles 101 
Howard 50 



Mont. H5 
St. M. 88 
Wicomico^ -12 
Wore. H3 
Harford 74 
P. G. 295 
Fred. 96 
Dorch. I 56 
Somer. 168 
Talbot 98 
Calvert 182 
Caro. 102 
A. A. 499 
3alto. 325 



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229 



spectively. There are many factors such as supervision, training, 
and efficiency of teachers in discovering over-age pupils and ap- 
plying remedial measures which promote good school attendance, 
and make available special help to pupils needing it, which account 
for the improvement and differences among the counties. (See 
Chart 27.) 



Colored Elementary Non-Promoted and Over-Age Pupils 



161 



All of the counties, except five, had a smaller per cent of colored 
elementary pupils over-age in 1937 than in 1935. Of the five 
counties, three had a larger per cent over-age in 1937 than in 
1935, and two had the same percentage over-age in 1937 and in 
1935. (See Chart 27.) 

CHART 27 



NUMBER AND PER CENT OF COUNTY COLORED ELEMENTARY SCHOOL PUPILS OVER AGE 
NOVEMBER, 1921 and 1937 



County 

Total and 
County Average 

Frederick 
Carroll 
Queen Anne's 
Washington 
Kent 

Worcester 
Cecil 

Dorchester 

Talbot 

Wicomico 

Somerset 

Howard 

Caroline 

Allegany 

Charles 

Prince George's 

Anne Arundel 

Harford 

St. Mary's 

Baltimore 

Montgomery 

Calvert 



Number 
1937 



59 
30 
64 
29 
101 
195 
64 
230 
153 
246 
270 
117 
132 
51 
302 
588 
689 
200 
266 
549 
503 
435 



Per Cent 
1935 



1937 



5,274 26.1 



16.2 
13.4 
22.8 
11.8 _ 

15. e| 

18.5 
15.7| 

22. e 
23.2 
24.8 
21.3 
22.1 
18.9 
28.2 
28.8 
29.9 
27.4 
25.7 
32.2 
29.7 
36.6 
42.1 




1921 



IE] 



MM 


7L(^ 




2*8 


1*1 



"I 



2\\ 




H 






b9oJ 


ZS.5" 






m 






211 


l »•! 








'"1 









t Excludes 1.3 per cent in special class. 

Causes of Non-Promotions 

The chief causes of non-promotions reported by teachers for 
county colored elementary pupils were unfortunate home con- 
ditions and lack of interest. Nearly 8 per cent of the children 



162 



1938 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



failed for these reasons. Irregular attendance not due to sick- 
ness was given as the cause of non-promotion of 4 per cent of the 
pupils. Unfortunate home conditions, lack of interest, and irregu- 
lar attendance not due to sickness are all causes of non-promotion 
which should be reported less frequently as teachers do better 
work in holding the interest of children and in educating parents 
to the necessity for and value of regular school attendance. Per- 
sonal illness caused the retardation of 1.8 per cent of the colored 
pupils, mental incapacity was reported as the cause of failure of 
1.3 per cent of county colored pupils, and 1.2 per cent were re- 
tarded because they were 14 years old, or more, and employed. 
(See Table 111.) 

TABLE 111 

Causes for Non-Promotion of County Colored Elementary Pupils Not Pro- 
moted for Year Ending June 30, 1938 



Per Cent of Pupils Not Promoted by Cause 



County 


Total Not 
Promoted 


All Causes 


Unfortunate Home 
Conditions and 
Lack of Interest 


Irregular Attend- 
ance Not Due 
to Sickness 


j Personal Illness 


Mental 
Incapacity 


14 Years or 
Over Employed 


Late Entrance 


Transfer from 
Another School 


Other Causes 


Total and Average 


4,489 


19.2 


7.9 


4.0 


1.8 


1.3 


1.2 




.6 


1.7 


Kent 


46 


6.6 


4.6 


.3 


.6 


.3 


. 5 






.3 




45 


8.0 


2.8 


1.8 


1.1 


.2 


.7 


1.2 




.2 


Allegany 


21 


9.1 


3.5 


.9 


.9 


1.3 


1.7 


' ' .3 




.8 


Carroll 


29 


9.2 


3.8 


1.9 




2.6 


.6 






Cecil 


32 


9.7 


4.0 


1.5 


1.2 


1.2 




.3 


1.5 




Washington 


26 


10.7 


5.4 


2.5 


.4 




' ' .8 


1.2 


.4 






178 


12.9 


4.5 


4.3 


.9 


1.2 


.9 


.3 


.6 


' ' .2 


Howard 


74 


13.0 


3.7 


3.2 


1.2 


1.2 


1.6 


.4 


.5 


1.2 


Montgomery 


216 


13.2 


3.8 


4.4 


1.4 


.2 


1.1 


1.2 


.5 


.6 


St. Mary's 


137 


14.0 


4.2 


3.8 


2.4 


.4 


.8 


.6 


.6 


1.2 




179 


14.0 


6.1 




1.7 


2.6 


1.8 


1.3 


.4 


.1 


Worcester 


190 


15.4 


6.7 


'2^2 


1.0 


1.3 


2.5 


.5 


.2 


1.0 


Harford 


132 


16.8 


7.9 


3.7 


2.5 


.5 


.9 


.3 


.5 


.5 


Prince George's 


501 


18.3 


7.6 


3.7 


2.1 


1.1 


.6 


.9 


1.5 


.8 




158 


20.0 


13.5 


3.0 


1.4 




1.3 


.3 


.5 






250 


20.2 


6.7 


4.5 


1.0 


' 2.\ 


.8 


.6 


.3 


3^9 


Somerset 


273 


20.4 


9.4 


3.4 


2.0 


3.1 


.4 


.5 


.6 


1.0 


Talbot 


175 


21.9 


7.3 


2.4 


3.1 


2.4 


5.5 




.7 


.5 


Calvert 


267 


25.2 


9.3 


9.2 


1.1 


.7 


.7 


i'.s 


1.6 


.8 


Caroline 


173 


26.4 


12.5 


.8 


2.0 


4.6 


1.1 


.6 


1.5 


3.3 




833 


29.9 


13.6 


5.8 


2.5 


1.0 


.5 


.7 


.5 


5.3 


Baltimore 


554 


30.2 


11.6 


8.7 


2.3 


.6 


2.4 


.3 


.3 


4.0 



Number and Per Cent Over-Age by Grade 

A comparison of the number and per cent over-age by grades 
for 1921 and 1937 is given in Chart 28. Every grade shows a 
tremendous reduction in the percentage of over-ageness since 
1921. 



Colored Elementary Pupils Not Promoted and Over-Age 163 
CHART 28 



NUMBER AND PER CENT OF COUNTY COLORED PUPILS OVER AGE BY GRADE 
OCTOBER, 1921 AND NOVEMBER, 1937 



Grade 0ver A 6 e 

Number Per Cent I I 1921 1937 




Non-Promotions by Grade 

In 1938 the highest percentage of non-promotion in colored 
elementary schools was found in the seventh grade, 34.3 per cent 
for the boys and 24.9 per cent for girls. The next highest per- 
centage of failure occurred in the first grade with 29.7 per cent 
of the boys and 24.3 per cent of the girls not considered by their 
teachers as ready to undertake the work of the succeeding grade. 
The fifth grade had the lowest percentage of boys who were re- 
tarded, 16.7, while the third grade showed the minimum percent- 
age of retardation for colored girls, 11.4 per cent. Decreases in 



164 



1938 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



the number and per cent of failures under corresponding figures 
for 1937 occurred in the first, second, fifth, and sixth grades for 
boys, and in the first, second, and sixth grades for girls. (See 
Chart 29.) 

CHART 29 



1938 NON-PROMOTIONS BY GRADES* 
COUNTY COLORED ELEMENTARY SCHOOLS 

Number 

Grade Boys Girls Per Cent Boys EZZ2Per Cent Girls 



695 
343 
320 
369 
267 
260 
417 



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204 [uj3 

184 \^///////////mm 

210 ™ 
201 

175 Y^/WW////////A 

339 U^///////////////^ 



* Excludes non-promotions in special class in Wicomico County, and in the eighth grade in 
Washington County. 

Colored Pupils Are Completing More Work Before Leaving School 

The survival of pupils through the gradesf is another way of 
showing the improvement in the holding power of the county 
colored schools growing out of better school attendance, and 
greater interest in school work following more effective instruc- 
tion. (See Chart 30.) 

It is estimated that of every 100 children entering county 
colored public schools for the first time in any one year, in 1921, 
47 reached the sixth grade and 30 the seventh grade. Only 6 of 
these 100 entrants to the first grade entered high school and 2 
reached the third year of high school. Sixteen years later, cor- 
responding figures indicate that 99 entered grade 6, and 89 reached 
grade 7. The change in the number going to high school is even 
more marked. Of each 100 children first entering school, in 1937 



t Obtained by dividing the enrollment in each grade by the largest group of any one age. 



Colored Non-Promotions and Survival by Grades 



165 



there were 58 who went as far as the first year of high school, 
40 who reached the second year, 27 the third year, and 19 the 
fourth year. (See Chart 30.) 

CHART 30 



SURVIVAL OF 100 COUNTY COLORED FIRST GRADE ENTRANTS 
TO THE UPPER GRADES AND HIGH SCHOOL 



Grade | 1921 Wkm 1937 



I 




II 


[3 


III 


n 


IV 




CM 



STATE-WIDE TESTING PROGRAM 

During the school year 1937-38, over 6,000 colored pupils in 
the Maryland county elementary schools were given Form D of 
the Metropolitan Achievement Test Battery. Most of the counties 
tested grade 4 in the fall and grade 7 in the spring. 

The results have been expressed in terms of grade equivalent 
for the median score for each subject in each grade tested. The 
counties which tested in the same month have been ranked in 
order according to grade equivalent in Test 1, Reading. When- 
ever the grade equivalent attained, reached or exceeded the 
standard set by the authors of the test, it has been shown by an 
asterisk. (See Tables 112 and 113.) 



166 1938 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 

Except in spelling, the standard was reached or exceeded by 
colored pupils in many more counties in Grade 4 than in Grade 7. 
The median colored pupil in only a few of the six counties which 
tested Grade 5 and in none of the five counties which tested Grade 
6 reached or exceeded the standard. (See Tables 112 and 113.) 

TABLE 112 



Grade Equivalent for Median Colored Fourth Grade Pupil in Each Maryland 
County in Each Test of Metropolitan Achievement Battery, 
Form D, 1937-38 











Arithmetic 


















County 




















Hist. 










and Rank 


Read- 


Vocab. 








Eng- 


Lit. 


and 


Geog. 


Spell- 


No. 




ing 






Fund. 


Prob. 


lish 






Civics 


ing 


Tested 


Oct. Standard 


4.1 


4 


1 


4 


1 


4.1 


4.1 


4 


.1 


4.1 


4.1 


4 








3 9 


*4 


1 


* 4 


2 


3.9 


3.9 


4 





*4.2 


4 


3 


7 


1 887 


Wicomico 


*4.4 


* 4 


2 


* 4 


2 


*4.2 


*4.6 


*4 


.7 


*4.6 


*4.3 


* 4 


1 


118 




*4.3 


*4 


2 


* 4 


7 


*4.8 


*4.6 


* 4 


4 


*4.6 


*4.4 


* 4 


5 


186 


Talbot 


*4.2 


* 4 


3 


*4 


1 


*4.2 


*4 . 4 


* 4 


5 


*4 . 6 


*4.3 


3 


8 


99 


Anne Arundel. . . . 


*4.1 


* 4 


2 


*4 


4 


4.0 


*4.1 


4 





*4.1 


3.8 


3 


8 


339 


Worcester 


*4.1 


* 4 


2 


*4 


2 


3.8 


3.9 


*4 


1 


*4.2 


*4.2 


4 





123 


Washington 


4.0 


*4 


3 


* 4 


2 


*4.2 


*4.1 


* 4 


.5 


*4.7 


4.0 


3 


7 


26 




3.9 


4 





4 





3.8 


3.7 


4 





4.0 


3.8 


3 


1 


72 


Carroll 


3.9 


3 


9 


4 





3.9 


*4.3 


*4 


1 


*4.3 


4.0 


3 


4 


45 


Montgomery . . . 


3.8 


3 


9 


* 4 


1 


3.8 


3.6 


3 


9 


*4.2 


*4.1 


3 


3 


190 


Prince George's . . 


3.7 


* 4 


1 


*4 


1 


3.8 


3.6 


3 


6 


4.0 


3.5 


3 


8 


357 


Caroline 


3.7 


3 


8 


3 


9 


3.7 


3.6 


* 4 




*4.4 


*4.1 


3 


3 


85 


Kent 


3.7 


3 


9 


3 


8 


3.7 


3.6 


3 


9 


*4.2 


3.8 


3 


3 


83 


Dorchester 


3.7 


3 


7 


3 


8 


3.7 


3.2 


3 


3 


3.4 


3.0 


3 





164 


Nov. Standard . . . 


4.2 


4 


2 


4 


2 


4.2 


4.2 


4 


2 


4.2 


4.2 


4 


2 




Nov. Average .... 


*4.2 


* 4 


2 


* 4 


3 


*4.2 


4.1 


*4 


4 


*4.6 


*4.2 


3 


9 


705 


Queen Anne's. . . . 


*4.5 


* 4 


4 


* 4 


6 


*4.8 


4.1 


*4 


4 


*4.8 


*4.3 


3 


9 


75 


Cecil 


*4.4 


* 4 


4 


* 4 


5 


*4.2 


*4.5 


* 4 


4 


*4.6 


*4.3 


4 


1 


46 


Baltimore 


*4.3 


* 4 


3 


* 4 


4 


*4.2 


4.1 


* 4 


5 


*4.6 


*4.2 


4 


1 


271 


Frederick 


4.0 


* 4 


4 


* 4 


2 


*4.2 


*4.4 


4 


1 


*4.5 


3.8 


3 


9 


94 


St. Mary's 


3.9 


4 


1 


* 4 


3 


4.0 


3.9 


4 


1 


*4.6 


*4.2 


3 


7 


122 


Harford 


3.9 


4 


1 


4 


1 


3.9 


3.9 


* 4 


3 


*4.5 


4.0 


3 


4 


97 


Dec. Standard . . . 


4.3 


4 


3 


4 


3 


4.3 


4.3 


4 


3 


4.3 


4.3 


4 


3 




Dec. Average .... 


3.9 


3 


9 


4 


1 


3.9 


3.9 


3 


7 


*4.3 


4.2 


3 


8 


274 


Calvert 


4.2 


4 


1 


* 4 


6 


*4.6 


*4.3 


* 4 


3 


*4.3 


4.2 


4 


2 


119 


Charles 


3.8 


3 


8 


4 





3.8 


3.6 


3 


5 






3 


4 


155 



* Grade equivalent is at or above standard. 



Improvement in Test Results of 1937-38 Over 1933-34 

The Metropolitan Achievement Test in reading and arithmetic 
was given to county colored pupils during 1933-34, Form A being 
used, while in 1937-38 the complete or partial battery Form D 
was given. 

The difference between the grade equivalents for the median 
pupil and that for the standard pupil for 1933-34 and 1937-38 
have been set up side by side wherever the results were available 
in both years in reading, arithmetic fundamentals, and arithmetic 
problems. (See Table 114.) 



Results of Metropolitan Achievement Tests 167 
TABLE 113 



Grade Equivalent for Median Colored Seventh Grade Pupil in Each Maryland 
County in Metropolitan Achievement Battery, Form D, 1937-38 











Arithmetic 










County and Rank 










































No. 




Reading 


Vocab. 


Fund. 


Prob. 


English 


Spelling 


Tested 




7.4 


7 


4 


7 


4 


7 


4 


7 . 4 


7.4 






*7.7 


6 


6 


*7 


6 


6 


9 


6.7 


6.7 


' 27 




7 . 7 


7 


7 


7 


7 


7 


7 


7 . 7 


7 . 7 






7.3 


6 


6 


7 


4 


7 


4 


7 . 4 


6.9 


975 


Anne Arundel 


*8. 1 


7 


2 


*8 





*8 





7 . 5 


7.5 


299 


Wicomico 


*8.0 


7 


2 


* 7 


7 


* 7 


7 


*8.2 


7.0 


105 




*8 . 


6 


1 


6 


8 


7 





7.3 


*8 . 1 


37 




*7.7 


6 


5 


7 


4 


7 


2 


7.4 


7.0 


47 


Cecil 


7.5 


7 


1 


*8 





*7 


7 


*8.0 


*8 . 5 


42 




7.1 


6 


3 


6 


8 


*7 


9 


7.5 


*8.2 


76 


Howard 


6.9 


6 


3 


6 


7 


6 


7 


7.2 


6 3 


70 




6.8 


6 


1 


6 


3 


6 


7 


7.1 


5.8 


78 


Kent 


6.8 


6 


5 


6 


8 


6 


7 


7.4 


6.3 


91 




6.3 


6 


2 


6 


9 


6 


7 


7.0 


5.9 


130 


May Standard 


7.8 


7 


8 


7 


8 


7 


8 


7.8 


7.8 




May Average 


6.5 


6 


2 


7 





6 


9 


7.4 


6.7 


l',085 




7.7 


7 


1 


7 


6 


7 


5 


*8.0 


*8.1 


153 


St. Mary's 


7.5 


6 


7 


*7 


8 


*8 





*8.0 


*8.7 


114 


Frederick 


7.3 


6 


3 


7 


4 


7 


5 


7.7 


7.7 


95 


Worcester 


6.7 


5 


8 


6 


2 


6 


7 


5.5 


6.6 


102 


Talbot 


6.7 


6 





7 


3 


6 


9 


*8.2 


6.0 


62 


Prince George's 


6.6 


6 


3 


7 


3 


6 


9 


7.1 


6.6 


247 


Washington 


6.5 


6 


1 


5 


7 


6 


7 


6.8 


6.7 


20 


Dorchester 


6.3 


5 


8 


6 


6 


6 


3 


6.8 


5.8 


142 


Charles 


6.2 


6 





6 


1 


6 


4 


7.7 


5.9 


150 



* Grade equivalent is at or above standard. 



Reading 

In the fourth grade reading, out of 20 counties which reported 
the results of tests, only 4 were at or above standard in 1933-34, 
while 8 of 21 counties were at or above standard in 1937-38. In 
1933-34, the median pupil in one county was as much as nine 
months below standard, while in 1937-38 the median pupil in the 
county with the maximum months below standard was 5. Of the 
19 counties which reported for both years, 9 made gains, 8 showed 
poorer results, and 2 did not change. (See Table 114.) 

In seventh grade reading the difference between the median 
achieved and the standard median varied from extremes of to 
-20 in the twenty counties which tested in 1933-34. In these same 
counties in 1937-38 these differences ranged between +4 and -15. 
In contrast with eighteen counties which showed improvement 
over the period of four years, two counties registered poorer re- 
sults. Five counties were at or above standard in seventh grade 
reading at the later date compared with only one at the earlier 
date. (See Table 114.) 



168 



1938 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



Although much remains to be done in all the counties to im- 
prove the results of instruction in reading especially in the grades 
above the fourth, it is gratifying to realize the evidence of genuine 
gains made in most of the counties through a comparison of the 
results achieved in different forms of the same test given in 
1933-34 and 1937-38. (See Table 114.) 

TABLE 114 



Comparison Between Difference Between Median Grade Equivalent of Mary- 
land County Colored Pupils and Standard in Metropolitan Achievement 
Test in 1933-34 and 1937-38 





Difference Between Median and Standard Grade Equivalent in 




Grade 4 


Grade 7 








Arithmetic 






Arithmetic 


County 


Reading 


Funda- 


Reason- 


Reading 


Funda- 


Reason- 








mentals 


ing 






mentals 


ing 




1933- 


1937- 


1933- 


1937- 


1933- 


1937- 


1933- 


1937- 


1933- 


1937- 


1933- 


1937- 




34 


38 


34 


38 


34 


38 


34 


38 


34 


38 


34 


38 


Allegany 







+ 1 




— 1 







+ 3 


—6 


+ 2 


—5 


—5 


Anne Arundel 


—2 


'6 


—2 


+ 3 


—3 


— i 


—14 


+ 4 


—11 


+ 3 


—9 


+ 3 


Baltimore 


+ 2 


+ 1 


+ 1 


+ 2 


— 1 





—3 


— 1 


—5 


—2 


— 1 


—3 


Calvert 


— 1 


+ 3 




+ 3 














Caroline 


—2 


— 4 


—3 


—2 


—3 


—4 


—is 


—9 


— i6 


— ii 


— ii 


— io 


Carroll 


—2 


—2 


—2 


— 1 


—4 


—2 


—7 


+ 3 


—10 


—9 


—10 


—7 


Cecil 


+ 2 
—4 


+ 2 


+ 1 


+ 3 


— 1 





—7 


—2 


— 1 


+ 3 


—5 





Charles 


— 5 


—3 


—3 


—4 


—5 


—17 


—16 


—18 


—17 


—14 


—14 


Dorchester 


—3 


—4 


—4 


—3 


—4 


—4 


—18 


—15 


—16 


—12 


—10 


—15 


Frederick 





—2 


— 1 





—2 





—9 


—5 


—13 


—4 


—9 


—3 


Harford 


— 1 


—3 


— 1 


— 1 


—3 


—3 


—7 


—6 


—10 


—9 


+ 4 


+ 2 


Howard 


—3 


—2 


—2 


— 1 


—4 


—3 


—18 


—8 


—17 


—10 


—10 


—10 


Kent 


—2 


—4 


—3 


—3 


—3 


—4 


—13 


—9 


—17 


—9 


—11 


—10 


Montgomery 


—4 


—3 


—2 





—4 


—3 


—13 


—14 


—16 


—8 


—10 


—10 


Prince George's 


—9 


—4 


—7 





—9 


—3 


—17 


—12 


—15 


—5 


—14 


—9 


Queen Anne's 


—3 


+ 3 


—2 


+ 4 


—4 


+ 6 


—20 





—21 


—3 


—15 


—5 


St. Mary's 


—4 


—3 


— 1 


+ 1 


—4 


—2 


—18 


—3 


—15 





—10 


+ 2 


Somerset 




+ 2 




+ 5 




+ 7 














Talbot 


—4 


+ 1 


—4 





—5 


+ 1 


— ii 


— 11 


—18 


—5 


— ii 


—9 


Washington 





— 1 


— 1 


+ 1 


—1 


+ 1 


—4 


—13 


—14 


—21 


—9 


—11 


Wicomico 


—2 


+ 3 


— 1 


+ 1 


—3 


+ 1 


—15 


+ 3 


—15 





—8 





Worcester 


—2 





—2 


+ 1 


—3 


—3 


—16 


—11 


—18 


—16 


—11 


—11 


No. Compared 


19 


V 

19 


19 


20 


20 


20 






9 


16 


13 


18 


19 


11 






8 








3 




2 




1 




4 


No Change 




2 




3 




3 












5 



Arithmetic Fundamentals 

In arithmetic fundamentals in Grade 4, in only three of 20 
counties which tested in 1933-34 was the grade equivalent of the 
median colored pupil at or above standard, while this was the 
case for 14 of 21 counties in 1937-38. The maximum county below 
standard had -7 in 1933-34 in contrast with -3 in 1937-38. Sixteen 
of the 19 counties which reported for both years showed improve- 
ment, leaving but three which showed no change. (See Table 
114.) 



Results of Standard Tests; Colored High Schools 169 

In Grade 7 in 1933-34 twenty counties were below standard by 
as little as -1 and as much as -21 in contrast with 1937-38 when 
five counties were at or above standard and one was still -21 below 
standard. Every county except one showed gains over the four- 
year period. (See Table 114.) 

Arithmetic Problems 

The grade equivalent of the median fourth grade colored pupil 
tested in 20 Maryland counties was below standard by -1 in the 
highest county and by -9 in the lowest county in arithmetic 
problems in 1933-34. In contrast in 1937-38 eight counties were 
at standard or above and of the remaining 13 counties the lowest 
was -5 below standard. Of the 19 counties which tested grade 4 
in both years, 13 showed improvement in results, 3 had lower 
scores, and 3 made no change. (See Table 114.) 

For the 20 counties which tested Grade 7 in 1933-34 one was 
above standard by +4 and the remainder were below by from -1 
to -15. In 1937-38 five counties were at standard or above, but 
those below standard varied between -3 and -15. Of the twenty 
counties 11 showed better scores in 1937-38 than in 1933-34, 4 
had poorer scores and 5 made no change. The gains in arithmetic 
problems, though substantial, are not quite so general as those 
noted in reading and arithmetic fundamentals. The best efforts 
of teachers and supervisors are necessary if colored pupils are to 
learn to do the thoughtful reading applied to accurate use of the 
fundamentals required in solving arithmetic problems. (See Table 
114.) 

COLORED HIGH SCHOOLS 
Enrollment in Colored High Schools 

The steady increase in the county colored high school enrollment 
apparent since 1921 continued in 1938 with 4,334 pupils enrolled, 
304 more than were on roll in 1937. There was an increase of 
337 in average number belonging and 364 in average attendance 
in 1938 over corresponding figures for the preceding year. The 
total number of graduates, 486, was 113 more than were reported 
in 1937. (See Table 115.) 

In Baltimore City there were 2,879 pupils enrolled in the last 
four years of high school in 1938, 134 more than were enrolled 
in 1937. The average number belonging was 2,843 and the aver- 
age attendance 2,659. It will be noted that the counties continue 
to have a larger colored enrollment in the last four years of high 
school than the City. There were 442 graduates from the Balti- 



170 



1938 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



more City high school for colored pupils in 1938, just 44 fewer 
than in the counties. The Baltimore City figures include the 
Baltimore County pupils who attend the Baltimore City high 
schools at the expense of Baltimore County. (See Table 115.) 

TABLE 115 



Colored Enrollment, Attendance and Graduates in Last Four Years of High 
School in 22 Counties and Baltimore City, 1921 to 1938 



Year 
Ending June 30 


22 Counties 


Baltimore City 


Total 
Enroll- 
ment 


Average 
No. 

Belong- 
ing 


Average 
Atten- 
dance 


Four- 
Year 
High 
School 
Gradu- 
ates 


Total 
Enroll- 
ment 


Average 
No. 

Belong- 
ing 


Average 
Atten- 
dance 


Four- 
Year 
High 
School 
Gradu- 
ates 


1921 


251 




189 




801 


795 


722 


135 


1922 


368 




292 


"5" 


1,065 


1,029 


935 


123 


1923 


447 


400 


357 


30 


1 ,355 


1,336 


1,185 


147 


1924 


620 


541 


480 


30 


1,557 


1 , 503 


1,373 


139 


1925 


862 


741 


662 


32 


1,745 


1,681 


1,527 


246 


1926 


974 


850 


769 


58 


1,783 


1,783 


1,643 


378 


1927 


1,157 


1,000 


907 


97 


1,858 


1,849 


1,648 


315 


1928 


1,332 


1,137 


1,046 


117 


1,957 


1,923 


1,731 


230 


1929 


1,610 


1,451 


1,344 


121 


2,053 


2,028 


1,832 


283 


1930 


1,953 


1,725 


1,609 


169 


2,149 


2,114 


1,931 


283 


1931 


2,230 


2,001 


1,842 


192 


2,323 


2,247 


2,047 


285 


1932 


2,489 


2,253 


2,069 


288 


2,427 


2,362 


2,155 


312 


1933 


2,750 


2,494 


2,299 


297 


2,685 


2,562 


2,334 


364 


1934 


2,819 


2,478 


2,260 


318 


2,553 


2,483 


2,266 


329 


1935 


3,019 


2,703 


2,502 


322 


2,652 


2,600 


2,406 


391 


1936 


3,544 


3,206 


2,943 


369 


2,641 


2,629 


2,445 


375 


1937 


4,030 


3,616 


3,322 


373 


2,745 


2,724 


2,540 


368 


1938 


4,334 


3,953 


3,686 


486 


2,879 


2,843 


2,659 


442 



* Figures not reported before 1923. 



There were 4 colored high school pupils in a Catholic parochial 
school in St. Mary's County and 84 in parochial schools in Balti- 
more City. In addition there were 18 colored high school pupils 
enrolled in a Seventh Day Adventist School in Baltimore City. 
(See Tables III-V, pages 295, 297, 299.) 



Length of Session in Colored High Schools 

The colored high schools were open an average of 176 days in 
1938, an increase of 3.2 days over the length of the school session 
the preceding year. The length of session in the individual coun- 
ties varied from 162 days in Somerset to 188.1 days in Cecil and 
Allegany. Baltimore City high schools which are attended by 
Baltimore County pupils were open 190 days. Fourteen counties 
kept the colored high schools open more than 180 days, the mini- 
mum session required for approved high schools. According to 
the provisions of Chapter 552 of the Laws of 1937, the county 
colored schools will be required to have a session of at least 180 
days beginning September 1, 1939. (See Table 116.) 



Enrollment, Session, Attendance, Colored High Schools 171 



Two counties had a shorter session in the colored high schools 
in 1938 than during the preceding year. (See Table 116.) 

TABLE 116 

Length of Session in Colored High Schools, Year Ending June 30, 1938 



County 



County Averag* 

Baltimore 

Cecil 

Allegany 

Charles 

Montgomery. . . 
Washington . . . 

Kent 

Carroll 

Talbot 

Frederick 

Dorchester. . . . 
Calvert 



Average 
Days 
in 
Session 



176.0 

=190.0 
188.1 
188.1 
186.5 
186.0 
185.8 
185.1 
185.0 
184.0 
184.0 
183.7 
180.9 



School Year 
1937-38 



First 
Day 
of 
School 



9/9 

9/9 

9/8 

9/13 

9/7 

9/7 

9/7 

9/13 

9/8 

9/13 

9/8 



Last 
Day 
of 
School 



6/15 

6/17 

6/1 

6/15 

6/10 

6/10 

6/8 

6/9 

6/10 

6/10 

6/3 



County 



Queen Anne's. 
Anne Arundel . 

Harford 

Prince George'; 

Howard 

Wicomico .... 
Worcester .... 

St. Mary's 

Caroline 

Somerset 

Baltimore City 

Total State. . . 



Average 
Days 
in 
Session 



180.1 
180.0 
180.0 
173.2 
166.4 
164.0 
163.0 
163.0 
163 . 
162.0 

190.0 

181.9 



School Year 
1937-38 



First 
Day 
of 
School 



9/8 
9/8 
9/13 
9/7 
9/27 
9/13 
9/13 
10/4 
9/21 
9/15 

9/14 



Pupils attend schools in Baltimore City. 



Per Cent of Attendance in Colored High Schools 

In 1938 the average attendance in the county colored high 
schools was 93.2 per cent, an increase of 1.3 over the correspond- 
ing figures for 1937. The range among the counties was from 87 
per cent in Howard to 96 per cent in Allegany. All except six 
counties had better attendance in 1938 than in 1937. All but 3 
counties had over 90 per cent of attendance in the colored high 



TABLE 117 

Per Cent of Attendance in Colored High Schools, for School Years Endini 
in June, 1923, 1936, 1937 and 1938 



County 



County Average . 



Allegany 

St. Mary's 

Anne Arundel . 

Frederick 

Dorchester. . . 
Worcester 
Wicomico. . . . 

Carroll 

Queen Anne's. 
Montgomery . . 
Washington . . . 



1923 



89.3 
93.5 



88.9 
90.5 
87.4 



90.5 



1936 



91.8 

93.8 
95.7 
94.1 
89.2 
93.8 
94.7 
94.2 
94.8 
93.6 
95.1 
94.1 



1937 



91.9 

95.5 
96.2 
93,9 
92.1 
93.8 
93.5 
92.8 
93.2 
92.1 
94.0 
92.1 



1938 



93.2 

96.1 
95.8 
95.4 
95.3 
95^2 
95.1 
94.6 
94.1 
94.1 
93.9 
92.4 



County 



Harford 

Prince George's. 

Calvert 

Somerset 

Kent 

Charles 

Talbot 

Cecil 

Caroline , 

Howard 



Baltimore City. 
Total State 



1923 



86.3 
88.4 
87.3 



85.6 
t 



88.8 
88.9 



1936 


1937 


1938 


91.1 


88.9 


92.1 


89.6 


88.6 


91.9 


87.0 


87.4 


91.9 


90.8 


92.8 


91.6 


85.6 


91.8 


91.6 


87.9 


92.2 


91.6 


93.6 


92.4 


90.9 


86.6 


87.2 


89.6 


87.4 


84.4 


88.1 


t 


80.9 


87.2 


93.0 


93.2 


93.5 


92.3 


92.5 


93.4 



t Howard County had no colored high school previous to October, 1936. 



172 



1938 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



schools. The attendance in the last four years of high school in 
Baltimore City, 93.5 per cent, was higher by .3 than for 1937. 
(See Table 117.) 



Ratio of High School Enrollment to Total Colored Enrollment 

The ratio between the number belonging in the county colored 
high schools and the number belonging in colored elementary and 
high schools combined was 15.1 in 1938 as against 13.9 in 1937. 
In Baltimore City, this ratio which has remained fairly constant, 
increased by .2 to 9.4 in 1938. Pupils in Baltimore County who 
do their high school work in Baltimore City schools at the ex- 
pense of Baltimore County have been included with the figures 
for the counties. (See Table 118.) 



TABLE 118 

Ratio of "Number Belonging" in Colored High Schools to "Number Belong- 
ing" in Colored Elementary and High Schools Combined, for School 
Years Ending in June, 1924, 1936, 1937 and 1938 



1924 



2.0 

11.9 

4.0 
6.0 
2.3 
3.0 



6.7 
3.0 
4.7 
2.0 



1936 



U2.2 

28.5 
18.0 
22.3 
21.0 
11.4 
17.2 
19.7 
13.7 
14.1 
16.3 
14.7 



1937 



tl3 . 9 

32.0 
21.0 
21.4 
21.9 
14.6 
19.7 
17.9 
14.8 
16.6 
17.8 
14.5 



1938 



U5.1 

23.6 
22.3 
22.3 
21.6 
20.4 
19.8 
18.8 
18.1 
18.0 
17.6 
17.2 



County 



1924 



1936 



Worcester 

St. Mary's 

Somerset 

Prince George's . 

Harford 

Montgomery . . . 

Charles 

Anne Arundel . . 

Calvert 

Baltimore 

Howard 



Baltimore City. 
State 



1.6 
1.5 



1.8 
2.5 



9.2 
4.7 



11.2 
7.5 
12.9 
10.7 
13.7 
11 .8 
11.2 
8.3 
9.4 
3 t4.5 



*9.2 
10.7 



f Includes Baltimore County pupils in last four years of high school who attended Baltimore 
City schools at the expense of the County. 

* Excludes Baltimore County pupils in last four years of high school who attended Balti- 
more City schools at the expense of the County. 

° If the last five years in junior and senior high school work in Baltimoi'e City are included 
in obtaining the ratio, the figures become 7.4, 9.7 and 10.0 in 1936, 1937 and 1938. 
For individual schools, see Table XXV, pages 320-325. 



Among the counties the ratio of colored pupils in high school 
to total enrollment ranged from 4.5 in Howard to between 20 and 
24 per cent in six counties. Four counties had a smaller pro- 
portion of colored pupils in high school in 1938 than in 1937. 
(See Table 118.) 



County Colored High School Graduates Increase 

There were 486 graduates from county colored high schools 
in 1938, of whom 192 were boys and 294 were girls. This was an 
increase of 41 boys and 72 girls over corresponding figures for 
1937. Among the counties the number of boys graduated varied 



Per Cent in High School; Colored High School Graduates 173 



from 4 in Allegany, Cecil, and Charles to 27 in Wicomico. For 
girls the range was from 1 in Allegany to 25 in St. Mary's, 29 in 
Prince George's, and 38 in Wicomico. There were 167 boys and 
275 girls graduated from the Baltimore City senior high school 
of whom 10 boys and 14 girls were residents of Baltimore County. 
(See Table 119.) 

TABLE 119 

Graduates of Four- Year Maryland Colored High Schools 



High 
Schools 
in 


Boys Graduated in 


1936 


1 937 


1938 


Total Counties 


§161 


§151 


§192 




***+*22 


**2i 


***27 


Dorchester 


12 


20 


17 


Prince George's. . . . 


*15 


**12 


**ir> 


Anne Arundel 


tl3 


1 1 


*14 


Montgomery 


**10 


14 


*13 




7 


6 


11 




10 


4 


*9 


Carroll 


15 


(5 


8 




3 


5 


**8 


St. Mary's 






*8 


Somerset 


tie 


' ' 9 


*8 


Washington 


(5 




***8 


Harford 


4 


"5 


* 7 


Kent 


g 


4 


7 


Queen Anne's 


8 


2 


7 


Talbot 


8 


K 


7 


Calvert 


1 


9 


6 


Allegany 


4 


5 


*4 


Cecil 


3 


*6 


* 4 


Charles 


9 


*7 


4 




141 


***143 


**167 


Entire State 


x302 


x294 


x359 



High 

Schools 
IN 



Total Counties. . 

Wicomico 

Prince George's. . 

St Mary's 

Montgomery 

Anne Arundel 

Dorchester 

Calvert 

Frederick 

Somerset 

Charles 

Worcester 

Caroline 

Talbot 

Carroll 

Queen Anne's. . . . 

Harford 

Kent 

Cecil 

Washington 

Allegany 

Baltimore City . . . 

Entire State 



Girls Graduated in 



1936 


1937 


1938 


°208 


°222 


°294 


t*30 


23 


****38 


1**20 


*** 4 


*******29 




2 


*****25 


' "9 


****!8 


***24 


|**18 


***15 


***23 


** 14 


*18 


*21 


3 


4 


*16 


*9 


*8 


15 


*14 


*** 2 o 


**14 


t**10 


**16 


****13 


1-9 


*12 


13 


12 


21 


*11 


**10 


**12 


11 


t*5 


***7 


** 8 


t8 


*2 


*8 


*4 


*5 


*7 


*13 


8 


7 


4 


*6 


**6 


6 


4 


*4 


10 


7 


1 


|t***234 


***225 


*****275 


J442 


J447 


1569 



* Each asterisk represents a graduate who entered Bowie for teacher training in the fall 
following graduation from high school. 

t Each dagger represents a graduate who entered Bowie for teacher training one or more 
years after graduation from high school. 

§ The following county boys entered Bowie for teacher training in the fall following 
graduation from high school: 1931, 8; 1937, 6; 1938, 18. 

x The following boys from State public high schools entered Bowie for teacher training 
in the fall following graduation from high school: 1936, 8; 1937, 9; 1938, 20. 

° The following county girls entered Bowie for teacher training in the fall following 
graduation from high school: 1936, 16 ; 1937, 30; 1938, 38. 

} The following girls from State public hiprh schools entered Bowie for teacher training 
in the fall following graduation from high school: 1936, 19; 1937, 33; 1938, 43. 

For graduates of individual schools in 1938, see Table XXV, pages 320 to 325. 

Of the 359 boys graduated in 1938, 18 boys from the county 
schools and 2 boys graduated from the Baltimore City senior high 
school entered Bowie for teacher training in the fall of 1938. 
Of the 569 girls who graduated in 1938, Bowie received 38 en- 
trants who graduated from the county high schools and 5 from 
Baltimore City. Those from the City high school were residents of 
Baltimore County. Of the girls, 7 came from Prince George's, 5 
from St. Mary's, and 4 each from Wicomico and Charles. (See 
Table 119.) 



174 



1938 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



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Occupations of 1937 Colored High School Graduates 175 

Occupations of 1937 Colored High School Graduates During 1937-38 

Of the 147 boys graduated in 1937 from county colored high 
schools, there were 32 or 21.8 per cent who continued their edu- 
cation in colleges, normal schools, and trade schools during 1937- 
38. In addition to these, 29 or 19.7 per cent were either working 
or staying at home, 37 or 25.2 per cent were farming, fishing or 
in CCC camps, 8 or 5.4 per cent were in business or hotel work, 
21 or 14.3 per cent were employed in transportation as chauffeurs, 
porters, etc., and 11 or 7.5 per cent were doing factory or mechani- 
cal work. Of 231 girls graduated in 1937, 63 or 27.3 per cent 
were enrolled in colleges, normal schools, hospitals, and trade 
schools in 1937-38, the year following graduation. Besides those 
continuing their education 137 or 59.3 per cent were working or 
staying at home, 17 or 7.3 per cent were married, and 2 were 
working in stores. (See Table 120.) 

The Colored High School Program in 1938 

Since four years of English are required in all high school cur- 
ricula, practically every colored high school pupil was enrolled in 
English, 96 per cent took courses in social studies, 89 per cent 
were enrolled in mathematics classes, and 86 per cent received 
instruction in science. All the colored high school pupils in 10 
counties had courses in the social studies, in 9 counties every pupil 
was given instruction in mathematics, and in 6 counties all the 
pupils were enrolled in science classes. Courses in Latin were 
taken by 74 boys and 171 girls enrolled in 4 counties, and instruc- 
tion in French was received by 65 boys and 173 girls in 5 counties. 
(See Table 121 and Table XXVI, pages 326 to 331.) 

Industrial arts or vocational industrial education courses were 
taken by 40 per cent of all county boys enrolled in 11 counties. 
In addition to industrial arts, vocational agriculture including 
farm shop was taken by 34 per cent of the boys in 12 counties. 
Courses in both industrial arts and vocational agriculture were 
offered in the colored high schools in Dorchester, Wicomico and 
at Easton in Talbot County. Courses in general or vocational 
home economics were taken by 82 per cent of the girls enrolled 
in all but 6 county colored high schools. Both general and voca- 
tional home economics was offered in 3 counties. (See Table 121 
and Table XXVI, pages 326 to 331.) 

Classes in physical education were available to 184 boys and 
74 girls in 3 counties. Instruction in music was received by 650 
boys and 1,101 girls or 40 per cent of the colored high school 
enrollment in 9 counties. (See Table 121 and Table XXVI, pages 
326 to 331.) 



176 



1938 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



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Subject Enrollment, Test Results, Colored High Schools 177 



RESULTS OF IOWA SILENT READING TESTS 
Given to First and Second Year Colored High School Pupils in November, 1937 

The Iowa Silent Reading Test Advanced was given to 1,352 
first and 980 second year colored high school pupils in 21 counties 
of Maryland in November, 1937. An analysis of the results of the 
total scores for Tests 1 to 5 shows the following: 

There were 78.6 per cent of the first year and 58.5 per cent of 
the second year colored high school pupils who had scores below 
58, considered median for pupils beginning eighth grade work, 
with a grade equivalent of 8, the lowest grade equivalent pub- 
lished by the authors of the test. In only one county for first year 
colored high school pupils and only six for second year colored 
high school pupils was the median score equal to or higher than 
58, considered the reading ability attained by the average pupil 
entering grade 8. (See Table 122.) 



TABLE 122 



Results of Parts 1-5 of Iowa Silent Reading Test Given to First and Second 
Year Colored High School Pupils, November, 1937 







Number Making 














Each Score, 


Per Cent Making 


Cumulative 


Score 


Grade 


Nov., 1937 


Each Score 


Per Cent 




Equivalent 


















I 


II 


I 


II 


I 


II 


160-169 




.... 


1 




.1 




100 


150-159 






2 


' ".1 


.2 


100 ' ' 


99.9 


140-149 


13.8 




5 




. 5 


99.7 


130-139 


13.2-13.7 


" " 2 


8 


"!i 


.8 


99!9 


99.2 


120-129 


12.7-13.2 


8 


17 


.6 


1.8 


99.8 


98.4 


110-119 


12.0-12.6 


7 


16 


. 5 


1.6 


99.2 


96.6 


100-109 


11.4-11.9 


16 


34 


1.2 


3.5 


98.7 


95.0 


90- 99 


10.7-11.3 


21 


43 


1.6 


4.4 


97.5 


91.5 


80- 89 


9.9-10.6 


29 


59 


2.1 


6.0 


95.9 


87.1 


70- 79 


9.1- 9.8 


75 


84 


5.6 


8.6 


93.8 


81.1 


60- 69 


8.2- 9.0 


97 


108 


7.2 


11.0 


88.2 


72.5 


50- 59 


8.1 


171 


149 


12 '.7 


15.2 


81.0 


61.5 


40- 49 




. 260 


163 


19.2 


16.6 


68.3 


46.3 


30- 39 




279 


149 
98 


20.6 


15.2 


49.1 


29.7 


20- 29 




254 


18.8 


10.0 


28.5 


14.5 


10- 19 




118 


43 


8.7 


4.4 


9.7 


4.5 


0- 9 




14 


1 


1.0 


.1 




.1 


Total 




1,352 


980 














40.4 


52.4 























There were 89.3 per cent of the first year colored high school 
pupils who had scores below 71, considered standard for pupils 
who had had 8.2 years of schooling in November, 1937, and 74.3 
per cent of the second year colored high school pupils who had 
scores below 83, considered standard for pupils who had had 9.2 
years of schooling in November, 1937. (See Table 122.) 



178 1938 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 

THE BALTIMORE CITY COLORED SCHOOL PROGRAM 

There were 30,064 pupils enrolled in the Baltimore City colored 
schools in 1938, which included 23,776 in the elementary schools, 
499 in vocational schools, 3,917 in the junior high schools (grades 
7-9), and 1,872 in the senior high schools. The junior and senior 
high school figures included Baltimore County pupils who attended 
Baltimore City schools at the expense of the county. During the 
Baltimore City session of 190 days, the attendance was 88.4 per 
cent in the elementary schools, 87.9 in the vocational schools, 93 
per cent in the junior high schools, and 93.9 per cent in the senior 
high schools. The colored vocational school enrolled 283 boys 
taking auto shop, shoe repairing, tailoring, carpentry, bricklaying, 
and painting, and 216 girls taking cooking, dressmaking, and 
personal hygiene. (See Table II, page 294.) 

There were 176 physically handicapped colored children enrolled 
in 10 special classes for sight conservation, the orthopedic, open 
air, and the deaf. There were 1,787 mentally handicapped colored 
children in 71 opportunity classes, shop and special centers. Of 
the physically handicapped 76.7 per cent were reported as pro- 
moted or making satisfactory improvement, and of the mentally 
handicapped, 74.1 per cent made satisfactory improvement during 
1937-38. Sixty boys and 17 girls too handicapped to attend 
school were given instruction in their homes. (See Table 123.) 



TABLE 123 

Baltimore City Special Classes for Colored Pupils for Semester Ending 

June 30, 1938 













Promoted or 




Number 






Per Cent 


Making Satisfactory 






Average 


Improvement 


Kind of Class 


of 


Net 


Net 


of Atten- 








Classes 


Roll 


Roll 


dance 
















Number 


Per Cent 


Colored Physically Handicapped 


Total 


10 


176 


174 


89.9 


135 


76.7 


Sight Conservation 


5 


74 


72 


89.5 


59 


79.8 




3 


63 


63 


90.5 


52 


82.6 


Open Air 


1 


24 


24 


87.5 


20 


83.3 


Deaf 


1 


15 


15 


93.3 


4 


26.7 


Colored Mentally Handicapped 


Total 


71 


1,787 


1,721 


80.4 


1,325 


74.1 




43 


1,126 


1,105 


83.0 


788 


70.0 


Shop Center 


20 


512 


470 


73.6 


428 


91.1 




8 


149 


146 


82.6 


109 


74.7 



Six Baltimore City schools were open during the summer of 
1937 with a staff of 44 teachers for the instruction of 1,803 colored 
pupils. Of these 1,509 completed the work attempted, 1,439 
having taken review work, and 364 having done advanced work. 
(See Table 144, page 217.) 



The Baltimore City Colored Program; Colored County 179 
Teachers 

The Baltimore City evening schools enabled those employed 
during the day to continue their education after working hours. 
The evening school colored enrollment included 1,354 taking ele- 
mentary school work, 831 taking academic work in secondary 
schools, 269 in commercial courses, 765 receiving vocational train- 
ing in industrial work and home economics including cooking, 
personal hygiene, and textiles, and 533 who received training in 
parent education. (See Table 146, page 218.) 

CERTIFICATION AND SUMMER SCHOOL ATTENDANCE OF 
COLORED TEACHERS 

The annual report for 1936-37 showed on pages 167-168 and 
page 295 the certification status of 676 colored elementary and 
134 colored high school teachers as of October, 1937, as well as 
the number who had attended summer school in 1937. Since 
these data were for the staff of the school year 1937-38, they are 
not repeated in this report. 

TEACHER TURNOVER IN COLORED SCHOOLS 
County Elementary Schools 

TABLE 124 



Causes Reported for Resignations of Colored Teachers from Maryland County 
Elementary and High Schools from October, 1936 to October, 1937, 
with Comparative Figures for Preceding Years 



Cause of Resignation 


Elementary School 


High School 
















Oct. '34- 


Oct. '35- 


Oct. '36- 


Oct. '34- 


Oct. '35- 


Oct. '36- 




Oct. '35 


Oct. '36 


Oct. '37 


Oct. "35 


Oct. '36 


Oct. '37 


Inefficiency 


22 


25 


29 


4 


5 


6 


Voluntary 


17 






4 




5 


Teaching in another state 


2 


' 6 


6 


2 




2 


Illness 


7 


4 


5 


1 


1 




Left to study 




2 


4 


1 










. ... 


4 










"i 




4 


' ' *2 








3 


2 


3 






. . „ 


Low grade certificate 


1 




2 










4 


' ' 3 


1 








Retired 


5 


3 


1 








Teaching in Baltimore City 


3 




1 


1 






















3 


*io 






"t7 






68 


56 


67 


15 


18 


17 






8 


1 


2 




1 


Transfer to another county 


' 25 


21 


22 


7 


' ' 9 


9 


Transfer to high school 


2 













* Includes 2 who were dismissed for unprofessional conduct and 1 who was rejected by 
the medical board. 

t Includes 2 who were dismissed for immorality, 2 who took supervisory positions, and 
2 doing work other than teaching. 



180 1938 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 

There were 67 resignations from the county colored elementary 
schools from October, 1936, to October, 1937, an increase of 11 
over the number reported for the preceding year. These figures 
exclude 22 who transferred to another county and one on leave 
of absence. (See Table 124.) 



TABLE 125 



Number and Per Cent of Colored Elementary School Teachers New to Mary- 
land Counties for School Year 1937-38 Showing Those Inexperienced, Expe- 
rienced, and from Other Counties, with Comparisons for Preceding Years 



Year 

AND 

County 


New to 
County 


Change in 
Number 
of 

Teaching 
Positions 

October 
to 

October 


Number New to Colored Elementary 
Schools Who Were 


"NT > 
um- 


Per 
Cent 


y 

peri- 
enced 


From 
Another 
County 


E xperii 
In 

Counties, 
but not 

Teaching 
Year 
Before 


But 
New 

to 
State 


Substi- 
tutes 
and 
Other 


Total and Average: 


















1930-31 


°201 


26.4 


+ 5 


154 


32 


32 


1 1 


4 


1931-32 


°115 


15.4 


—6 


85 


24 


22 


5 


3 


1 noo QQ 


°!03 


13 9 




78 


13 


16 


6 


3 


1933-34 


°73 


10.2 


—14 


48 


25 


12 


8 


5 


1934-35 


°96 


13.2 


+ 8 


74 


13 


20 


1 


1 


1935-36 


°70 


9 7 


—3 


57 


31 


9 


2 


2 


1936-37 


°57 


Z.2 


—9 


39 


32 


12 


5 


1 




°47 


6.9 


— 23 


35 


21 


7 


1 


4 


Allegany 
























— 1 












Cecil 






—1 


















—3 


















—6 












Harford 




4.0 














Baltimore 


2 


4.7 


— i 


i 










Anne Arundel 


4 


5.3 


— i 


1 




2 






Montgomery 


3 


6.7 


— 1 


3 












3 


8.3 


+ 1 


2 










St. Mary's 


3 


9.1 














Queen Anne's 


2 


9.5 




i 












8 


10.3 


+ i 


5 




*2 








4 


10.8 


—l 


2 




1 








1 


11.1 ' 




1 










Charles 


5 


11.4 


— i 


3 










Kent 


3 


13.6 


—l 


1 


2 








Howard 


3 


15.8 




1 




2 






Carroll 


2 


18.2 




1 


'i 










8 


19.0 


—3 


5 


2 






1 


Worcester 


9 


25.0 


—3 


2 


6 










28.0 


+ 1 


6 


1 








Baltimore City: 


















Elem. and Occup. . 


39 


6.7 


+ 19 


35 


1 


1 


1 


1 




1 


4.5 


+ 1 


1 










Junior High 


12 


8.9 


+ 3 


8 




'2 


2 




Total State 


t°85 




■ —4 


70 


22 


8 


2 


5 



Total number and per cent new to counties and State as a group exclude transfers from 
other counties. 

t The Baltimore City vocational and junior high school teachers have been excluded from 
the State total. 



Resignations and Turnover in County Colored Schools 181 

Inefficiency continued as the chief cause of dismissal of county 
colored elementary teachers, 29 having been dropped for this 
reason. Seven teachers resigned voluntarily, 6 received appoint- 
ments in other states, 5 resigned because of illness, 4 left to study, 
4 left for maternity, and in 4 cases the positions were abolished. 
(See Table 124.) 

The 47 appointments new to the county colored elementary 
staffs for the school year 1937-38 were a smaller number than 
ever previously reported and represented 6.9 per cent of the total 
number of colored elementary teachers employed. These figures 
exclude 21 teachers who transferred to other counties. Of the 
number of new appointments, 35 were inexperienced, 7 had had 
experience in the counties, but were out of service the preceding 
year, one had taught outside of Maryland, and 4 were substitutes. 
(See Table 125.) 

In the individual counties the turnover in the colored elementary 
schools varied from none at all in 5 counties and less than 5 per 
cent in 2 counties to 25 per cent in one county and 28 per cent in 
another county. Eleven counties had a higher percentage of 
turnover in 1938 than in 1937. (See Table 125.) 

County High Schools 

There were 17 resignations from colored high schools, 1 less 
than for the year preceding. Of these withdrawals, 6 colored 
high school teachers were dismissed for inefficiency, 5 left volun- 
tarily, 2 received positions outside the State, 2 left to study, 1 was 
dropped because of low grade certificate, and 1 left without notice. 
In addition to these, 9 transferred to another county and 1 was on 
leave of absence. (See Table 124.) 

There were 38 teachers or 27.7 per cent of the teaching staff 
new to the county colored high schools in 1937-38, compared with 
28 new appointments or 23.9 per cent for the preceding year. 
Partly due to the increasing size of the high school staff, the turn- 
over has increased each year since 1933-34 w T hen the lowest num- 
ber of new appointments was made. In 18 of the 21 counties hav- 
ing a high school for colored pupils, from 1 to 5 colored teachers 
were new to the teaching staff in 1937-38. (See Table 126.) 

Turnover in Baltimore City Schools 

The turnover in the Baltimore City colored schools from 1930 
to 1938 is given in detail in Table 127. In 1937-38 the number of 
new appointments in the Baltimore City colored schools included 
36 in the elementary and occupational schools, of whom 34 were 
inexperienced. Of these new appointments 19 were explained by 
an increase in the number of teaching positions. With three addi- 



182 



1938 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



TABLE 126 



Number and Per Cent of Colored High School Teachers New to Maryland 
Counties for School Year 1937-38 Showing Those Inexperienced, Experi- 
enced, and from Other Counties, with Comparison for Preceding Years 



Year 
and 
County 


New to County 


Change in 
Number of 
Teaching 
Positions 
October 

to 
October 


Number New to Colored High Schools 
Who Were 


Num- 
ber 


Per 
Cent 


Inex- 
peri- 
enced 


From 
Another 
County 


Expe 

But 

New 

to 
State 




rienced 
In 

Counties 
But Not 
Teaching 
Year 
Before 


Substi- 
tutes 
and 
Other 




















Average t 


















1930-31 


°26 


30.2 


+ 8 


22 


1 


3 


1 




1931—32 


°35 


38.5 


+ 9 


28 


1 


5 


2 




i aqoso 


°28 


29.5 


+ 3 


21 


1 


1 


6 




i 09004 


°15 


15.8 


+ 2 


11 


1 


3 




i 


1 qqa.sk 


°20 


19.4 


+ 8 


17 


1 


1 


i 


1 


1935-36 


°25 


22.3 


+ 6 


15 




4 


1 


5 




°28 


23.9 


+ 9 


21 


1 


6 




1 




°38 


27.7 


+ 18 


30 


8 


8 






Cecil 






















































Prince George's. . 




6.7 


*+2 


i 












} 


14.3 


















20.0 




i 










Queen Anne's. . . . 


1 


25.0 




1 










Carroll 


1 


25.0 




1 










Montgomery 


2 


33.3 
















4 


33.3 


' +i 


'3 










Dorchester 


3 


33.3 


+ 1 


3 












2 


33.3 


+ 1 


2 










Anne Arundel .... 


5 


38.5 


+ 4 


4 










Allegany 


2 


40.0 


+ 1 




2 








Charles 


3 


42.9 


+ 1 




2 










3 


42.9 




'2 










Talbot 


4 


50.0 


'+i 


2 










Kent 


3 


60.0 


+ 1 


3 










Frederick 


5 


62.5 


+2 


3 










Calvert 


3 


75.0 


+1 


3 










Howard 


2 


100.0 


+1 


1 










Baltimore City 


















Senior High .... 


3 


4.8 


+ 3 


1 








2 


State 


°41 


20.6 


+ 21 


31 


8 


8 




2 



° Total number and per cent new to counties and State as a group exclude transfers from 
other counties. 



tional positions to be filled, there were 12 teachers new to the 
colored junior high school staffs, 8 of whom were without pre- 
vious experience. Appointments were made to fill 3 additional 
positions in senior high schools, and 1 additional position in the 
colored vocational school. (See Table 127.) 



Turnover in County High and Baltimore City Colored 183 
Schools 



TABLE 127 



Turnover of Colored Teachers in Baltimore City Schools 



Year 


Total 
Number 
of 

Colored 
Teachers 

New to 
Baltimore 
City 


Change 
in 

Number 
of 

Teaching 
Positions 


Colored Teachers New to Baltimore City Schools 


Inex- 
peri- 
enced 


Who Were Experienced 


From 
Other 
States 


But Not 
in 

Service 
Preceding 
Year 


In 

County 
Preceding 
Year 


In Other 
Type of 

Baltimore 
City 
School 


Other 


Elementary and Occupational Schools 


1929-30 


54 


+ 31 


43 


5 


3 


3 






1930-31. . . . 


44 


+26 


37 




4 


1 




1 


1931-32. . . . 


35 


+ 22 


25 




5 


3 


i 


1 


1932-33 


53 


—20 


27 








25 


1 


1933-34 


18 


+ 32 


12 




6 








1934-35 


60 


+ 5 


43 




6 


ii 






1935-36. . . . 


27 


+ 20 


23 




4 








1936-37. . . . 


32 


+ 10 


27 




5 








1937-38 


36 


+ 19 


34 






l 


i 





Vocational Schools 



1929-30 


3 


+ 1 








3 






1930-31. . . . 


1 
















1931-32. . . . 


3 


'+2 










i 




1932-33 


1 












l 




1933-34. . . . 


2 


"+i 














1934-35 


















1935-36 


i 


+ i 














1936-37 


2 


+ i 














1937-38 


1 


+i 


l 













Junior High Schools 



1929-30 


11 


+ 3 


3 


4 


2 




2 




1930-31 


14 


+ 8 


3 


4 




1 


5 




1931-32. . . . 


8 


+ 6 


5 






1 




i 


1932-33 


15 


—6 


7 








8 




1933-34. . . . 


1 


+ 9 








i 






1934-35. . . . 


5 


+ 2 


.3 












1935-36. . . . 


10 


+ 6 


6 






i 


i 




1936-37 


9 


+ 12 


8 












1937-38 


12 


+ 3 


8 


2 


*2 









Senior High Schools 



1929- 30. 

1930- 31. 

1931- 32. 

1932- 33. 

1933- 34. 

1934- 35. 

1935- 36. 

1936- 37. 

1937- 38. 



—2 
—2 
+ 1 
+ 2 
+ 3 



184 



1938 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



Schools in Which Newly Appointed Colored Teachers Received Their Training 

Of the 35 inexperienced teachers who received appointments 
in the county colored elementary schools in 1937-38, there were 
25 or over 70 per cent who were graduates of Bowie Normal 
School. Of the remaining 30 per cent, 4 graduated from Cheyney 
Normal School and 2 from Miner Normal School. (See Table 
128.) 

TABLE 128 

Normal School or College Attended by Inexperienced County Colored School 
Teachers and Those with Previous Experience in Other States Who 
Were New to Maryland Counties during the School Year 1937-38 



School or College 
Attended 



Total 

Bowie Normal School 

Cheyney Training School for 

Teachers, Pa 

Miner Normal School, Wash., D. C 
Elizabeth City, S. T. C, N. Caro. 

Shippensburg S. T. C, Pa 

Virginia State College for Negroes . 
West Chester S. T. C, Pa 



Newly 
Appointed 
Elementary 

School 
Teachers 



School or College 
Attended 



Total 

Hampton Institute 

Howard University, Wash., D. C 

Viginia S. T. C. for Negroes 

Morgan College, Baltimore 

A. and T., Greensboro, N. Caro. 

Columbia University, N. Y 

Dickinson College, Pa 

Dover S. T. C, Delaware 

Lincoln Univ., Pa 

Miami Univ., Ohio 

Tuskegee Institute, Ala 

West Va. State College 



Newly 
Appointed 
High 

School 
Teachers 



f38 

*8 
8 

***8 



* Each asterisk represents one teacher with experience outside the state, 
t Includes 8 teachers with experience outside the state. 



Of the 38 newly appointed colored high school teachers, 8 each 
were trained at Hampton Institute, Howard University, and Vir- 
ginia State College for Negroes, and 6 were graduates of Morgan 
College. (See Table 128.) 



MEN TEACHERS IN COUNTY COLORED SCHOOLS 

The counties employed 147 colored men teachers in 1937-38, 
who represented 18.1 per cent of the staff. The number of men 
employed has been increasing gradually since 1928, chiefly be- 
cause of the increase in the number of high school positions. Of 
the county colored elementary staff 13 per cent were men and of 
the colored high school teaching staff, over half were men in 1938. 
(See Table IX, page 303.) 

In Baltimore City 171 of the 838 colored teachers or 20.4 per 
cent of the staff were men. This was an increase of 7 in number 
and a decrease of .2 in per cent compared with corresponding 
figures for 1937. (See Table IX, page 303.) 



Training of New Colored Appointees; Men; Size of Class 



185 



SIZE OF CLASS IN COLORED SCHOOLS 
Elementary Schools 

The average class in the county colored elementary schools in- 
cluded 33.7 pupils in 1938 as compared with 33.3 in 1937. In the 
individual counties the average number of pupils belonging per 
teacher varied from approximately 26 pupils in Cecil to over 40 in 
Calvert and Baltimore Counties. Ten counties had larger classes 
in the colored elementary schools in 1938 than in 1937. (See 
Chart 31.) 

CHART 31 



AVERAGE NUMBER OF PUPILS PER COLORED ELE.EENTARY TEACHER 



County 1936 1937 1938 

Co. Average 33.2 33.3 



Baltimore 

Calvert 

Caroline 

Anne Arundel 

Montgomery 

Allegany 

Wicomico 

Worcester 

Frederick 

Pr. George* s 

Talbot 

Howard 

Dorchester 

Somerset 

Charles 

Kent 

Harford 

Washington 

St. Mary r s 

Carroll 

Queen Anne's 

Cecil 



42.2 
40.9 
33.6 
35.5 
32.1 
41.3 
34.9 
33.5 
31.1 
34.4 
28.7 
33.1 
27.6 
30.1 
33.4 
32.9 
30.8 
24.5 
32.6 
31.8 
30.3 
25.1 



41.6 
42.2 
36.2 
34.8 
35.0 
37.5 
35.5 
31.6 
31.1 
34.3 
26.4 
33.2 
32.7 
31.0 
32.1 
32.8 
29.4 
29.9 
29.8 
30.1 
29.0 
23.3 



Balto. City 37.3 37.5 





State 



35.0 35.2 



f Excludes 29.2 pupils in junior high and 21.6 pupils in vocational schools. 



186 



1938 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



In Baltimore City the average number of pupils belonging per 
colored elementary teacher and principal was 37, a decrease of .5 
under the corresponding figure in 1937. The average for the 
State as a whole was 35.3 pupils. (See Chart 31.) 

Colored High Schools 
CHART 32 



AVERAGE NUMBER OF PUPILS PER COLORED HIGH SCHOOL TEACHER 



County 
Co. Average 




Balto.City* 26.8 30.2 
State 28.0 30.5 



* Data for senior high schools only. Includes Baltimore County pupils whose tuition is 
paid by the county. 



The average number of pupils belonging per county high school 
principal and teacher was 29.6 in 1938, a decrease of 1.1 under 
the average in 1937. Among the counties the ratio of pupils to 



Number of Pupils and Average Salary Per Colored Teacher 187 



teachers ranged from approximately 13 in Howard to over 40 in 
Montgomery. In 8 counties the number of pupils per colored high 
school teacher was higher than in 1937. Baltimore City had a 
ratio of 28.3 pupils to each principal and teacher in the colored 
senior high schools. (See Chart 32.) 

AVERAGE SALARY PER COLORED PRINCIPAL AND TEACHER 

CHART 33 

Average Salary Per County Colored Elementary and High School Teacher 

and Principal 



* l.ooo 



* eoo 



i 600 



t 400 



4 200 



















1 


1 

1 
1 

1 

1 

t 

i 






'X 


V 

\ 

> 




t 

1 

/ 


1 

1 








\ 









































































































» l$ Wtt 1131 |9IS WS$ wi it» 



188 1938 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 

The average salary per colored elementary teacher increased by 
$92 from $653 in 1937 to $745 in 1938. In the latter year the cuts 
effected by the 1933 and 1935 legislation were restored in full. 
The 1938 average salary was the highest paid in the period from 
1923 to 1938, exceeding the maximum of $657 paid in 1933 before 
the cuts went into effect. The annual increase of teachers having 
standard professional training of graduation from a two- or 
three-year normal school course, and the greater stability of the 
staff shown by the decrease in turnover making more teachers 
eligible for increments due to experience, explains the gradual 
and steady increase from 1923 to 1933, inclusive, and part of the 
increase in 1938 when full restoration of salary cuts and incre- 
ments were made. A number of the counties increased salaries 
for colored teachers above the required State minimum in 1937- 
38. (See Table 129 and Chart 33.) 

TABLE 129 



Average Annual Salary Per County Colored Elementary Teacher, 1923-1938 



Year Ending June 30 


Average 
Salary 


Year Ending June 30 


Average 
Salary 


1923 


$513 
532 
546 
563 
586 
602 
621 
635 


1931 


$643 
653 
657 
595 
602 
636 
653 
745 


1924 


1932 


1925 


1933 


1926 




1927 


1935 


1928 




1929 


1937 


1930 


1938 







In the individual counties the average salary per colored ele- 
mentary teacher and principal varied from $581 to $1,328. Four 
counties paid salaries of less than $600, nine counties paid salaries 
between $604 and $658, five between $725 and $793, and three 
paid over $1,000. The average salary per colored elementary 
teacher and principal in 1938 was higher in every county than in 
1937, and except in one county was higher than in 1933 before 
salaries were cut. (See Chart 34.) 

Since salaries of colored teachers are paid on a monthly basis, 
the counties having the highest salaries are for the most part those 
which keep their schools open the longest time. Among the ten 
counties with the highest average salaries, only two, Anne Arundel 
and Prince George's, had their schools open fewer than 180 days. 
The minimum length of session required for colored schools is 8 
months or 160 days ; but 8 counties had the colored schools open 
at least 180 days, the minimum session required for the white 
schools. According to Chapter 552 of the laws of 1937, after 
September, 1939, all colored schools must be kept open at least 
180 days. 



Average Salary Per Colored Elementary Teacher 
CHART 34 



189 



AVERAGE SALARY PER TEACHER IN COLORED ELEMENTARY SCHOOLS 



County 1933 
Co. Average $ 657 



1936 1937 1938 
636 $ 653 




Balto. City 1614 1612 1670 
State 1056 1076 1120 




I Excludes $1,955 for junior high and $2,077 for vocational teachers. 

The average salary per colored elementary teacher and prin- 
cipal in Baltimore City in 1938 was $1,715, an increase of $45 
over the average salary paid in 1937. For the State as a whole 
the average salary paid in the colored elementarv schools was 
$1,207. (See Chart 34.) 

High School Salaries 

The average salary for county colored high school teachers and 
principals was $905 in 1938, an increase of $84 over 1937. This 
increase was due in part to the restoration in full in the State mini- 
mum salary schedule in September, 1937, of the salary cuts made 



190 



1938 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



by 1933 and 1935 legislation, and to increases above the minimum 
schedule made by some of the counties. Among the counties 
average salaries varied from $732 to $1,545. The length of ses- 
sion affects the salary paid because the salary schedule is set up 
on a monthly basis. In general, counties having higher salaries 
have a longer school year. Only one county paid less on the aver- 
age in 1938 than in 1937, due to the addition of inexperienced 
teachers to the staff. In three counties the average salary per 
colored high school principal and teacher was lower in 1938 than 
in 1933. (See Charts 33 and 35, and Table X, page 304.) 



CHART 35 



AVERAGE SALARY PER TEACHER IN COLORED HIGH SCHOOLS 



County 
Co.Averege 



1933 1936 1937 1938 
837 $ 817 $ 821 




Balto.City* 



1197 1290 1303 



* These teachers instruct Baltimore County pupils whose tuition is paid by the county. 



Average Salary Per Colored High School Teacher; Per Pupil 191 

Costs 

The average salary paid to a colored senior high school teacher 
and principal in Baltimore City was $2,302, as compared with 
$2,270 the preceding year. The average salary for 1938 in the 
State as a whole was $1,357. (See Chart 35, and Table X, page 
304.) 

COST PER PUPIL IN COLORED SCHOOLS 
Elementary Schools 
CHART 36 



COST PER PUPIL BELONGING IN COLORED ELEMENTARY SCHOOLS 
FOR CURRENT EXPENSES EXCLUDING GENERAL CONTROL 



County 1936 
Co. Average $ 27 

Cecil 
Allegany 
Montgomery 
Baltimore 
Washington 
Queen Anne* s 
Frederick 
Kent 
Carroll 
Harford 
Caroline 
Talbot 

Pr. George's 
St. Mary's 
Anne Arundel 
Dorchester 
Wicomico 
Charles 
Somerset 
Howard 
Worcester 
Calvert 

Balto. City 55 56 




Total 



40 42 



t Excludes $85 for junior hiffh and $136 for vocational schools. 



192 1938 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 

The average cost per pupil belonging for current expenses in 
the county colored elementary schools increased from $28.75 in 

1937 to $31.76 in 1938, a gain of $3.01. Among the counties costs 
ranged from $24 to $50. Cecil, which has the smallest classes, 
and Allegany, Baltimore, Montgomery, and Washington which 
pay the highest salaries have the highest per pupil costs, since 
these two items are the most significant in determining per pupil 
costs. A comparison of Charts 31 and 34 with Chart 36 indicates 
the effect of size of class and average salary on current expense 
costs. In only one county was the cost per colored elementary 
pupil lower in 1938 than in the preceding year. (See Chart 36 
and Table 159, page 238.) 

In Baltimore City the average cost per colored elementary pupil 
increased by $1.54 to $57.34 in 1938. The current expense cost per 
colored elementary pupil for the entire State was $44.52. (See 
Chart 36 and Table 159, page 238.) 

High Schools 

In 1938 the average current expense cost per county colored 
high school pupil was $58.54 as against $51.57 for the preceding 
year, an increase of $6.97, due in part to the higher salaries paid 
in 1938. Current expense costs per county colored high school 
pupil ranged from $36 to $120. Only one county had a lower 
current expense cost per colored high school pupil in 1938 than in 
1937. 

The average tuition payment of $132 for 201 Baltimore County 
pupils attending Baltimore City junior and senior high schools 
was an average of $95 per junior and $150 per senior high school 
pupil paid by Baltimore County. This exceeds the average cur- 
rent expense cost per senior high school pupil in Baltimore City — 
$105 — by $27, the difference being attributed to capital outlay 
and debt service costs. (See Chart 37 and Table 159, page 238.) 

GROWTH IN COUNTY COLORED HIGH SCHOOLS 

A comparison of enrollment, teaching staff, and salaries in 
colored high schools in 1938 with corresponding figures for pre- 
vious years shows the great strides which have been made. In 

1938 the counties enrolled 4,334 colored high school pupils, for 
whom 134 teachers were employed at a salary cost of $121,243, 
while in 1937 there were 4,030 pupils enrolled, with a staff of 118 
teachers, costing $96,912 for salaries. In 1925 the 15 counties 
which provided high schools for colored pupils enrolled 862 pupils 
who were taught by 43 teachers receiving $33,587 in salaries. 
(See Table 130.) 



Cost Per Colored High School Pupil; Growth Colored High 193 

Schools 



CHART 37 



COST PER FJPIL BELONGING IN COLORED HIGH SCHOOLS 
FOR CURRENT EXPEJSES EXCLUDING GEtJERAL CONTROL 



County 1936 1937 1938 
Co. Average t$ 52 t$ 52 t 



Baltimore 

Allegany 

Washington 

Howard 

Cecil 

Carroll 

Queen Anne's 

Pr. George's 

Frederick 

Kent 

Caroline 

Montgomery 

Anne Arundel 

Calvert 

Charles 

Dorchester 

Harford 

Talbot 

Wicomico 

St. Mary's 

Worcester 

Somerset 




Baltimore City + 104 t95 



;tate 



68 



f Average tuition payment to Baltimore City for 201 Baltimore County pupils attending 
Baltimore City junior and senior high schools, excluded from Baltimore City, shown separately 
for Baltimore County. 

Fifteen counties had more colored high school pupils enrolled 
in 1938 than in the preceding year. Fourteen counties reported 
a larger teaching staff in 1938 than in 1937, and in the remaining 
7 counties having high schools for colored pupils, there was no 
change in the number of teachers employed. Every county showed 
increases over 1937 in the salaries of colored high school teach- 
ers. (See Table 130.) 



194 



1938 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



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Growth in Colored High Schools; Vocational Education Aid 195 

FEDERAL AID FOR VOCATIONAL EDUCATION IN COLORED HIGH 

SCHOOLS 

Reimbursement from the Federal Government amounting to 
$15,366 towards the salaries of day high school instructors of 
vocational education was received by 16 counties in 1938. For 
agriculture, $6,610 from Federal funds were available for 12 
counties with 589 pupils enrolled, an increase of $4,058, of 5 coun- 
ties, and of 216 pupils over the year preceding. For vocational 
home economics, the Federal reimbursement of $5,950 was $4,931 
above 1937, the number of counties offering it 9 in 1938 instead of 
3 in 1937, and the number of pupils enrolled 575, more than in 
1937 by 488. For industrial education $2,806 of Federal funds 
was paid to five counties which enrolled 185 colored high school 
pupils. From State and county funds $4,229 was added to the 
$15,366 available from Federal funds for salaries of colored teach- 
ers of vocational education. (See Table 131.) 

TABLE 131 



Federal Aid for Vocational Education in Maryland County Colored Day 
Schools for Year Ending July 31, 1938 



County 


Enrollment and Expenditures From Federal Funds for 


Total 
Federal 
Aid 


Total 
State 
and 
County 
Funds 


Agriculture 


Vocational 
Home Economics 


Industrial 
Education 


Enroll- 
ment 


Aid 


Enroll- 
ment 


Aid 


Enroll- 
ment 


Aid 


Total Counties . 


589 


$6,610 


575 


$5,950 


185 


$2,806 


$15,366 


$4,229 


Allegany 






45 


1,416 


31 


708 


2,124 




Anne Arundel. . 








72 


105 


105 




Caroline 


' 25 


*68i 


"53 


48i 






1,162 


ijii5 


Carroll 


39 


398 










398 


397 


Charles 


90 


300 


129 


'384 






684 


684 


Dorchester. . . . 


24 


333 


27 


633 


' 35 


'544 


1,510 


333 


Frederick 










28 


816 


816 






' ii 


540 


' 18 


383 






923 




Kent 


67 


975 


110 


800 






1,775 




Montgomery . . . 


97 


800 










800 


800 


Prince George's 


51 


190 










190 


190 


Queen Anne's. . 






"58 


720 






720 




St. Mary's 


4i 


582 










582 




Talbot 


50 


*668 


' 9i 


t533 




'633 


*U,834 






62 


710 








710 


710 




32 


433 


' 44 


'600 






1,033 





* Includes $150 for travel of agriculture teacher, 
t Includes $80 for supervision of homo economics. 



TRANSPORTATION OF COLORED PUPILS AT PUBLIC EXPENSE 

The 2,665 county colored elementary pupils transported to 
school by 20 counties in 1938 at public expense represented 11.4 
per cent of the total county colored elementary enrollment. The 
1938 figures represented an increase of 938 in number of pupils, 



196 1938 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 

2 in number of counties, and 4.1 in per cent transported over 
corresponding figures for the preceding year. In the individual 
counties, the range in per cent of colored elementary pupils trans- 
ported ran from 1.1 per cent to 46 per cent. (See Table 132.) 

TABLE 132 



Colored Pupils Transported, Public Expenditures for Transportation, and 
Cost Per County Colored Pupil Transported for Year Ending July 31, 1938 



UOUNTY 


Elementary Schools 


High Schools 


Colored 
Pupils Trans- 
ported at 
Public Expense 


Cost of 
Trans- 
portation 


Cost 
per 
Colored 

Pupil 
Trans- 
ported 


Colored 
Pupils Trans- 
ported at 
Public Expense 


Cost of 
Trans- 
portation 


Cost 
per 
Colored 

Pupil 
Trans- 
ported 


Number 


Per Cent 


Number 


Per Cent 


1 otal linn Average 
























1936 


1,328 


5 


4 


$25,480 


$19 


19 


1,795 


50 


3 


$36,792 


$20.50 


1937 


1,727 


7 


3 


32,295 


18 


70 


2,395 


58 


5 


42,656 


17.81 


1938 


tt2,665 


11 


4 


48,590 


18 


31 


2,983 


67 


2 


59,552 


19.90 


Allegany 


7 


3 





110 


15 


72 


9 


12 





155 


17.25 


Anne Arundel 


t30 


1 


1 


843 


28 


10 


174 


40 


1 


6,413 


36.86 


Baltimore 


313 


17 


1 


5,279 


16 


87 


*154 


*76 


6 


*2,815 


*18.28 


Calvert 


116 


11 





1,824 


15 


73 


129 


92 


1 


3,330 


25.81 




302 


46 





4,274 


14 


15 


164 


84 


1 


2,321 


14.15 


Carroll 


55 


17 


5 


757 


13 


76 


65 


69 


9 


1.214 


18.68 




91 


27 


6 


2,825 


31 


04 


70 


76 


9 


2,166 


30.94 


Charles 


73 


5 


3 


1,000 


13 


70 


195 


88 


6 


3 , 548 


18.19 




189 


15 


3 


4,045 


21 


40 


183 


67 





4,191 


22.90 




210 


26 


6 


4,071 


19 


38 


96 


52 


7 


3,354 


34.93 


Harford 


46 


5 


8 


757 


16 


47 




































Kent 


i35 


19 


5 


2 \ 957 


21 


90 


128 


79 


6 


3^172 


24! 78 




345 


21 


1 


7,500 


21 


74 


225 


85 


2 


2,121 


°9.43 


Prince George's. . . 


t.... 












400 


86 


4 


8,276 


20.19 


Queen Anne's 


81 


14 


4 


2^060 


25 


44 


97 


88 


2 


3.202 


33 . 01 


St. Marv's 


136 


13 


9 


1,354 


9 


96 


183 


93 


8 


2,191 


11.97 


Somerset 


126 


9 


4 


1,315 


10 


44 


184 


65 





3,048 


16.57 


Talbot 


167 


20 


9 


3,180 


19 


04 


127 


62 





2,419 


19.05 


Washington 


19 


7 


9 


1,313 


69 


09 


7 


12 


3 


175 


25.00 


Wicomico 


165 


12 


9 


2,106 


12 


76 


255 


68 


7 


3,163 


12.40 




59 


4 


8 


1,020 


17 


29 


138 


52 


1 


2,278 


16.51 



t Excludes 29 pupils transported to Bowie Normal Demonstration School at State expense. 
% Excludes 55 pupils transported to Bowie Normal Demonstration School at State expense. 
* Pupils from Baltimore County transported to Baltimore City junior and junior-senior 
high schools at county expense. In addition each pupil paid 10 cents a day. 
° In addition each pupil transported paid $15 per year. 



The public expenditures for transporting county colored pupils 
to elementary schools in 1938 amounted to $48,590, an increase 
of $16,295 over 1937. The cost per colored elementary pupil 
transported, $18.31 in 1938, was 39 cents lower than the cor- 
responding cost in 1937. Costs per colored elementary pupil 
transported in the individual counties varied from approximately 
$10 to $69. (See Table 132.) 

There were 2,983 county colored pupils transported to high 
schools at public expense in 1938, an increase of 588 pupils over 
the number transported the preceding year. These pupils repre- 
sented 67.2 per cent of the total county colored high school en- 



Transportation of Colored Pupils; Rosenwald Libraries 



197 



rollment, an increase of 8.7 over the corresponding percentage of 
1937. Among the counties the percentage of colored pupils trans- 
ported at county expense in the 20 counties which provided trans- 
portation for high school pupils ranged from 12 per cent in one 
county to over 92 per cent in two Southern Maryland counties. 
(See Table 132.) 

The cost to the public of transporting pupils to county colored 
high schools was $59,552 in 1938, an increase of §16,896 over the 
corresponding amount spent in 1937. The cost to the public per 
pupil transported to colored high schools averaged $19.90 ranging 
from approximately $12 to $37. Each high school pupil trans- 
ported in Montgomery County paid $15 in addition to the county 
payment of $9.43, and each of the 154 Baltimore County colored 
pupils who attended junior and senior high schools in Baltimore 
City at a transportation cost to the county of $2,815 or $18.28 
per pupil, paid 10 cents per day additional toward the cost of 
transportation. (See Table 132.) 



colored school libraries aided by rosenwald fund 



TABLE 133 

Colored Schools Which Have Received Libraries Through Aid from the 

Rosenwald Fund 



County and School 



Allegany: 

Cumberland 

Anne Arundel: 

Brown's Woods . . 

Annapolis El 

Camp Parole 

Annapolis High . 

Churchton 

Bristol 

Furnace Branch . . 

Jones 

Galilee 

Queenstown 

Freetown 

Conway 

Eastport 

Galesville 

Calvert: 

Prince Frederick 

Mt. Hope 

Caroline: 

Federalsburg 

Lockerman High 

Ridgely 

Denton 

Jonestown 

Greensboro 

Carroll: 

Westminster 

Robert Moton El 

Johnsville 

Union Bridge 

Parrsville 

Cecil: 

Elkton 



Year 
Aid 
Received 



1937 

1929 
1931 
1932 
1933 
1935 
1935 
1935 
1935 
1935 
1935 
1935 
1935 
1936 
1936 

1929 
1931 

1928, 1938 

1936 
1936, 1938 

1936 

1938 

1938 

1929, 1937 
1935 
1935 
1935 
1935 

1929, 1937 



County and School 



Charles: 

Pomonkey 

Mason Springs. 
Dorchester: 

Cambridge .... 

Pine Street .... 
Frederick: 

Frederick 

Lincoln 

Be-ntz Street . . . 
Harford: 

Bel Air 

Havre de Grace 

Kalmia 

Howard: 

Cooksville 

Dorsey 

Ellicott City . . . 

Highland 

Elkridge 

Daisy 

Atholton 

Guilford 

Kent: 

Coleman 

Chestertown . . . 
Montgomery: 

Sandy Spring. . 

Rockville 

Takoma Park . . 
Prince George's: 

Marlboro 

Berwyn 

Brentwood . . . . 



Year 
Aid 
Received 



1929, 1936 
1938 

1932, 1937 
1936 

1928 
1931, 1936 
1935 

1928, 1936 
1931 
1935 

1936, 1937 

1938 
1936, 1938 
1936, 1938 
1936, 1938 

1938 

1938 

1938 

1938 

1928 
1930, 1938 

1928 
1929 
1930 

1928 
1 929 
1929 



County and School 



Pr. George's (Cont.) 

Highland Park . . . 

Meadows 

Queen Anne's 

Corsica 

Starr 

St. Mary's: 

Abell 

Hollywood 

Mechanicsville . . . 

Scotland 

Jarboesville 

Great Mills 

Banneker 

Oakville 

Milestown 

Piney Point 

Clements 

Fenwick 

Phyllis Wheatley. 
Somerset: 

Princess Anne 

Crisfield 

Mt. Vernon 

Talbol : 

Easton 

St. Michael's 

Wicomico: 

Sharptown 

Nanticoke 

Salisbury 

Rockawalkin 

Worcester: 

Snow Hill 

Berlin 

Girdletree 



198 1938 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 

During the school year 1937-38, the Rosenwald Fund distributed 
a number of well-selected sets of library books valued at $36 and 
$15 to the colored schools of the South. The county or school 
paid two-thirds of the cost for each set, while the Rosenwald Fund 
paid one-third of the cost plus transportation charges. The more 
expensive sets were received by 4 schools in 4 counties, while 
the less expensive ones went to 13 schools in 3 counties. The list 
of colored schools which have received libraries through the 
Rosenwald Fund from 1928 to 1938 is given in Table 133. 

SERVICES OF THE MARYLAND PUBLIC LIBRARY ADVISORY COMMISSION TO THE 
COLORED SCHOOLS OF MARYLAND, 1937-38 

Five colored teachers in four elementary schools in Dorches- 
ter, Harford, Howard, and Prince George's and one high school 
teacher in Dorchester borrowed 88 volumes from the Maryland 
Public Library Advisory Commission in 1937-38. The schools 
paid for transporting the books from and back to the Library 
Commission office at 400 Cathedral Street, Baltimore, Maryland. 
Bowie Normal School teachers also borrowed 10 volumes from 
the Commission. 

CAPITAL OUTLAY FOR COLORED SCHOOLS IN 1938 

Capital outlav for county colored schools totalled $137,683 in 
1938, as against S70,242 in 1937, an increase of §67,441. In 1938 
Prince George's invested over $40,000 and Anne Arundel nearly 
$23,000 in colored schools. Baltimore City's capital outlay of 
$12,036 for colored schools in 1938 made the total for the State 
as a whole, $149,719. (See Table 172, page 253 and Tables XXI 
and XXII, pages 315 to 316.) 

VALUE OF SCHOOL PROPERTY USED BY COLORED PUPILS 

School property, including sites and equipment, used by county 
colored pupils was valued at $1,867,388 in 1938, an increase of 
$231,440 over corresponding figures for the preceding year. The 
average value of school property per county colored pupil was 
$70 as against $61 in 1937. In the individual counties the range 
in value of school property was from S26 to 8226. Most of the 
counties with the lowest school property value per pupil were 
using a number of rented buildings, the value of which was not 
included in the figures given. All but 5 counties showed an in- 
crease in value of school property per colored pupil belonging. 
(See Chart 38 and Table 175, page 256.) 

School property used by colored pupils in Baltimore City was 
valued at $7,262,333 in 1938 or $250 per pupil belonging, a de- 
crease of $6 per pupil under similar figures for the preceding 
year. For the State as a whole the valuation of school property 
was $164 per colored pupil belonging. (See Chart 38 and Table 
175, page 256.) 



Libraries; Capital Outlay; School Property Value, Colored 

Schools 

CHART 38 



199 



VALUE OF SCHOOL PROPERTY PER COLORED PUBLIC SCHOOL PUPIL BELONGING 

County 1936 *1937 tl938 
Co. Average $ 59 $ 61 




Balto. City 263 256 
State 162 161 



* Includes value of equipment in most of the counties, but not in Baltimore City, 
t Includes value of equipment in all the counties, but not in Baltimore City. 



SIZE OF COUNTY COLORED ELEMENTARY SCHOOLS 

Of 425 colored elementary schools in the Maryland counties in 
1937-38, 273 employed one teacher, 111 two teachers, 19 had three 
teachers, 11 four teachers, 7 five teachers, and 4 had seven or 
more teachers. The largest county colored elementary school with 
a teaching staff of 13 was located at Annapolis, while the next 
largest with a staff of 11 teachers was found in Salisbury. The 



200 1938 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 

number of county colored elementary schools varied from 2 to 4 
in the counties having a small colored population to 43 in the 
county with the largest colored population. (See Table 134.) 



TABLE 134 

Size of Teaching Staff in Maryland County Colored Elementary Schools, 
Year Ending June 30, 1938 



Num- 
ber 
of 

Teach- 
ers 


Total No. Schools 


Allegany 


Anne Arundel 


Baltimore 


Calvert 


Caroline 


Carroll 


Cecil 


Charles 


Dorchester 


Frederick 


Harford 


Howard 


Kent 


Montgomery 


Prince George's 


Queen Anne's 


St. Mary's 


Somerset 


Talbot 


Washington 


Wicomico 


Worcester 


Total . 


425 


2 


38 


21 


19 


10 


9 


9 


30 


27 


15 


18 


13 


17 


25 


43 


17 


23 


25 


17 


4 


19 


24 




273 


1 


19 


11 


14 


7 


7 


6 


20 


23 


10 


13 


10 


14 


9 


18 


15 


16 


14 


14 


3 


12 


17 


*2 


111 




14 


6 


4 




2 


3 


8 


3 


3 


4 


2 


2 


14 


21 




6 


8 


2 




5 


4 


*3. . . 


19 




3 




1 


2 






2 




1 




1 




1 


1 


2 


1 


1 






1 


2 


*4. . . 


11 




1 


i 




1 










1 


i 




1 


1 


2 






1 








1 


*5. . . 




i 




3 






























1 


1 


1 






*7. . . 


1 






























1 
















*8. . . 


1 


















1 




























*11. . . 


1 










































1 




*13. . . 


1 




1 











































* Indicates that this number of teachers was employed the entire year or part of the year. 



There were 26 fewer elementary schools in operation in 1938 
than in the preceding year. With the exception of 6 two-teacher 
schools, the reduction was in one-teacher schools. An eleventh 
teacher was added to the staff of a school which employed 10 
teachers the previous year. In the individual counties there were 
from 1 to 5 fewer colored schools in 1938 than in 1937. (See 
Table 134.) 

Decrease in One-Teacher Schools 

During the school year 1937-38 there were 271 county colored 
elementary teachers or 40 per cent of the colored elementary 
staff giving instruction in one-teacher schools. This was a de- 
crease of 22 under the number of teachers in one-teacher schools 
in 1937 and of 151 under the corresponding number in 1920. (See 
Table 135.) 

In the individual counties the number of colored elementary 
teachers working in one-room schools ranged from 1 to 23, while 
the percentages varied from 15.6 to 71.4 per cent. (See Table 
136.) 



Size of Colored Elementary Schools 201 
TABLE 135 



Decrease in Colored One-Teacher Schools, 1920-1938 







Colored Elementary Teachers 




School Year Ending June 30 




In One-Teacher Schools 






Total 












Number 


Per Cent 






683 


422 


61.8 






694 


408 


58.8 


1922 




708 


406 


57.3 


1923 




712 


403 


56.6 


1924 




728 


395 


54.4 


1925 




721 


397 


55.1 


1926 




728 


394 


54.1 


1927 




725 


382 


52.7 


1928 




734 


378 


51.5 


1929 




734 


372 


50.7 


1930 




733 


363 


49.5 


1931 




739 


353 


47.7 


1932 




727 


344 


47.3 


1933 




718 


334 


46.5 


1934 




708 


331 


46.7 


1935 




714 


318 


44.5 


1936 




709 


309 


43.6 


1937 




697 


293 


42.0 


1938 




677 


271 


40.0 



TABLE 136 

Number and Per Cent of Teachers in Colored One-Teacher Elementary 
Schools in Maryland Counties, Year Ending June 30, 1938 



County 



County and Average 

Allegany 

Montgomery 

Anne Arundel 

Prince George's 

Baltimore 

Somerset 

Wicomico 

Washington 

Caroline 

Frederick 



Teachers in One- 
Teacher Schools 



Number Per Cent 



271 

1 

9 
17 
18 
11 
14 
12 
3 
7 
10 



40.0 

15.6 
20.2 
22.7 
22.9 
25.5 
33.3 
33.3 
37.5 
41.2 
43.5 



County 



Cecil 

Charles 

Worcester . . . 
St. Mary's. . . 

Harford 

Calvert 

Howard 

Talbot 

Dorchester. . 

Carroll 

Kent 

Queen Anne's 



Teachers in One- 
Teacher Schools 



Number Per Cent 



6 


46.2 


20 


47.6 


17 


48.6 


16 


49.8 


13 


52.0 


14 


56.0 


10 


58.8 


14 


60.9 


23 


62.2 


7 


63.6 


14 


63.6 


15 


71.4 



NUMBER OF APPROVED COLORED HIGH SCHOOLS 

There were 29 county colored approved high schools in 1938 
of which 27 were first group and 2 were second group schools. 
Since Baltimore County continued its practice of sending its 
qualified colored elementary school graduates to Baltimore City 



202 



1938 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 




Approved Colored High Schools 



203 



at the expense of the county, all of the counties offer high school 
opportunities to their colored population. In 1938 all the colored 
high schools offered four years of work, except the recently or- 
ganized school in Howard which gave three years of work prepar- 
atory to offering four years of work the following year, and two 
schools in Worcester with a two-year course, after which pupils 
are transported to the consolidated four-year school in the county. 
Baltimore City had two junior-senior high schools, one with 
grades 7-12, the other with grades 7-10, and two junior high 
schools with grades 7-9. (See Table 137 and Chart 39.) 



TABLE 137 

Number of Approved Colored High Schools, Year Ending July 31, 1938 
with Comparisons for Preceding Years 



Total 


Group 


n 


J2 


4 




t4 


16 


*n 


t5 


16 


*12 


t4 


19 


*13 


t6 


21 


14 


7 


24 


14 


10 


25 


17 


8 


26 


21 


5 


26 


23 


3 


26 


24 


2 


26 


24 


2 


28 


25 


3 


28 


25 


3 


29 


25 


4 


29 


27 


2 


1 


1 




1 


1 




1 


1 





County 



Caroline 

Carroll 

Cecil 

Charles 

Dorchester. . . . 

Frederick 

Harford 

Howard 

Kent 

Montgomery . . . 
Prince George's 
Queen Anne's. . 

St. Mary's 

Somerset 

Talbot 

Washington 

Wicomico 

Worcester 

Baltimore City. 

State 



Total 



X First group schools have as a minimum an enrollment of 30, an attendance of 25, and 
two teachers. They give a four-year course. Second group schools have as a minimum an 
enrollment of 15, an attendance of 12, and one teacher. They give a two-year course. 

* Includes the schools classified as group 1 and group 2 prior to 1928. 

t Classified as group 3 prior to 1928. 

x Junior high schools with grades 7 to 9, one having grades 7 to 10. 
u Junior-senior high school, grades 7-12. 
For individual schools see Table XXV, pages 320 to 325. 



SIZE OF COLORED HIGH SCHOOLS 

The 29 colored high schools employed from 1 to 12 teachers and 
enrolled from 26 to 407 pupils. The largest colored high school at 
Annapolis employed 12 teachers for 407 pupils, while the next 
largest at Salisbury had 12 teachers with 355 pupils enrolled. The 
median county colored high school emploj T ed 4.4 teachers and en- 
rolled 114 pupils. (See Table 138 and Table XXV, pages 320 to 
325.) 



204 



1938 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



TABLE 138 

Size of Teaching Staff and Size of Enrollment in County Colored High 
Schools for Year Ending June 30, 1938 



No. of 
Teachers 

Average 

No. 
Belonging 


Total 
No. 
High 
Schools 


Allegany 


Anne Arundel 


Calvert 


Caroline 


Carroll 


Cecil 


Charles 


Dorchester 


Frederick 


Harford 


Howard 


Kent 


Montgomery 


Prince George's 


Queen Anne's 


St. Mary's 


Somerset 


Talbot 


Washington 


Wicomico 


Worcester 


Number of Schools Distributed by Size of Teaching Staff 


All Schools 


29 


1 


1 


1 


1 


1 


1 


1 


1 


1 


2 


1 


1 


1 


3 


1 


2 


2 


2 


1 


1 


3 


1 


2 
5 
5 
7 
2 
4 
1 

1 

2 










































2 


2 




















1 
1 


1 










2 


i 
l 


1 






3 












1 












1 
1 


i 


1 




i 


4 


1 




1 




1 














5 














1 




1 






6 














1 




1 






1 


1 














7 








1 


























9 














1 




























12 




1 


































1 









































Number of Schools Distributed by Size of Enrollment 



26- 50. . . 


3 


51- 75. . . 


5 


76-100. . . 


5 


101-125. . . 


3 


126-150. . . 


4 


151-175. . . 


3 


176-200. . . 


1 


201-225. . . 


1 


226-250. . . 


1 


251-275. . . 


1 


351-375. . . 


1 


401-425. . . 


1 



THE PHYSICAL EDUCATION PROGRAM IN THE COLORED SCHOOLS 

The 1937-38 physical education program included seasonal inter- 
school activities (fall — soccer for boys, fieldball for girls ; winter 
— basket-ball for boys and for girls; spring — county track and 
field meets and baseball), intramural activities, badge test ac- 
tivities, organized recess activities, and general physical educa- 
tion class activities. 

The total individual participation in all parts of the program 
included 68 per cent of the colored boys and girls eligible, 7,523 
boys and 8,084 girls. (See Table 139.) 

There were 5,951 boys and 6,490 girls who took part in the 
badge test activities. Twelve counties had over 50 per cent of 
their boys and girls, two counties had over 50 per cent of the 



Size of Colored High Schools; Physical Education of Colored 205 

Pupils 

TABLE 139 



Participation of County Colored Pupils in Physical Education Program, 

1937-38 

















Total 


Pupil 








Intra- 


Inter- 


Number 


Enrollment 




Badge 


mural 


School 


Individual 


Eligible to 


County 


Tests 


Athletics 


Athletics 


Participations 


Participate 




Boys 


Girls 


Boys 


Girls 


Boys 


Girls 


Boys 


Girls 


Boys 


Girls 




5,951 


6,490 


2,338 


2,525 


4,326 


4,307 


7,523 


8,084 


11,019 


11,752 


A 11 


76 


38 


28 


29 


11 


8 


101 


90 


103 


134 




491 


680 


90 


90 


532 


425 


700 


815 


963 


1,035 




376 


456 






345 


377 


430 


507 


574 


622 


Calvert 


201 


204 


' 34 


' 62 


24 




217 


224 


599 


661 




225 


278 


55 


125 


40 


"59 


225 


307 


255 


346 


Carroll 


108 


137 


182 


188 


130 


153 


182 


204 


195 


223 


Cecil 


172 


174 


7 


4 


129 


132 


174 


174 


211 


208 


Charles 


284 


256 


42 


26 


51 


50 


320 


306 


861 


867 


Dorchester 


426 


371 


110 


112 


473 


331 


571 


556 


809 


781 


Frederick 


335 


349 


70 


75 


83 


77 


351 


374 


412 


411 


Harford 


246 


254 


93 


74 


256 


258 


310 


316 


441 


439 




147 


125 






161 


108 


176 


128 


208 


146 


Kent 


219 


189 






226 


206 


272 


250 


328 


324 


Montgomery 


347 


365 


195 


137 


203 


156 


414 


415 


692 


705 


Prince George's 


*745 


*745 










*745 


*745 


853 


986 


Queen Anne's 


173 


189 


247 




220 


i93 


270 


256 


313 


308 


St. Mary's 


280 


342 


295 


362 


323 


348 


451 


514 


604 


659 


Somerset 


*125 


*125 










*125 


*125 


462 


517 


Talbot 


188 


218 


283 


248 


209 


249 


330 


330 


520 


555 




52 


46 


27 




92 


103 


126 


139 


137 


150 


Wicomico 


446 


599 


461 


635 


482 


686 


588 


795 


683 


864 




289 


350 


119 


127 


336 


388 


445 


514 


796 


811 



* Estimated. 



boys and two over 50 per cent of the girls above the third grade 
participating in badge test activities. All the tests were given 
on the school grounds under the supervision of the classroom 
teachers. In this way a child found deficient in parts of a test 
was given additional opportunities to complete the test. Requi- 
sitions for badges were sent to the county superintendent in 
December, March, and May. 

The intramural athletic program consists of regularly scheduled 
competitive seasonal sport activities in which all pupils partici- 
pate at least once each week. The emphasis should first be placed 
on the intramural program with the interschool program as an 
outgrowth. The intramural program takes place on the school 
grounds at a regularly scheduled time, before or after school, or 
during school hours, between natural homogeneous groups within 
the school. The participation of pupils as officials and in carrying 
on administrative duties helps develop leadership and citizenship. 
Carroll, Queen Anne's, and Wicomico for boys and girls, Talbot 
for boys and St. Mary's for girls showed the greatest participa- 
tion in intramural activities in 1937-38. (See Table 139.) 

Closely allied to this program is the play program of the ele- 
mentary school, which the teachers organize and supervise. 



206 1938 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 

There were 4,326 colored boys and 4,307 girls who took part 
in the interschool program. In ten counties more than 50 per cent 
participation for both boys and girls was reported and in two 
more counties more than 50 per cent of the boys played in inter- 
school athletics. 

The champions for 1937-38 were as follows: 



Game Eastern Shore Western Shore 

Soccer (Boys) Centreville Highland Park 

Fieldball (Girls) Salisbury Pomonkey 

Basket-ball (Boys) Cambridge Lakeland 

Basket-ball (Girls) Salisbury 

Track and Field Wicomico Anne Arundel 



activities of state and county departments of health affecting 

colored children 

Colored children are included in the totals reported by the 
health officers for physical examinations, immunizations, inspec- 
tions, and other activities for the control of communicable dis- 
eases in the schools. (See Table 36, page 60.) 

Health conferences for the examination of children approaching 
school age in preparation for their admission to school were held 
in all of the counties having colored schools, except two, under 
the joint direction of the Bureau of Child Hygiene of the State 
Department of Health, and the County Departments of Health 
either in connection with the regularly scheduled conferences, the 
"summer round-up" of preschool children or with the visit of the 
healthmobile during the summer months. There were 1,463 chil- 
dren examined in comparison with 1,600 in 1937. (See Table 36, 
page 60.) 

There was a marked improvement in the percentage of children 
for whom protection against diphtheria and smallpox had been 
neglected. Of the total 319, 21.8 per cent, had not been vaccinated 
against smallpox and 274, 18.7 per cent, had not been immunized 
against diphtheria. Of the children examined in 1937, 49.5 per 
cent had not been vaccinated against smallpox and 37.1 per cent 
had not been protected against diphtheria. (See Table 36, 
page 60.) 

National Negro Health Week 

Under the leadership of the State, Baltimore City and the 
County Departments of Health, colored communities in every 
part of the State, took an active part in the annual observance of 
Negro Health Week. The arrangements in each county were 
under the direction of the county health officers with the super- 



Promotion of Health of Colored Pupils 



207 



intendents of schools, teachers, public health nurses, ministers 
and other community leaders assisting. In accordance with a 
suggested schedule arranged by the United States Public Health 
Service in which each day was devoted to a specific health activity, 
public exercises were held in schools, churches and community 
halls, and the week was rounded out by community clean-up and 
sanitation campaigns. 

Special emphasis was laid in the State-wide program on year- 
round activities for which the annual health week observance 
opens the way. These included child health conferences; the 
physical examination of school children and of preschool children 
in preparation for admission to school; clinics for protection 
against diphtheria, typhoid and smallpox; venereal disease clin- 
ics; and chest clinics. The establishment of health clubs was 
sponsored ; health exercises, pageants, and poster contests were 
held in the schools, and were supplemented in several counties by 
cleanliness and neatness improvement contests. 

Certificates of merit, all in class "A," were awarded to the State 
and Baltimore City Departments of Health, to the Negro Health 
Week Committee of Baltimore City, and to the Departments of 
Health of Caroline, Cecil, Montgomery, Prince George's, and 
Wicomico Counties, by the U. S. Public Health Service, for ac- 
tivities in connection with the 1938 observance of Negro Health 
Week. 

Class "A" certificates were also awarded to the Health Club of 
St. James Home and School of Pocomoke City a , and to the Com- 
munity Center of White Plains b , and a Class "B" certificate was 
awarded to the Health Club of Wetipquin c . Fourteen schools in 
Wicomico County took part in the nation-wide health poster con- 
test, and the public school at Salisbury, paired with a school in 
Winston-Salem, North Carolina, for second honors in the contest. 

Cleanliness and Neatness Improvement Contest 

In response to the offer of special awards to the two schools 
showing the greatest improvement during a given period, a 
cleanliness and neatness improvement contest was held in the 
colored elementary schools in Worcester County, under the joint 
direction of the County Health Officer and the County Superin- 
tendent of Schools. Day by day scores were kept by the teachers 
of the personal habits, cleanliness, neatness of dress, and general 
appearance of the pupils. Record was also kept of the care of 
the school buildings; school grounds; playgrounds; toilets; dis- 



a Worcester County 



b Charles County 



c Wicomico County 



208 1938 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 

posal of trash ; school rooms ; desks, walls, stoves, ventilation, pro- 
vision for handwashing; individual towels and drinking glasses; 
lunch boxes. A general inspection of the schools, and of the 
pupils was made by the County Health Officer at the beginning 
and at the close of the contest. "Effort" was included in the 
scoring as well as actual accomplishment. As an outcome, a 
cleanliness and neatness improvement program has become a 
part of the routine schedule of the Worcester County colored 
schools. 

On the recommendation of the County Health Officer, the 
schools at Sturgis and at Sinepuxent were given first and second 
places respectively. Each was awarded a framed portrait of Dr. 
G. W. Carver, the distinguished Negro scientist. The prizes were 
the gift of Dr. H. Maceo Williams, a colored physician of Balti- 
more City. 

The plan of holding cleanliness and neatness contests in one or 
more counties each year, as a follow-up or in connection with 
Negro Health Week, was started in 1931 with St. Mary's and 
Dorchester Counties, as pioneers. Since then, similar contests 
have been held in Queen Anne's, Talbot, Caroline, Somerset, Anne 
Arundel, and Worcester Counties. 

PARENT-TEACHER ASSOCIATIONS IN COLORED SCHOOLS 

In 1938 there were 391 active parent-teacher organizations in 
89.5 per cent of the county colored schools. This was an increase 
of 2 organizations or 4.6 per cent over the number and per cent 
of schools having P. T. A.'s in 1937. Six counties, Anne Arundel, 
Baltimore, Caroline, Dorchester, St. Mary's and Somerset, re- 
ported a parent-teacher association in every school. On the other 
hand there were no P. T. A.'s in Washington County colored 
schools, and they were found in fewer than half of the colored 
schools of Frederick and Carroll. Eight counties organized ad- 
ditional parent-teacher associations in the colored schools in 1938 
over the number shown in 1937. Because such groups if properly 
guided can assist in improving conditions for children through 
the cooperation of parents and teachers, their functioning should 
be encouraged by teachers, supervisory and administrative offi- 
cials. (See Chart 40.) 

During 1937-38, according to reports from teachers summar- 
ized by county superintendents, the parents of 9,912 county pu- 
pils or over 33 per cent of all colored pupils, visited the county 
schools to consult with teachers regarding the progress of their 
children or to acquire at first hand a knowledge of school problems 
and classroom instruction. The value of these contacts between 
the school and the home may be inestimable in giving both the 
teacher and the parent a better understanding of the problems 
which each must face. 



Colored Parent-Teacher Associations; Other Than County 209 

Funds 

CHART 40 



PARENT-TEACHER ASSOCIATIONS IN COUNTY COLORED SCHOOLS, 1937 and 1938 
County Number Per Cent 



1937 


1938 


1937 


Total and 
Co. Av. 


388 


391 


84.9 


A. Arundel 


38 


40 


92.7 


Baltimore 


24 


21 


100.0 


Caroline 


11 


10 


100.0 


Dorchester 


26 


28 


89.7 


St. Mary's 


24 


25 


96.0 


Somerset 


26 


25 


100.0 


Pr. Geo. 


42 


44 


95.5 


Q. Anne's 


17 


17 


94.4 


Kent 


17 


16 


94.4 


Talbot 


19 


J-O 


oo.**- 


Charles 


28 


28 


90.3 


Montgomery 


26 


24 


89.7 


Harford 


15 


18 


83.3 


Wicomico 


17 


17 


89.5 


Howard 


9 


11 


69.2 


Calvert 


15 


16 


78.9 


Worcester 


18 


20 


69.2 


Cecil 


6 


6 


60.0 


Allegany 


2 


1 


100.0 


Carroll 


4 


4 


44.4 


Frederick 


4 


4 


21.1 




Washington 



RECEIPTS OF AND EXPENDITURES FROM OTHER THAN COUNTY 

FUNDS 

The ten counties which reported receipts of colored schools 
from other than public funds showed gross collections of $14,221. 
Of this amount 21.1 per cent represented refunds and payments 
by parents toward high school transportation, 19.3 per cent was 
contributed by P. T. A.'s and 11.2 per cent was derived from sales. 
Collections from dues represented 2.7 per cent and 1.4 per cent 



210 1938 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 

was received through athletics. Expenses amounting to $2,949 
reduced the net receipts to $11,272. (See Table XXIII, page 317.) 

Of the net receipts the largest proportion, 28.9 per cent, was 
expended for transportation of high school pupils. Montgomery 
County required a payment of $15 per year for transportation of 
each high school pupil. In addition, 12.4 per cent was spent for 
physical education, 10 per cent for buildings and grounds, and 9.6 
per cent for social affairs and trips. The amounts expended in the 
individual counties reporting varied from $78 to $2,896. (See 
Table XXIII, page 317.) 

SUPERVISION OF COLORED SCHOOLS 

The State Supervisor of colored schools spends most of his time 
in the field visiting schools with the county supervisors of colored 
schools and working with the colored high school principals and 
teachers. At several conferences held for colored supervisors 
the following subjects were discussed; reduction of overageness, 
evaluation of the supervisor in terms of teachers' professional 
growth, overcoming difficulties revealed by recent tests, devices 
by which needs of individual pupils can be met, and improvement 
of instruction. 

The State Supervisor of colored schools visited the Bowie Nor- 
mal School during the year to study the quality of instruction, 
and to confer with both faculty and students. He also continued 
to advise principals and teachers to direct to Bowie only those 
high school graduates who have maintained high scholarship 
records and who have the personal qualities necessary for a good 
teacher. Some of his time at the office is spent in interviewing 
prospective county teachers in order to make suggestions re- 
garding desirable colored teachers to the county superintendents. 
The salary and expenses of the State Supervisor of colored schools 
except for $250 are paid by the General Education Board. 

Each of 15 counties received $750 from the State as reim- 
bursement toward the salary of a full-time colored supervisor. 
Ten of the supervisors employed were men and five were women. 
In one county the supervisor devoted some time to high school 
instruction in industrial arts, and in another county the super- 
visor devoted part of his time to instructing a high school class 
in the social studies. The attendance officers in Cecil, Howard, 
Queen Anne's, and Somerset spent part of their time in super- 
vising colored schools, and the Assistant Superintendent of 
Schools in Baltimore County had the supervision of colored 
schools as part of his duties. 



Supervision of Colored Schools; Bowie Normal School 



211 



BOWIE NORMAL SCHOOL 
Enrollment 

There were 138 students enrolled at the Bowie Normal School 
during the school year 1937-38, an increase of 22 over 1936-37. 
In the fall of 1938 the enrollment was 177, of whona 84 were 
freshmen, 50 juniors, and 43 seniors. The 19381SI1 enrollment 
included 135 women and 42 men. The State Board of Education 
on May 25, 1938, p assed thef ollowing resolution affecting entrants 
to Bowie preparing to become teachers: "Beginning with the 
class entering as freshmen in September, 1938, the Bowie State 
Normal School, now awarding a three-year diploma, will award 
only a four-year teachers' college diploma, and the institution will 
be known as the State Teachers College at Bowie." (See Table 140.) 



TABLE 140 



Enrollment and Graduates, Bowie Normal School 



Year 
Ending 
June 30 


Total 
Enroll- 
ment 


Freshmen 


Juniors 


Seniors 


Graduates 


Female 


Male 


Female 


Male 


Female 


Male 


Female 


Male 


1924 


11 






7 


4 










1925 


23 






7 


6 


' "5 


"5 


5 


5 


1926 


36 






16 


8 


6 


6 


6 


5 


1927 


81 






43 


15 


15 


8 


12 


8 


1928 


104 






34 


16 


41 


13 


38 


11 


1929 


128 






57 


19 


35 


17 


28 


16 


1930 


120 






34 


13 


56 


17 


45 


14 


1931 


109 






44 


11 


39 


15 


30 


12 


1932 


106 






34 


16 


43 


13 


41 


11 


1933 


122 






44 


26 


33 


19 


30 


19 


1934 


99 






29 


8 


39 


23 


36 


19 


1935 


100 


' 42 


' "9 


1 


1 


28 


19 


a27 


bl7 


1936 


96 


28 


9 


31 


7 


12 


9 


cfl2 


ct9 


1937 


116 


34 


12 


25 


7 


29 


9 


f28 


t9 


1938 


138 


49 


14 


32 


8 


27 


8 


t25 


t8 


Fall of 1938 . 


177 


*59 


*25 


39 


11 


37 


6 



a Includes 3 who completed the three-year course, two of whom had completed the two-year 
course in 1934. 

b Includes 9 who completed the three-year course who had completed the two-year course 
in 1934. 

t Completed the three-year course. 

c All except three had previously completed the two-year course. 

* For the freshmen who entered in the fall of 1938 there will be a four-year college course. 



The scholarship rating for the 1938 entrants retained after the 
entrance examinations shows considerable improvement over the 
preceding year. The students who met the required average of 
"B" and were admitted on full standing increased from 26 per 
cent in 1937 to 49 per cent in 1938. 



212 



1938 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



Graduates 

There were 33 graduates of the Bowie Normal School in 1938. 
Teaching positions in the Maryland counties were secured by 21 
and of these 15 were appointed to positions in their home counties. 
Of the remaining 12 who failed to secure teaching positions, 6 
were women and 6 were men. (See Table 141.) 



TABLE 141 

Home and Teaching County of 1938 Graduates of Bowie Normal School 



County 


Home County 


Teaching 
County 


County 


Home County 


Teaching 
County 




Female 


Male 


Female 




Female 


Male 


Female 


Total Counties. . . 


tt20 


h8 


**21 


Calvert 


1 




1 




1 




1 


Worcester 


bg3 
te2 
2 
1 




e2 


Howard 


1 








|d3 
tl 
tt2 


*1 


Kent 


"H 




Anne Arundel .... 


2 
1 


Queen Anne's .... 
St. Mary's 




d*i 

gl 

al 


Baltimore 


a2 


1 










2 




b3 








Harford 


2 




2 


Baltimore City. . . 
Entire State 


ctttto 
h25 






Montgomery 

Prince George's. . 


tl 
2 


"ti 


"c3 


h8 


**21 



f Includes one not teaching. 
* Includes one boy. 

a Includes one Baltimore County girl teaching in Somerset. 

b Includes one Worcester County girl teaching in Charles. 

c Includes one Baltimore City girl teaching in Prince George's. 

d Includes a boy from Wicomico teaching in Queen Anne's. 

e Includes a girl from Wicomico teaching in Worcester. 

g Includes one from Worcester teaching in St. Mary's. 

h Includes 6 not teaching. 



Faculty and Practice Centers 

In the fall of 1938, the professional and office staff of the Bowie 
State Teachers College included 18 persons — the president, 9 
instructors, 3 teachers in the demonstration school, a librarian, a 
financial secretary, a registrar, a stenographer, and a dietician. 
There were five two-teacher and two one-teacher schools in which 
the student teachers did their practice work. 

Cost Per Student 

Current expenses at the Bowie Normal School for 1938 totalled 
$59,589, of which $33,621 was spent for instruction and $25,968 
for the dormitory. This was an increase of $11,988 over the ex- 
penditures for 1937. In addition, the capital outlay for the sew- 
age disposal plant totalled $6,395.50. (See Table 142.) 



Graduates, Faculty, Costs at Bowie Normal School 



213 



The total cost of instructing a student was $263, of which $17 
was paid by the student and $246 by the State. This was an in- 
crease of $44 over 1937 of which $4 was the increase to the stu- 
dent and $40 to the State. Of the average total enrollment of 
128, all but 10 were resident students. The total expenditure for 
board and room per resident student amounted to $220. Since 
each resident student paid an average of $145 in fees or service 
for room and board, etc., the cost to the State per student for 
these purposes was S75. The combined cost to the State for 
instruction and dormitory expenses amounted to $321 per student 
in 1938, an increase of $46 over the corresponding amount in 1937. 
(See Table 142.) 

TABLE 142 

Cost Per Student at the Bowie State Normal School, 1937-1938 



EXPENDITURES 



Administration: 

Salaries and Wages . 
Other than Salaries. 



Instruction 

$2,480.00 
800.61 



Residence 



$2,291.11 
760.62 



Instruction: 

Salaries 

Other than Salaries. 



15, 575.87 
a4,768.43 



Operation and Maintenance: 

Salaries and Wages 

Other than Salaries 

Food 



Totals. 



Capital Outlay — Sewage Disposal Plant. 



From Students: 

Board and Lodging 

Service Rendered (Work Credit) 
Laundry and Contingent Fees. . . 

Health Fees 

Registration Fees 

Athletic Fees 

Special Deposits 

Miscellaneous 



RECEIPTS 



Totals from Students. 



2,351.30 
7,645.19 



$33,621.40 



d7,399.87 
b6,069.40 
c9,446.69 

$25,967.69 



$6,395.50 



$552.15 
666.00 
452.50 
438.75 



$2,109.40 



$13,747.10 
2,288.15 
860.50 



269.44 



$17,165.19 



From State: 

For Current Expenses. 
For Capital Outlay. . . 



Average Number of Students. . . 

Average Total Cost per Student 

Average Payment per Student 

Average Cost to State per Student 

Total Cost to State per Student. 



COST PER STUDENT 



$31,512.00 $8,802.50 
$6,395.50 



128 
e$262.67 
16.48 
e246.19 



118 
$220.06 
145.47 
74.59 



e$320.78 



a Includes $438.75 from special deposits. 

b Includes $269.44 from special deposits, but excludes $1,007.99 for extra service paid for 
by students and faculty, and $1,089.90 from special deposits. 

c Excludes $424.41 for food and service rendered faculty and students and paid for by them. 

d Includes $2,288.15 estimated value of service rendered by students, but excludes $545.55 
for extra laundry service. 

e Includes the entire cost of instructing 96 pupils in campus demonstration school. 



214 1938 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 

Thirty-three students of the Bowie Normal School received 
$1,365 from Federal appropriations made available to them 
through the National Youth Administration, an average of $41.36 
per student. In return these students gave service to the school. 

Inventory 

The inventory of the property of the Bowie State Teachers 
College as of September 30, 1938, totalling $476,807 was dis- 
tributed as follows: Land, $11,729; buildings, $405,169; equip- 
ment and other, including motor vehicles, $59,909. 

Bond Issue and P. W. A. Funds 

The bond issue and P. W. A. funds totalling $294,545 made it 
possible to complete the construction of two girls' dormitory units, 
dining room, kitchen and cafeteria, two additional rooms for the 
boys' dormitory, an academic wing with a chemical laboratory, a 
classroom, library and stack room, and the campus demonstration 
school wing with four rooms. 

FANNY COPPIN TRAINING SCHOOL 

During 1937-38 there were 43 men and 125 women enrolled at 
the Coppin Training School for colored teachers in Baltimore City. 
The average net roll of 160 students was an increase of 2 over 
that for the preceding year. Ten men and 34 women were gradu- 
ated from the three-year course. The faculty consisted of the 
principal and 4 assistants. The current expenses for the school 
amounted to $20,921, making the average instruction cost $131 
per student. 

The Federal government through the National Youth Admin- 
istration made available $1,758 to 28 students at the Coppin 
Training School in return for services rendered, an average of 
$63 per student. 

PHYSICAL EDUCATION IN MARYLAND COUNTY SCHOOLS 

The 1937-38 physical education program included seasonal in- 
terschool activities (fall — soccer for boys, fieldball for girls; 
winter — basketball for boys and for girls; spring — county track 
and field meets and baseball), intramural activities, badge test 
activities, organized recess activities, and general physical edu- 
cation class activities. 

The seasonal program was put in the charge of county games 
committees. The members of each of these county committees 
were appointed by the county superintendent of schools or elected 
by the county teachers' association, the county superintendent 



* Statement prepared by Thomas C. Ferguson, State Supervisor of Physical Education. 



Bowie Normal and Fanny Coppin Training Schools; Physical 215 

Education 

and the State Supervisor of Physical Education and Recreation 
being ex-officio members. Membership in so far as possible was 
limited to representatives of the following types of schools in 
each county : high schools, graded schools having six or more 
teachers, small graded schools having three to five teachers, two- 
teacher schools, and one-teacher schools. Frequent meetings of 
these committees were held to acquaint each member with the 
scope of and duties for the various programs. These committees 
obtained officials and equipment, marked the field, and performed 
other administrative duties in such a fine way that more interest 
and cooperation by pupils and county people were aroused, which 
in turn made many feel that these programs were definitely county 
programs. As a result, many teachers and former pupils actually 
participated by officiating in game, track, and field activities. 

TABLE 143 



Participation of County White Pupils in Physical Education Program, 1937-38 

















Total 


Pupil 








Intra- 


Inter- 


Number In- 


Enrollment 




Badge 


mural 


SCHOOL 


dividual Par- 


Eligible to 


County 


Tests 


Athletics 


Athletics 


TICIPATIONSt 


Participate 




Boys 


Girls 


Boys 


Girls 


Boys 


Girls 


Boys 


Girls 


Boys 


Girls 


Total Counties 


28,605 


30,209 


24,366 


22,926 


19,123 


17,871 


38,329 


38,264 


55,640 


54,575 


Allegany 


3,836 


3,597 


2,409 


2,316 


2,290 


2,167 


4,540 


4.175 


5,462 


5,272 


Anne Arundel 


1,803 


1,837 


1,340 


1,348 


1,125 


1,144 


2,543 


2.598 


3,107 


3,083 


Baltimore 


5,255 


5,173 


4,454 


3,701 


2,057 


1,697 


5,980 


5,812 


6,915 


6,779 


Calvert 


268 


336 


94 


129 






280 


356 


506 


546 




557 


674 


727 


620 


'500 


430 


854 


803 


909 


832 


Carroll 


1,605 


1,834 


2 , 583 


2,619 


1,254 


1,237 


2,689 


2,719 


2 , 923 


2,948 


Cecil 


695 


966 


624 


572 


521 


468 


968 


1,081 


1,557 


1.700 




349 


410 


275 


229 


219 


275 


405 


493 


990 


917 




744 


911 


507 


599 


383 


474 


976 


1,190 


1,854 


1,921 


Frederick 


2.129 


2,151 


1,494 


1,577 


1 ,414 


1,443 


2,592 


2,772 


3,896 


3.581 


Garrett 


1,034 


1,149 


566 


649 


541 


404 


1,413 


1,448 


2,621 


2,565 


Harford 


1,036 


1,193 


582 


589 


921 


769 


1,448 


1,450 


2,577 


2,446 


Howard 


562 


666 


358 


330 


584 


502 


734 


807 


860 


937 


Kent 


371 


424 


135 


153 


173 


175 


417 


444 


746 


706 


Montgomery 


2,001 


1,980 


2,044 


1,924 


1 , 653 


1,625 


2.864 


2.692 


4,769 


4,457 


Prince George's 


1,083 


1,233 


877 


700 


592 


437 


1,323 


1.364 


4,084 


3,995 


593 


586 


229 


216 


787 


670 


814 


734 


858 


820 




276 


324 


537 


480 


397 


381 


552 


511 


666 


627 


Somerset 


454 


414 


432 


493 


295 


292 


667 


642 


1,110 


1,087 


Talbot 


390 


407 


515 


392 


623 


512 


715 


649 


1,114 


1,094 


Washington 


2,289 


2,553 


2,210 


2.003 


1,422 


1,300 


3,359 


3,356 


4,464 


4,657 


Wicomico 


844 


940 


752 


725 


788 


890 


1,339 


1,306 


2,165 


2,127 




431 


451 


622 


562 


584 


579 


857 


862 


1,487 


1,478 



t Each boy and girl is included only once. 



In the badge test activities 51 per cent of all the boys and 55 
per cent of all the girls above the third grade participated. All 
the tests were given at the school grounds under the supervision 
of the classroom teachers. In this way a child found deficient 
in parts of a test was given additional opportunities to complete 
the test. Three times during the year requisitions for the badges 



216 



1938 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



were made to the county office and a county summary was for- 
warded to the office of the State Department of Education. Alle- 
gany, Baltimore, Caroline, Howard and Queen Anne's had over 
60 per cent of their boys and girls taking part in the badge test 
activities, while in Calvert, Carroll, Frederick and Kent this was 
the case for over 60 per cent of the girls. (See Table 143.) 

The intramural athletic program consists of regularly scheduled 
competitive seasonal sports activities, in which all the pupils 
participate at least once each week. The emphasis should first be 
placed on the intramural program with the interschool program 
as an outgrowth. This intramural program takes place on the 
school grounds at a regularly scheduled time, before or after 
school, or during school hours, between natural homogeneous 
groups within the school. The participation of pupils as officials 
develops leadership and citizenship. Closely allied to this program 
is the play program of the elementary school which the teachers 
organize and supervise. Caroline, Carroll, and St. Mary's Coun- 
ties had more than 79 per cent of the boys and more than 74 per 
cent of the girls participating in the intramural program. Much 
more can be done by the counties toward making this program 
more effective. (See Table 143.) 

In the past at the county meet each school in the county has 
had one team representing it and a summary score showing the 
standing of each school has been computed. In 1937-38 five 
counties did not compute the summary scores for schools, but 
instead permitted participation by as many teams or entrants 
as were eligible in games, track and field activities. This policy 
encourages the many to participate, rather than to have the 
many watch a few participate. 

In 1937-38, there were 19,123 boys and 17,871 girls who took 
part in the interschool program. Queen Anne's had 92 per cent 
of the boys and 82 per cent of the girls taking part in this pro- 
gram, and at least 50 per cent participation for boys and girls 
was recorded for Caroline, Howard, St. Mary's and Talbot Coun- 
ties. (See Table 143.) 

The champions for 1937-38 were as follows: 



Activity 

Soccer (Boys) 
Fieldball (Girls) 
Basket-ball (Boys) 
Basket-ball (Girls) 
Track and Field 



Eastern Shore 



Western Shore 



Crisfield 



Glen Burnie 



Rock Hall 
Cambridge 
Cambridge 



Frederick 
Allegany 
Frederick 



(Boys and Girls) 



Dorchester County 



Washington County 



Regional conferences of the teachers of physical education and 
of other teachers and of county superintendents were held at 
each of the three state teachers' colleges and at the Rockville High 



County Physical Education Program ; Baltimore City Summer 

Schools 



217 



School. Mr. James Rogers, Director, National Physical Education 
Service, who is an eminent leader in the field of physical edu- 
cation, was the speaker at each of these conferences, after which 
there was a round-table discussion. 

For data on physical education for colored pupils, see pages 
204 to 206. 

BALTIMORE CITY SUMMER SCHOOLS 

For eight weeks during the summer of 1937, elementary, junior 
high and senior high school instruction was made available in 
14 Baltimore City school buildings. The total enrollment of 
5,853 pupils included 949 who were candidates for advanced 
standing and 4,904 who attended to make up subjects in which 
they had failed. (See Table 144.) 

TABLE 144 
Baltimore City Summer Schools 



Type of 
School 



White Schools: 
Secondary: 

Senior 

Junior 

Elementary 

Demonstration . . . 

Total White . 

Colored Schools: 
Secondary: 

Senior 

Junior 

Elementary 

Demonstration . . . 

Total Colored 

All Schools: 

1937 

1936 

1935 

1934 

1932 

1931 

1930 



No. 
of 
Schools 



Total 
Enrollment 



Boys 



927 
529 
529 
145 



2,130 



117 
96 
459 
103 



775 



Girls 



636 
400 
430 
206 



1,672 



259 
161 
606 
250 



1,276 



2,905 2,948 

3,400 3,028 

4,150 3,929 

3,728 3,472 



3,644 
4,399 
3.865 



3.263 
4.088 
3,798 



Net Roll at End of Term 



Total 



1,431 
828 
763 
317 



339 



342 
225 
930 
306 



1,803 



5,142 
5,544 
7,015 
6,139 



Taking 



Review 
Work 



1,337 
785 
729 



2,851 



313 
196 
930 



1,439 



4,290 
4,963 
6,304 
5,324 



6,081 5,393 
7,192i 6,354 
6,504 5,592 



Advance 
Work 



94 
43 
34 
317 



488 



306 



364 



852 
581 
711 
815 

688 
838 
912 



Per Cent of Net 

Roll Recom- 
mended for Pro- 
motion Taking 



Review 
Work 



93.0 
93.8 
95.2 



95.6 
94.5 
79.2 



Advance 
Work 



99.2 
98.4 
100.0 
100.0 



99.4 
100.0 



98.9 



No. of 
Teachers 



77 



i 1 



121 

122 
128 
120 

107 
154 
145 



Senior high schools had the largest summer school enrollment 
of white pupils, while elementary schools had the largest summer 
school enrollment of colored pupils. 



218 



1938 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



It will be noted that there was a considerable drop from pre- 
vious years in the enrollment of pupils taking review work but 
that for advance work the total of 852 was exceeded only in 1930. 

The expenditure for 1937 summer school work, $22,970, was 
less than the amount expended in the three preceding years. 
(See Table 145.) 

TABLE 145 



Expenditures for Baltimore City Summer Schools in 1937 



Type of School 


White 


Colored 


Total 


Elementary 


$5,732.83 
3,403.27 
6,027.30 


$4,330.96 
1,852.50 
1,623.00 


$10,063.79 
5,255.77 
7,650.30 


Junior High 




Total, 1937 


$15,163.40 
$17,000.33 


$7,806.46 
$7,056.05 


$22,969.86 
$24,056.38 


Total, 1936 





THE ADULT EDUCATION PROGRAM IN BALTIMORE CITY 

The greatest changes in the Baltimore City night school pro- 
gram appeared in the increased white and colored enrollment 
in secondary school work, in the increased white enrollment for 
industrial training and Americanization classes, and in the larger 
white and colored enrollment for parent education. Commercial 
courses and elementary classes for the white and colored showed 
reductions, as did home economics classes for the colored. (See 
Table 146.) 

TABLE 146 



Baltimore City Night Schools 



Type of Work 


Enrollment 


White 


Colored 


Number of 
Nights in 
Session 
1937-38 


1938 


1937 


1932 


1938 


1937 


1932 


Americanization 


1,016 


710 


1,215 








72 


Academic: 












Elementary 


199 


266 


583 


1,354 


1,400 


1,461 


72 


Secondary 


3,011 


2,464 


3,181 


831 


656 


540 


96* 


Commercial 


2,184 


2,496 


2,704 


269 


320 


350 


82 


Vocational: 










Industrial 


1,656 


1,419 


2,418 


359 


257 


376 


48 


Home Economics 


468 


463 


736 


406 


452 


576 


48 


Industrial Training 


539 














Parent Education 


1 ,801 


1*750 




533 


425 






Average Net Roll 


7,160 


6,280 


7,310 


3,109 


3,023 


2,815 




Average Attendance 


5,576 


4,804 


5,920 


2,467 


2,384 


2.359 




Per Cent of Attendance .... 


77.9 


76.5 


80.8 


79.4 


78.9 


83.4 




Average No. of Teachers . . . 


252 


252 


268 


94 


94 


74 





* Junior high 82 nights. 



Baltimore City Summer and Night Schools 



219 



There were 266 Baltimore City night school students who 
graduated from high school, a smaller number than in any year 
since 1931. The number who completed a three- or four-year 
vocational course was 293, larger than for any year preceding, 
except 1935. The number completing from 2 to 10 units of voca- 
tional work, 2,007, was much larger than for any preceding year, 
which explained the drop in the number who completed only one 
unit of work. (See Table 147.) 

TABLE 147 



Number of Baltimore City Night School Students Completing Definite 

Courses or Units 









Completion of 




High 


Vocational 






Year 


School 


3 or 4 Year 








Graduation 


Course 


2-10 Units 


One Unit 


1929 


175 


92 


1,341 


323 


1930 


203 


188 


1,627 


577 


1931 


237 


165 


1,687 


634 


1932 


271 


194 


1,539 


564 


1933 


348 


281 


1,570 


320 


1934 


285 


242 


943 


297 


1935 


339 


332 


1,587 


492 


1936 


289 


176 


1.586 


713 


1937 


274 


153 


1 ,654 


716 


1938 


266 


293 


2,007 


497 



Expenditures for Baltimore City night schools were $81,549 
in 1937-38, an increase of $9,273 over the preceding year. The 
expenditure per adult student on the average net roll was less 
than eight dollars. (See Table 148.) 



TABLE 148 

Expenditures for Night Schools in Baltimore City, 1937-38 



Type of Work 


Expenditures 


White 


Colored 


Americanization 


$5,190.73 
4,402.23 
130.38 
5,781.80 
9,462.98 

28.161.36 
4.648.58 
3,459.50 


$7,065.28 


Elementary 


Handicapped 






1,926.52 
2.119.63 
7.965.37 
1,234.25 


Junior High 


Senior High 


Parent Education 




Total 




$61,237.56 


$20,311.05 


1937-38 


$81,548.61 
72,275.31 


1936-37 





220 



1938 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



EVENING INSTRUCTION IN THE COUNTIES 

Opportunities for evening school classes in 12 counties made 
possible because of increased Federal vocational funds through 
the George-Deen Act included courses in agriculture for white 
adults in two counties and for colored adults in two counties, in 
home economics for white adults in four counties and for colored 
adults in two of these four counties and in two additional counties, 
and in industrial and distributive education for white adults in 
eleven counties and for colored adults in three of these same 
counties. For these classes persons over sixteen years of age 
are considered adults. There were 2,167 white and 316 colored 
adults enrolled for the courses which were financed from public 
funds to the extent of $17,726 from Federal vocational aid avail- 
able through the Smith-Hughes and George-Deen Funds, to the 
extent of $6,515 from county funds and $1,441 from the Uni- 
versity of Maryland Bureau of Mines. (See Table 149.) 

TABLE 149 



Enrollment and Federal Aid for Vocational Education in Maryland County 
Evening Schools for Year Ending July 31, 1938 









Vocational 












Agriculture 


Home 


Industrial 




Amount 


County 






Economics 


Education 


Total 


Spent by 
















Federal 


County 
















Aid 


and State 




Enroll- 




Enroll- 




Enroll- 










ment 


Aid 


ment 


Aid 


ment 


Aid 






White 
















a$5,236.57 


Allegany 


21 


$189 


291 


$2,123 


a579 


a$5,121.25 


a$7,433.50 


Anne Arundel . . 










25 


247.50 


247.50 


18.00 


Baltimore 










267 


d2,446.50 


d2,446.50 


82.00 


Carroll 










85 


247.50 


247.50 


20.67 


Dorchester. . . . 






"52 


135 


f78 


£567.00 


702.00 




Garrett 










107 


1,441.00 


1,441.00 


bl,44llo6 


Montgomery. . . 






302 


el ', 658 


110 


e720.00 


2,377.88 


e404.50 


Prince George's 










16 


72.00 


72.00 


69! 75 


Queen Anne's. . 


' '46 


' 45 


"16 


' ii3 


26 


159.75 


317.25 


Washington .... 










139 


1,126.50 


1,126.50 


600.00 












13 


13.50 


13.50 




Total White . 


61 


$234 


661 


$4,029 


afl,445 


af$12, 162.50 


$16,425.13 


$7,872.49 


Colored 














$301.50 




Allegany 






13 


$216 


15 


$85.50 




Anne Arundel . . 










26 


81.00 


81.00 




Dorchester. . . . 


"62 


' 81 


' 25 


"95 


f76 


f252.00 


428.00 




Prince George's 














C180.00 


$84166 


Talbot 


' 38 


'266 


' 36 


'200 






400.00 








25 


90 






90.00 




Total Colored 


100 


$281 


99 


$601 


fll7 


f $418. 50 


c$l,480.50 


$84.00 


Grand Total 


161 


$515 


760 


$4,630 


1,562 


$12,581.00 


c$17,905.63 


b$7,956.49 



a Includes 53 adults and $3,000 from county and federal funds for mining. Also includes 
$936.40 for the director and supervisor of evening schools, and $216 for 30 students in dis- 
tributive occupations. 

b Includes $1,441 from University of Maryland Bureau of Mines. 

c Includes $180 from federal government for class for CCC boys. 

d Includes $150 for salary of supervisor. 

e Includes $210 for home economics and $90 for industrial education for salary of supervisor, 
f Includes $450 for 68 white adults and $76.50 for 15 colored adults taking work in distribu- 
tive occupations. 



Evening Schools in the Counties 



221 



The public expenditure per county adult enrolled for evening 
instruction was approximately $10.40. 

Allegany, Baltimore and Montgomery Counties employed super- 
visors for the evening instruction in industrial education and 
Montgomery also employed one for the evening courses in home 
economics. (See note to Table 149.) 

Each student in evening school classes in Allegany, Baltimore 
and Washington Counties paid a small fee each semester, the 
amounts paid totalling $1,648.50, $416.00 and $315.80 in the 
three counties, respectively. In Allegany the charge was $1.50 
per semester,* in Baltimore County $1.00 per semester, in Wash- 
ington County the fee is $2.50, but for perfect attendance SI. 00 
is refunded. The superintendents report that the charge has 
the effect of making students more serious and regular in at- 
tendance. 

According to the State plan for vocational education teachers 
of evening vocational classes are paid for two hours instruction 
a minimum of $4.00 per evening for the first two years of experi- 
ence and $4.50 per evening thereafter. 



THE WPA FEDERAL EMERGENCY EDUCATION PROGRAM 

In addition to the regular evening school program in Baltimore 
City and in twelve counties, 16 counties and Baltimore City had 
evening and nursery school classes in 1937-38 financed by Federal 
funds available through the Works Progress Administration. 
The chief purposes were to provide employment for unemployed 
persons and recreation leaders and to offer education and recre- 
ation for unemployed youth and adults who wished to use their 
time profitably. 

In the 16 counties which participated in the emergency pro- 
gram, the number of teachers, classes and individuals enrolled 
for 1937-38 were considerably below those for 1935-36 and 1936- 
37. The maximum number of white teachers employed for this 
program in the counties was 70 for a maximum of 153 classes, 
enrolling a maximum of 2,440 individuals. Corresponding figures 
for colored were 24 teachers, 58 classes and an enrollment of 968. 
The total expenditure of $58,854 meant an average payment per 
county teacher of $626, per class of $279, and per individual en- 
rolled of $17. (See Table 150.) 



* Refunds are made to those who find early in the term that they cannot attend the classes 
or are dissatisfied with the offerings. 



222 



1938 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



The maximum expenditure in any county was $19,614 which 
provided for a nursery school project. Five of the 16 counties 
had a more extensive program in 1937-38 than in 1936-37. (See 
Table 150.) 



TABLE 150 

Federal Emergency Program Under Works Progress Administration 1937-38 



County 



[1935-36 

Total Counties. . < 1936-37 
[1937-38 

Anne Arundel 

Caroline 

Carroll 

Cecil 

Dorchester 

Frederick 

Garrett 

Kent 

Montgomery 

Prince George's 

Queen Anne's 

Somerset 

Talbot 

Washington 

Wicomico 

Worcester 

Baltimore City 

Maryland Penitentiary. . . 

Entire State 



Maximum Number of 



Teachers 



White 



117 
71 
70 

7 
2 
9 
1 



1 
4 
1 

10 
2 

14 
1 
1 

18 

16 

104 



Colored 



16 
2 
12 



Classes 



White 



380 
160 
153 

25 
6 

35 
5 
6 
4 

13 



180 



Colored 



244 
130 
58 

17 



Enrollment 



White 



5,640 
2,760 
2,440 

217 
77 

525 
55 

113 
51 

196 



50 
45 
180 
175 
560 
61 
70 

251 

220 

2,911 



Colored 



4,225 
2,232 
969 

145 

54 

46 
52 

119 

33 
41 
194 
150 

135 



271 
392 
1,632 



The 1937-38 expenditure for the Baltimore City emergency 
program, $39,747, was 76 per cent of the amount expended in 
1936-37. Nursery schools were a considerable part of the pro- 
gram. There were 34 teachers for 28 classes with an enrollment 
of 522, an expenditure per teacher of SI, 168, per class of SI, 418, 
and per individual enrolled of $76. (See Table 150.) 

In the entire State the largest staffs in the Federal emergency 
program were employed for the nursery schools and the next 
largest for literacy and naturalization classes. The largest en- 
rollments were concentrated in the classes for literacy and natu- 
ralization, nursery schools, elementary subjects, sewing, home 
nursing, music, dramatics and home management. (See Table 
151.) 



WPA Emergency Education Program ; Vocational 223 
Rehabilitation 

TABLE 151 

Subjects Taught in the Emergency Education Program in Maryland 

1937-1938 



Maximum Number of 



Subjects 


Teachers 


Classes 


Enrollees 


White 


Colored 


White 


Colored 


White 


Colored 


1. Literacy and Naturalization 


20 


7 


44 


22 


418 


414 


2. Homemaking 














a. Sewing 


3 


3 


9 


10 


200 


203 




2 


2 


4 


7 


92 


125 


c. Home Management 


4 


1 


14 


6 


183 


85 




3 


2 


2 


6 


83 


73 


e. Home Nursing 


2 




20 




323 




3. Vocation Education 
















2 


1 


4 


2 


67 


65 


b. Woodcarving and Handicraft 


3 


2 


4 


4 


35 


30 


c. Oil Painting 


1 




3 




140 




d. Shorthand 


1 




3 




76 




e. Upholstering 


3 


2 


2 


'4 


27 


30 




5 


1 


10 


2 


284 


45 




2 




2 




37 






3 


*2 


22 


'3 


214 


40 


i. Art 


1 




4 




111 




4. Vocational and Leisure Time 


2 


i 


6 


2 


34 


41 


5. Other General Adult Education 














a. Elementary Subjects 


4 


l 


14 


9 


190 


169 


6. Nursery Schools 


43 


17 


13 


9 


397 


312 


Total 


104 


42 


180 


86 


2,911 


1,632 



VOCATIONAL REHABILITATION* 

During the year ending June 30, 1938, the Vocational Rehabili- 
tation Service successfully placed 97 disabled persons in positions 
for which they had been specifically prepared through means of 
vocational guidance, training or physical restoration. The num- 
ber of rehabilitations was the same as for the previous year 
although the average weekly wage for the 1938 group w 7 as slightly 
more than 50 cents higher than that for those rehabilitated 
during 1937. More persons were prepared for employment in 
1937-38, too, as evidenced by the larger number awaiting place- 
ment, and more persons were in training on June 30, 1938, than 
at the same time the previous year. General employment con- 
ditions were responsible for keeping down the number of rehabili- 
tations. 

In addition to the 97 disabled persons who were rehabilitated, 
there were 423 others who received some type of rehabilitation 
service. Service was rendered to persons in Baltimore City and in 
every county of the State, the total for the counties being slightly 
in excess of that for the City. (See Table 152.) 

* Statement prepared by R. C. Thompson. Supervisor of Vocational Rehabilitation. 



224 1938 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 

TABLE 152 



Service Rendered Cases Referred for Vocational Rehabilitation in Maryland 
During Year Ending June 30, 1938 













Being 






County 








Training 


Prepared 


Surveyed, 


Closed 


Total 




Being 


Completed 


for 


under 


after 




Number 


Rehabili- 


Followed 


Awaiting 


Employ- 


Advise- 


Other 




of Cases 


tated 


on Jobs 


Jobs 


ment 


ment 


Services 


Total Counties. . 


291 


59 


11 


40 


58 


100 


23 


Allegany 


42 


13 




5 


10 


14 




Anne Arundel . . . 


12 


4 






2 


4 




Baltimore 


41 


11 




3 


10 


10 




Calvert 


4 


2 


I 


1 








Caroline 


8 


2 




1 


i 


2 




Carroll 


11 


4 




1 


2 


3 


i 


Cecil 


9 


1 


i 


2 


2 


3 






3 


1 








2 




Dorchester 


11 


1 






i 


5 


2 




18 


3 




4 


2 


9 




Garrett 


16 


3 




4 


1 


6 


*2 


Harford 


13 


1 




4 


4 


4 




Howard 


3 


1 






1 


1 




Kent 


1 










1 




Montgomery .... 


18 


2 




2 


i 


8 


'2 


Prince George's. 
Queen Anne's. . . 


23 


4 




3 


6 


8 


2 


2 


1 






1 






St. Mary's 


4 








1 




2 


Somerset 


5 






i 


1 


2 




Talbot 


3 






1 




2 




Washington .... 


28 


*2 




7 


5 


11 


3 


Wicomico 


14 


3 




1 


3 


4 


2 


Worcester 


2 








1 


1 




Baltimore City. . 


229 


38 


3 


20 


83 


65 


20 


Total State 


520 


97 


14 


60 


141 


165 


43 



Some of the vocations in which persons were rehabilitated 
during 1937-38 are: 



Armature winder 

Assemblyman 

Automobile repairman 

Barber 

Beautician 

Bookbinder 

Bookkeeper 

Clerk 

Commercial artist 
Construction foreman 
Corset maker 
Dairyman 
Dressmaker 
Embalmer's helper 
Farmer 



Furniture painter 

Gas station attendant 

Huckster 

Inspector 

Interviewer 

Janitor 

Laborer 

Machinist 

Multigraph operator 

Nurse 

Porter 

Poultryman 

Proof-reader 

Radio repairman 



Salesman 

artificial appliance 
life insurance 
retail store 

Seamstress 

Secretary 

Shoe repairman 

Silver polisher 

Social worker 

Statistician 

Teacher 

Toy maker 

Truck driver 

Watch repairman 

Weigher 



Plans for cooperation were effected with the Maryland State 
Employment Service and the Services for Crippled Children of 
the State Department of Health. Both of these agencies render 
valuable assistance in the rehabilitation program — the Employ- 



Vocational Rehabilitation Services in Maryland 225 

ment Service by referring to employers for placement certain 
disabled persons who are trained under the supervision of re- 
habilitation workers, and the Crippled Childrens Services by se- 
curing hospitalization and artificial appliances for rehabilitation 
cases between the ages of 16 and 21 years. (See page 64.) 

Other accomplishments of the year included a complete revision 
of the case record system in conformity with the new Federal 
reporting plan adopted in 1937, an extension of the follow-up 
program whereby all cases are contacted at the end of one and 
five year periods following rehabilitation, the inauguration of a 
series of monthly staff conferences for the professional advance- 
ment of rehabilitation workers, and the improvement of the 
system of contacting every physically disabled student in the 
senior classes of both public and private high schools in the State. 

In September, 1935, the Rehabilitation Service cooperated with 
the Baltimore City Department of Education in establishing a 
program of educational and vocational guidance, vocational train- 
ing, and placement in employment available to physically disabled 
persons between the ages of 16 to 21 years residing in the City. 
This work is carried on by a rehabilitation assistant who devotes 
50 per cent of his time to a guidance program for disabled pupils 
in the junior and senior high and vocational schools of Baltimore 
(including the two schools for crippled children), and 50 per cent 
of his time in rendering vocational rehabilitation service to per- 
sons under 21 years who have graduated or withdrawn from the 
City public schools. The expenses of this special program are met 
jointly by the Baltimore City School System and Federal funds 
available through the U. S. Office of Education. 

This project was the first of its kind in the United States to be 
approved by the Federal Rehabilitation Agency, but its success- 
ful operation has led to the establishment of similar programs 
in various parts of the country. The advantages of having a 
trained rehabilitation worker contact crippled children in junior 
high school, assist them in planning their academic and vocational 
programs, make an intensive study of their personal character- 
istics over a period of several years, and then guide them into 
suitable vocational training and employment are quite obvious. 
While the results of such a service can not be measured in terms 
of figures, yet it is interesting to note that during the school year 
1937-38 the rehabilitation assistant assigned to this project 
rendered definite aid to 100 physically disabled persons between 
the ages of 16 and 21 years in Baltimore City. 



226 



1938 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



FINANCING THE MARYLAND PUBLIC SCHOOL SYSTEM 

The county boards of education spent $9,894,000 for current 
operation of public schools in 1938, an increase of $811,000 over 
the amount spent in the previous year. Looking back to the period 
beginning in 1920 there was a steady increase in expenditures 
each year to 1932, after which there was a decline to 1934 due to 
the salary cuts made necessary by the depression, since which 
year the upward climb has continued. An increasing enrollment, 
especially in the high school years which are more expensive than 
the elementary grades, a better trained teaching staff eligible 
to certificates of higher grade commanding the higher salaries 
provided for in the salary schedule enacted by the 1922 legis- 
lature, a more stable teaching staff with increasing years of ex- 
perience therefore qualifying for experience increments, a longer 



CHART 41 

Total School Current Expenses and Total State Aid in 23 Counties 
and Baltimore City*, 1919 to 1938 



L IONS 

> 3\. CARS 






























' \ 




,*» 


k 
\ 
\ 












t 

A 








if* 
















T 

1 

1 

•- >r h 

if 
if 


W 
r 
















































T€ A.O -I 


Z3 Co 


iWTlES 




"ate Ai 


o- Bal 












- — " 









1920 1322. 1924- 131© 1928 1930 1932 1934 193b WIS 



* Includes expenditures from City funds for training teachers in City training school (s), 
but excludes amounts appropriated by City and State for the Retirement Funds for teachers. 



Finances of Maryland's Public Schools 



227 



TABLE 153 

School Current Expenses from State, Federal, and Local Funds and Capital 
Outlay by Boards of Education in the Counties and Baltimore City, 1920-1938 



Vdid 
l EAR 


Current Expense Disbursements 


Capital 


Ending 










July 31 




From State 


From Federal 


From Local 


Outlay 




Total 


Funds 


Funds 


Funds 






Total Counties 


1920 


$3,703,153 


$1,174,270 


$11,923 


$2,516,960 


$485,601 


1921 


5,043,923 


1,537,621 


17,073 


3,489,229 


929,024 


1922 


5,291,124 


1,527,627 


t33,853 


3,729,644 


1,121,554 


1923 


5,964,456 


2,005,335 


t33,710 


3,925,411 


1,475,269 


1924 


6,475,803 


2,041,155 


t43,244 


4,391,404 


949,720 


1925 


6,743,015 


2,130,518 


t43,252 


4,569,245 


2,527,823 


1926 


7,143,150 


2,212,857 


t48,010 


4,882,283 


2,602,745 


1927 


7,517,729 


2,291,235 


t48,965 


5,177,529 


1,023,362 


1928 


7,787,298 


x°2,207,335 


t51,910 


5,528,053 


1,532,718 


1929 


8,164,657 


x°2,279,589 


t54,425 


5,830,643 


1,773,070 


1930 


8,456,414 


x2, 299, 380 


169,779 


6,087,255 


2,450,144 


1931 


8,852,073 


2,323,767 


t78,755 


6,449,551 


2,172,088 


1932 


8,892,181 


2,661,382 


t77,470 


6,153,329 


1,650,065 


1933 


8,485,146 


2,531,668 


t78,343 


5,875,135 


688,497 


1934 


8,010,425 


3,622,840 


f67,903 


4,319,682 


1,132,433 


1935 


8,189,909 


3,665,763 


t75,727 


4,448,419 


1,590,879 


1936 


8,715,542 


3,580,265 


184,854 


5,050,423 


2,000,321 


1937 


9,082,523 


3,583,329 


t92,553 


5,406,641 


2,531,071 


1938 


9,893,912 


4,219,147 


U44.854 


5,529,911 


1,576,434 



♦Baltimore City 



1920 


$3,706,642 


$704,771 


$8,516 


$2,993,355 


$60,741 


1921 


5,394,656 


1,023,597 


8,945 


4,362,114 


1,267,636 


1922 


6,594,168 


1,015,034 


11,939 


5,567,195 


1,417,569 


1923 


6,799,794 


1,052,845 


13,256 


5,733,693 


3,301,086 


1924 


6,794,048 


1,046,561 


14,551 


5,732,936 


5,336,889 


1925 


7,237,993 


1,024,179 


18,301 


6,195,513 


3,224,734 


1926 


7,480,170 


1,034,372 


22,522 


6,423,276 


3,484,767 


1927 


7,878,719 


1,066,385 


20,112 


6,792,222 


4,200,038 


1928 


8,360,391 


x999,753 


17,240 


7,343,398 


1,897,871 


1929 


8,767,395 


xl, 017, 153 


20,338 


7,729,904 


633,632 


1930 


9,193,068 


976,083 


18,980 


8,198,005 


1,508,678 


1931 


9,666,385 


932,251 


13,773 


8,720,361 


3,658,046 


1932 


9,415,054 


974,431 


11,131 


8,429,492 


2,678,922 


1933 


8,388,125 


1,072,738 


10,663 


7,304,724 


1,268,159 


1934 


7,992,222 


948,586 


10,081 


7,033,555 


1,087,351 


1935 


8,502,074 


954,383 


25,913 


7,521,778 


642,191 


1936 


8,744,298 


946,396 


26,363 


7,771,539 


223,669 


1937 


9,031,032 


943,073 


22,536 


8,065.423 


1,156,748 


1938 


9,347,234 


941,150 


83,737 


8,322,347 


759,130 



*Entire State 



1920 


$7,409,795 


$1,887,915 


$11,565 


$5,510,315 


$546,342 


1921 


10,438,579 


2,561,218 


26,018 


7,851,343 


2,196,660 


1922 


11,885,292 


2,542,661 


45,792 


9,296,839 


2,539,123 


1923 


12,764,250 


3,058,180 


46,966 


9,659,104 


4,776,355 


1924 


13,269,851 


3,087,716 


57,795 


10,124,340 


6,286.609 


1925 


13,981,008 


3,154,697 


61,553 


10,764,758 


5,752,557 


1926 


14,623,320 


3,247,229 


70,532 


11,305,559 


6,087,512 


1927 


15,396,448 


3,357,620 


69,077 


11,969,751 


5,223,400 


1928 


16,147,689 


x3, 207, 088 


69,150 


12,871,451 


3,430,589 


1929 


16,932,052 


x3, 296, 742 


74,763 


13,560,547 


2,406.702 


1930 


17,649,482 


x3, 275, 463 


88,759 


14,285,260 


3,958,822 


1931 


18,518,458 


3,256,018 


92 , 528 


15,169,912 


5,830,134 


1932 


18,307,235 


3,635,813 


88,601 


14,582,821 


4,328,987 


1933 


16,873,271 


3,604,406 


89,006 


13,179,859 


1,956,656 


1934 


16,002,647 


4,571,426 


77,984 


11,353,237 


2,219,784 


1935 


16,691,983 


4,620,146 


101,640 


11,970,197 


2,233,070 


1936 


17,459,840 


4,526,661 


111,217 


12,821,962 


2,223.990 


1937 


18,113,555 


4,526,402 


115,089 


13,472,064 


3,687,819 


1938 


19,241,146 


5,160.297 


228,591 


13,852,258 


2,335,564 



* Includes expenditures from City funds for training of teachers in City training school^s), 
but excludes amounts appropriated by City and State for the Retirement Fund. 

t Includes amounts received from the federal government towards salaries and expenses at 
Indian Head. 

x Excludes receipts from liquidation of Free School Fund. 

° Excludes $6,500 to be used by Charles County for school building purposes. 



228 1938 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 

term for the colored schools especially in the early years of the 
period, increasing provision for vocational classes and special 
classes for handicapped children which must be taught in smaller 
groups than the regular classes, increased provision for trans- 
portation of pupils at public expense, are some of the factors 
which explain the higher costs over the period. (See Table 153 
and Chart 41.) 

State aid for county schools has grown from $1,174,000 in 1920 
to $4,219,000 in 1938, showing definite increases in most of the 
biennial budget periods, except that the amounts from 1926 to 
1930 were rather stationary. The establishment of the Equaliza- 
tion Fund in the 1923 budget and the provision of the $1,500,000 
fund for reduction of county taxation in the 1934 budget explain 
the large increases evident in the State aid in those particular 
years. The increase of $636,000 in 1938 is due chiefly to the 
eligibility of five additional counties to share in the Equalization 
Fund following upon the complete restoration of salary cuts 
which had been in effect from 1934 to 1937 and the continuance 
of the point of equalization at 47 cents resulting from the 1933 
legislation. (See Table 153 and Chart 41.) 

Federal aid for county schools increased from $12,000 in 1920 
to $144,850 in 1938, due chiefly to the increase in the number 
of teachers of agriculture, vocational home economics, trades 
and industries, made possible by the expansion of the program 
under the Smith-Hughes Act and the availability of funds from 
the George-Deen Act for the first time in 1938. As a result the 
program of evening work in the counties was enlarged in 1938. 
Federal aid for Indian Head is also included for 1922 and the 
years following. 

The county levy and other county sources increased their 
contributions to the current expenses for public schools by 
S123,000 in 1938 over 1937. These county sources of school funds 
were $2,517,000 in 1920 and gained each year until they reached 
$6,450,000 in 1931, after which they decreased to a low point 
of $4,320,000 in 1934, since which time they have grown to 
$5,530,000. The great decrease in 1934 came about because the 
county levy required for participation in the State Equalization 
Fund was reduced from 67 cents to 47 cents, salaries were cut 
by from 10 to 15 per cent and a tax reduction fund of $1,500,000 
was made available. Restoration of salary cuts, provision of 
teachers needed for increased enrollment, denied in the period 
from 1932 to 1935, and reduction of the tax reduction fund from 
$1,500,000 to $1,250,000 account for the increases in the county 
levy in 1936, 1937 and 1938. (See Table 153.) 



Financing the Maryland Public Schools 



229 



Capital outlay for schools which totalled $1,576,000 in the 
counties in 1938 included Federal aid available through the Public 
Works Administration. (See Table 153.) 

The Baltimore City total current expenses for public schools 
closely parallel those for the county schools, although from 1921 
to 1932 the current expenses of schools in the City were above 
those in the counties. State and Federal aid for the City schools 
were lower over the entire period than they were for the county 
schools, necessitating higher levies from the City than from the 
counties. Of the 89,347,000 spent to operate the City schools in 
1938, $941,000 came from the State, $84,000 came from Federal 
vocational funds, and $8,322,000 from City levy. Capital outlay 
for the City schools totalled $759,000 including P. W. A. grants. 
The City figures do not include City and State contributions to 
the Retirement System on account of teachers. (See Table 153 
and Chart 41.) 

For the entire State, operating costs for the public schools 
aggregated S19,241,000 in 1938 of which S5,160,000 came from 
State funds, S229,000 from Federal funds and S13,852,000 from 
local levies. These figures exclude State and City aid to the 
retirement systems on account of teachers. The capital outlay 
for public schools in the entire State totalled S2,336,000. (See 
Table 153.) 

Increase in Day School Pupils, 1920 to 1938 

There were 52,130 more county and 29,416 more City children 
attending public schools in 1938 than there were in 1920, an in- 
crease of 52.2 per cent for the county and 39 per cent for the City 
attendance over the period. As explained before a large part 
of this increase is in high school enrollment. 

It will be noted that the counties spent 51.4 per cent of the 
total State school current expenses (See Table 153), although 
they had 64 per cent of the day public school pupils in the State. 
(See Table 154.) The greater expenditure in Baltimore City is 
due to higher salary schedules for teachers and janitors, more 
specialized provision for vocational education and for handicapped 
pupils, provision for night and summer schools, specialized pro- 
visions for individual and group testing programs and educational 
guidance. On the other hand, the counties, because of the ter- 
ritory to be covered, had to have many more schools and teachers 
than Baltimore City, requiring many small classes in one- and 
two-teacher schools and small high schools, and had to provide 
transportation to consolidated schools for many pupils living too 
far to walk to school. (See Tables 153 and 154.) 



230 1938 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 

TABLE 154 



Day School Enrollment and Attendance in Elementary and Secondary Schools 
of Counties and Baltimore City, 1920 to 1938 



School Year 
Ending June 30 


23 Counties 


Baltimore City 


Entire State 


En- 
rollment 


At- 
tendance 


En- 
rollment 


At- 
tendance 


En- 
rollment 


At- 
tendance 


1920 


*145,045 


99,812 


*96,573 


75,500 


*241,618 


175,312 


1921 


*149,045 


108,178 


*100,092 


81,570 


*249,137 


189,748 


1922 


*147,409 


114,190 


*101,480 


84,208 


*248,889 


198,398 


1923 


152,474 


115,743 


104,072 


86,124 


256,546 


201,867 


1924 




117 222 


104 764 


86 540 


u ■ " > , • > < * — 


903 7fi? 
^yjtj , ( u& 


1925 


153,636 


121^665 


107^133 


89^467 


260,769 


211,132 


1926 


154,969 


123,260 


108,280 


90,844 


263,249 


214,104 


1927 


156,788 


127,018 


111,029 


91,925 


267,817 


218,943 




158,368 


131,439 


112,532 


94,230 


270,900 


225,669 


1929 


160,217 


131,923 


113,315 


94,731 


273 , 532 


226,654 


1930 


162,209 


137,481 


115,250 


98,074 


277,459 


235, 555 


1931 


165,314 


142,397 


116,203 


101,064 


281,517 


243,461 


1932 


168,964 


145,676 


119,205 


103,722 


288,169 


249,398 


1933 


172,745 


150,301 


121,374 


105.627 


294,119 


255,928 


1934 


172,109 


147,239 


121,569 


104.987 


293,678 


252,226 


1935 


172,409 


148,174 


123,068 


106,443 


295,477 


254,617 


1936 


172,921 


148,398 


125,236 


105,903 


298,157 


254,301 


1937 


173,642 


149,318 


123,748 


104,243 


297,390 


253,561 


1938 


172,518 


151,942 


121,168 


104,916 


293,686 


256,858 


Increase, 1920-38 




52,130 




29,416 




81,546 






52.2 




39.0 




46.5 



* Duplicates not excluded as in later years. 



PER CENT OF AID FROM STATE AND FEDERAL FUNDS 

Of the 1938 county school current expenses, 42.7 per cent came 
from the State, including 11 per cent from the Equalization Fund ; 
1.4 per cent came from Federal funds, leaving 55.9 per cent to 
be provided from the county levy and other county sources. State 
aid ranged from 20.7 of the current expenses in the wealthiest 
county to over 72 per cent in two of the poorest counties. The 
Federal aid ranged from 8.3 per cent in Charles County which 
received funds toward the expense of the public schools on the 
Government reservation at Indian Head, to over 2 per cent in 
six counties with a large proportion of high school pupils taking 
vocational work and to less than one per cent in seven counties. 
Support of school current expenses from the county levy and other 
county sources was as low as 23 per cent in a financially poor 
county and as high as 77 per cent in a financially able county. 
(See Table 155 and Chart 42.) 

For the first time nineteen counties shared in the Equalization 
Fund as a result of salary restoration combined with 47 cents 
as the point for equalization. As little as 5 per cent of the total 
current expenses came from the Equalization Fund in a county 
of average wealth which has an eight grade elementary system 



Increases in Day School Enrollment; State and Federal Aid 231 



and a salary schedule in excess of the minimum, while at the 
opposite extreme over 42 per cent of the total cost of operating 
schools came from the Equalization Fund in a financially poor 
county having only white teachers, with salaries paid in ac- 
cordance with the State minimum schedule and with an ele- 
mentary course of seven grades. The Equalization Fund is that 
item in the State aid program which takes into consideration 
financial ability to carry the minimum State program w T ith various 
types of State aid other than the Equalization Fund and a 47-cent 
levy on the county assessable basis taxable at the full rate for 
county purposes. (See Table 155 and Chart 42). 

TABLE 155 



Per Cent of Current Expense Disbursements Received from State and Federal 
Funds for School Purposes for Year Ending July 31, 1938 



County 


tTotal 
Disburse- 
ments 

for 
Current 
Expenses 


Amount Received for Cur- 
rent Expenses from 


Per Cent of Current Expense 
Disbursements Received from 


tState 
Aid 


^Fed- 
eral 
Aid 


fCounty 
Levy and 
Other 
County 
Sources 


State Aid 
Excluding 
Equalization 
Fund 


State 
Equalization 
Fund 


State Aid 


< 

n 

!_ 

O) 

~s 

r° 


County Levy 
and Other 
Sources 


Total Counties. 


$9,893,912 


$4,219,147 


$144,854 


$5,529,911 


31.7 


11.0 


42.7 


1.4 


55.9 


Somerset 


208,539 


155,077 


1,020 


52,442 


41.4 


33.0 


74.4 


.5 


25.1 




115,164 


83,438 


1,525 


30,201 


36.6 


35.9 


72.5 


1.3 


26.2 


Charles 


191,376 


132,174 


xl5,839 


43,363 


37.2 


31.9 


69.1 


8.3 


22.6 


Garrett 


335,562 


231,610 


9,040 


94.912 


26.5 


42.5 


69.0 


2.7 


28.3 




139,984 


96,168 


4,051 


39,765 


42.6 


26.1 


68.7 


2.9 


28.4 




203,288 


132,697 


5,436 


65, 155 


36.9 


28.4 


65.3 


2.7 


32.0 


Worcester 


227,136 


130,097 


3,424 


93,615 


38.6 


18.7 


57.3 


1.5 


41.2 


Carroll 


436,111 


245,212 


1,818 


189,081 


32.2 


24.0 


56.2 


.4 


43.4 


Dorchester. . . . 


284,997 


159,419 


3.961 


121,617 


36.3 


19.6 


55.9 


1.4 


42.7 


Wicomico 


325,638 


176,616 


1,430 


147,592 


36.3 


17.9 


54.2 


. 5 


45.3 


Kent 


160,862 


80,658 


1,775 


78,429 


36.8 


13.3 


50.1 


1.1 


48.8 


Queen Anne's. . 


177,871 


87,895 


5,191 


84,785 


34.6 


14.8 


49.4 


2.9 


47.7 




184,048 


89,485 


5,163 


89,400 


36.9 


11.7 


48.6 


2.8 


48.6 


Talbot 


198.245 


90,737 


2,235 


105,273 


37.5 


8.3 


45.8 


1.1 


53.1 


Anne Arundel . 


617,119 


270,379 


2,884 


343,856 


30.2 


13.6 


43.8 


.5 


55.7 


Frederick 


575,521 


231,833 


4,808 


338.880 


33.5 


6.8 


40.3 


.8 


58.9 


Prince George's 


813,200 


327,044 


9,583 


476,573 


31.5 


9.2 


40.2 


1.2 


58.6 


Allegany 


976,786 


380,662 


18,992 


577,132 


29.3 


9.7 


39.0 


1.9 


59.1 


Washington 


751.262 


271,810 


16,389 


463 , 063 


30.9 


5.3 


36.2 


2.2 


61.6 


Harford 


354,773 


128,544 


5,219 


221 ,010 


36.2 




36.2 


1.5 


62.3 


Cecil 


299,645 


103,208 


J84 


196,353 


34.4 




34.4 


.1 


65.5 


Baltimore 


1,307,328 


405,333 


6.882 


895,113 


31.0 




31.0 


.5 


68.5 


Montgomery . . . 


1,009,457 


209,051 


18,105 


782,3011 


20.7 




20.7 


1.8 


77.5 


Baltimore City 


°9, 326, 313 


°941,151 


61,200 


°8, 323, 962 


10.1 




10.1 


.6 


89.3 


State 


19,220,225 


5,160,298 


206,054 


13,853,873 


21.2 


5.6 


26.8 


1.1 


72.1 



t Excludes estimated State. Federal, and County funds for public school health services 
expended by County and City health olfices. 

♦Excludes Federal aid for 1936-37 received after Julv 3 1 . 1937, but includes Federal funds 
for 1937-38 received after July 31, 1938. 

x Includes $13,417 received from the Federal Government toward salaries and expenses at 
Indian Head. 

t Amount received from Federal Government for instruction in a C.C.C. Camp. 
"Excludes $776,911 for teachers in Baltimore City Retirement System, of which $522,355 
was paid by the State. 



232 1938 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 

CHART 42 

PER CENT OF CURREOT EXPENDITURES FOR YEAR ENDING JULY 31, 1938 



Received from 



| State, Excluding Equalization Fund 
] Equalization Fund 



County Average 

Somerset 

Calvert 

Charles 

Garrett 

St. Mary's 

Caroline 

Worcester 

Carroll 

Dorchester 

Wicomico 

Kent 

Queen Anne's 

Howard 

Talbot 

Anne Arundel 

Frederick 

Prince George* s 

Allegany 

Washington 

Harford 

Cecil 

Baltimore 

Montgomery 

Baltimore City 
State 



Federal Aid 
V/////X County Levy and Other County Sources 




WMM3L 



mnMMMM 



WfflMMm 



mSMMMMM 



WMMMZMMZMM 



m 



WZMMMMMMMMEl 



Toward the Baltimore City school current expenses, excluding 
State and Federal aid to the retirement system on account of 
teachers, the State contributed 10.1 per cent, the local levy 89.3 
per cent, and the Federal aid .6 of one per cent. 



State and Federal Aid; the School Tax Dollar 233 



For the State as a whole, 26.8 per cent of the school current 
expenses came from State aid, 1.1 per cent from Federal funds, 
and 72.1 per cent from the county and City levy and other local 
sources. (See Table 155 and Chart 42.) 



DISTRIBUTION OF THE 1938 SCHOOL TAX DOLLAR 

In the counties as a group, of every dollar devoted to expenses 
of school children including estimated expenditures on health of 
school children by county health offices, 65.7 cents were used for 
salaries of teachers and principals, 13.9 cents for transportation, 
libraries and health, 7 cents for heating and cleaning buildings, 
4.1 cents for books, materials, clerical service in schools and other 
costs of instruction, 3.4 cents for repairs and replacements, 2.8 
cents for administration, 1.8 cents for supervision, and 1.3 cents 
for fixed charges and tuition to adjoining counties. (See Table 
156 and Chart 43.) 

TABLE 156 



Per Cent Distribution of School Expenditures for Year Ending July 31, 1938 



County 


Per Cent of Total Current Expense Funds Used for 


Per Cent of 
Expenditures 
for Current 
Expenses and 
Capital Out- 
lay Used for 
Capital 
Outlay 


General Control 


Supervision 


Salaries of 
Teachers 


Books, Materials 
and Other Costs 
of Instruction 


Operation 


Maintenance 


Auxiliary Agencies* 


Fixed Charges and 
Tuition to Ad- 
joining Counties 


County Average 


2.8 


1.8 


65.7 


4.1 


7.0 


3.4 


13.9 


1.3 


13.5 


Allegany 


2.3 


1.7 


67.1 


5.1 


8.2 


3.7 


11.1 


.8 


3.8 


Anne Arundel 


2.5 


1.1 


64.7 


3.7 


6.9 


3.0 


15.9 


2.2 


17.1 




2.6 


1.4 


69.5 


3.5 


7.6 


2.4 


10.9 


2.1 






5.4 


3.5 


49.7 


1.7 


5.0 


2.5 


31.2 


1.0 


6^7 




3.9 


2.0 


61.2 


3.0 


6.4 


1.6 


20.8 


1.1 


10.2 


Carroll 


2.9 


2.0 


61.8 


4.6 


5.7 


2.4 


19.3 


1.3 


3.5 


Cecil 


2.8 


1.4 


66.8 


5.1 


6.5 


3.1 


12.9 


1.4 


36.4 


Charles 


3.1 


2.2 


55.8 


2.9 


6.7 


5.9 


22.6 


.8 


4.7 




3.4 


2.4 


61.9 


2.8 


6.7 


3.0 


18.8 


1.0 


.7 


Frederick 


2.3 


1.7 


65.5 


4.0 


5.9 


2.4 


17.3 


.9 


3.7 


Garrett 


3.6 


1.7 


58.4 


3.4 


4.3 


4.7 


21.6 


2.3 


11.1 


Harford 


2.9 


2.0 


74.0 


3.0 


6.4 


3.4 


7.4 


.9 


11.3 




4.1 


1.9 


62.9 


4.3 


6.3 


2.6 


16.1 


1.8 


22.0 


Kent 


4.7 


2.8 


59.7 


2.9 


7.0 


2.8 


19.6 


.5 


.1 


Montgomery 


2.2 


1.9 


66.2 


5.3 


9.4 


4.1 


10.1 


.8 


13.6 


Prince George's 


2.2 


1.5 


67.2 


5.9 


7.1 


7.8 


7.0 


1.3 


23.3 


Queen Anne's 


4.8 


2.1 


56.8 


3.8 


6.6 


2.3 


21.6 


2.0 


3.0 


St. Mary's 


5.3 


2.8 


54.6 


2.5 


4.3 


2.5 


27.2 


.8 


2.3 




4.1 


1.9 


65.2 


3.4 


5.0 


1.9 


17.5 


1.0 


5.1 


Talbot 


4.6 


2.2 


61.7 


3.1 


7.2 


1.1 


18.7 


1.4 


35.2 


Washington 


1.9 


1.8 


75.0 


3.3 


6.3 


2.8 


8.2 


.7 


3.4 


Wicomico 


4.0 


1.7 


62.1 


4.4 


7.8 


3.1 


15.2 


1.7 


48.6 




3.8 


2.0 


61.8 


2.9 


6.9 


2.6 


18.9 


1.1 


6.2 




3.3 


1.5 


75.7 


3.3 


10.1 


2.8 


3.1 


.2 


7.5 


State 


3.1 


1.6 


70.5 


3.7 


8.5 


3.1 


8.7 


.8 


10.7 



* Auxiliary agencies include estimated expenditures by health offices in counties and Bal- 
timore City for services rendered to school children. Baltimore City expenditures for the 
Retirement System are excluded. 



234 



1938 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



If current expenditures of the county school boards, excluding 
transportation, are considered, the percentages run as follows: 
for salaries of teachers and principals 76 cents, for cleaning and 
heating buildings 8.1 cents, for books, materials, clerical service 
in schools and other costs of instruction 4.7 cents, for repairs 
and replacements 3.9 cents, for administration 3.3 cents, for 
supervision 2 cents, for fixed charges and tuition to adjoining 
counties one cent, for libraries, health and community activities 
one cent. The requirement that counties sharing in the Equaliza- 
tion Fund spend at least 24 per cent of current expenses excluding 
transportation for purposes other than teachers' salaries is there- 
fore very close to actual practice in the 23 counties for the year 
1938. 

CHART 43 

How the County Tax Dollar for School Current Expenses was Used in 1937-38 




* Fixed chai-ges and payments to adjoining counties. 

In general, percentages for teachers' salaries were highest in 
the counties which had a low percentage for auxiliary agencies 
and vice versa. A population concentrated in large centers, a 
large proportion of teachers in one-teacher schools, a policy of 



The School Tax Dollar; Average Cost Per Day School Pupil 235 

charging pupils for high school transportation are all factors 
tending to decrease the percentage of public expenditures for 
transportation and increase those for salaries of teachers, while 
the reverse of these conditions usually brings high percentages 
of children transported and increases the per cent of the budget 
used for transportation and reduces the per cent for salaries. 
(See Table 156.) 

The small counties tended to have high percentages devoted to 
administration and supervision, while the large counties needed 
only a small percentage of their funds for these purposes. (See 
Table 156.) 

The accessibility and cheapness of fuel and the use of pupils 
and teachers for janitorial work instead of employing outside 
janitorial help necessary in the larger schools tend to affect the 
per cent of funds needed for operation of schools. (See Table 
156.) 

The availability of labor through the Works Progress Admin- 
istration had a relation to the expenditures required for main- 
tenance in some of the counties and in Baltimore City. (See Table 
156 and Tables 164 and 165, pages 244 and 245.) 

Tuition to adjoining counties did not require over 2 per cent 
of the current expense budget, except in three counties which had 
a number of residents attending school in adjoining counties or 
Baltimore City. (See Table 156 and Table 176, page 258.) 

If the school current expenses and capital outlay are combined, 
the per cent of this combination devoted to capital outlay averaged 
13.5 per cent for the 23 counties, but the range was considerable, 
viz., from nothing to nearly 49 per cent. Most of the counties 
which had a large school capital outlay received aid from the 
Federal Public Works Administration. (See Table 156.) 

AVERAGE COST PER PUPIL 

It cost on the average $61.12 to provide for the education and 
health service of a county white and colored elementary and high 
school pupil belonging in the day schools in 1938. The cost in 
1938 included an estimate of $1.18 for health service given chil- 
dren through the county health offices. These per pupil costs, 
however, exclude expenditures for home teachers of handicapped 
children, payments to adjoining counties and states and cost of 
evening and adult classes. Also pupils in the elementary schools 
at the State Teachers Colleges and Bowie Normal School are not 
considered with the number belonging for the counties in which 
these schools are located, since the cost of their instruction is pro- 
vided for by the State and charged against these State institu- 
tions. (See Table 157.) 



236 



1938 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



TABLE 157 



Cost Per Day School Pupil Belonging for Current Expenses for Years 
1931, 1933, 1935, 1937, and 1938 



County 


fl931 


jl933 


°tl936 


°tl937 


°fl938 


Increase 

1938 
over 1937 


County Average 


$56.44 


$51.89 


$53.71 


$56.29 


$61.12 


$4.83 




68.29 


59. 17 


67.83 


72.29 


80.47 


8. 18 




69. 17 


61 .22 


58.92 


61 .79 


71 .35 


9.56 


Queen Anne's 


57 . 55 


59 .01 


59.34 


62.83 


70.39 


7.56 




60 . 84 


57.38 


57.30 


59.93 


67.00 


7.07 


Carroll 


68 . 75 


60.82 


59.43 


60. 51 


66. 51 


6.00 


Kent 


61.15 


58. 19 


59.78 


59.06 


65. 13 


6.07 




54 . 86 


51 . 79 


55.97 


58 . 82 


64.70 


5.88 


St. Mary's 


49. 59 


49 . 09 


48 . 18 


53.87 


63 . 34 


9.47 


Alleganv 


61.45 


55.97 


58.29 


60.09 


63.13 


3.04 


(^.o roll np 


57. 13 


54 15 


55.73 


55 40 


61 22 


5.82 




56! 02 


51^87 


47^94 


53^24 


59^21 


5^97 


Frederick 


52.88 


49.03 


53.16 


54.68 


58.46 


3.78 


Charles 


47.86 


46.03 


50.76 


53.83 


58.36 


4.53 


Harford 


56.05 


50.26 


53.23 


54.90 


58.30 


3.40 


Dorchester 


54.21 


50.68 


49.80 


51 . 65 


58.29 


6.64 


Baltimore 


58.05 


50.03 


53.31 


57.14 


57.98 


.84 


Anne Arundel 


53 . 72 


49.47 


50.05 


53 . 65 


57.07 


3.42 


Washington 


51.31 


47.41 


47.85 


49.89 


57.03 


7.14 


Calvert 


47.94 


47.07 


51.39 


52.29 


56.92 


4.63 




46.42 


46.45 


48 . 55 


50.98 


56.62 


5.64 


Worcester 


53.36 


49.36 


49.44 


50.95 


56.35 


5.40 


Prince George's 


51 . 55 


49.87 


48.34 


50.07 


54.74 


4.67 


Somerset 


45.75 


44.57 


45.66 


47.11 


50.26 


3.15 



t In making this calculation salaries and expenses for home teachers of handicapped chil- 
dren, expenditures for tuition to adjoining counties and states, and for evening schools and 
adult classes have been excluded, and number belonging to elementary schools at Towson, 
Frostburg and Salisbury Teachers Colleges and Bowie Normal School has not been included. 

Includes estimated expenditures by county health offices for services rendered to school 
children. 

The increase of $4.83 in the average cost in 1938 over 1937 is 
explained in part by the full restoration of salary cuts in effect 
from 1934 through 1937 due to legislation in 1933 and 1935. 

The cost per day school pupil varied among the counties from 
$50.26 to $80.47, and every county showed an increase from 1937 
to 1938. (See Table 157.) 

The proportion of high school pupils, the proportion of colored 
pupils, the length of session in colored schools, the proportion of 
pupils in small one-teacher schools, the ratio of pupils to teachers, 
the enrichment of the high school curriculum, the proportion of 
pupils transported to school, the length of transportation route 
and type of vehicle used, the number and variety of books and 
materials provided, and the salary schedule are some of the factors 
which affect the total average cost per pupil. (See Table 157.) 



Cost per Pupil for General Control 
In 1938 it cost on the average SI. 76 per pupil for general con- 
trol which covers administration or management to make it 



Cost Per Pupil for Current Expense and General Control 237 



possible for teachers to instruct children under good conditions. 
The cost per pupil for general control in 1938 was an increase of 
seven cents over that in 1937, but was lower than the correspond- 
ing amount spent in any year from 1927 to 1932, inclusive. (See 
Table 158.) 

TABLE 158 



Cost Per Pupil Belonging for General Control 



County 


1936 


1937 


1938 


Increase 
1938 
Over 
1937 


County 


1936 


1937 


1938 


Increase 
1938 
Over 
1937 


County Average . 


$1.59 


$1 


69 


SI. 76 


$.07 


Carroll 


$1 


67 


$2.04 


$1.93 


*$.ll 












Cecil 


1 


42 


1.73 


1.87 


.14 


Queen Anne's. . . . 


2.85 


3 


33 


3.39 


.06 


Montgomery. . . . 


1 


60 


1.76 


1.80 


.04 


St. Mary's 


2.71 


3 


20 


3.34 


.14 




1 


62 


1.71 


1.78 


.07 


Calvert 


2.93 


3 


11 


3.08 


*.03 


Harford 


1 


55 


1.48 


1.70 


.22 


Kent 


2.82 


2 


70 


3.08 


.38 




1 


30 


1.53 


1 . 55 


.02 


Talbot 


2.66 


2 


72 


3.02 


.30 


Allegany 


1 


32 


1.27 


1.45 


.18 


Garrett 


2.46 


2 


38 


2.63 


.25 


Anne Arundel. . . 


1 


22 


1.60 


1.44 


*.16 


Howard 


2.30 


2 


32 


2.46 


.14 


Frederick 


1 


27 


1 .23 


1.31 


.08 


Caroline 


2.37 


2 


31 


2.42 


.11 


Prince George's. 


1 


21 


1.23 


1.19 


*.04 


Wicomico 


1.91 


2 


06 


2.26 


.20 


Washington .... 


1 


01 


1.04 


1.08 


.04 


Worcester 


1.94 


1 


83 


2.16 


.33 












Somerset 


1.87 


1 


89 


2.06 


.17 


Baltimore City . . 


2 


48 


2.75 


2.70 


*.05 




1.75 


1 


72 


2.02 


.30 


























Entire State .... 


1 


96 


2.13 


2.15 


.02 



Decrease. 



The counties varied in cost of general control per pupil from 
SI. 08 to S3. 39. In six of the largest counties the cost per pupil 
for general control was SI. 55 or less while in five of the smallest 
counties it was over three dollars. All of the administrative func- 
tions must be performed whether a county be large or small and 
this cost per pupil is therefore necessarily larger in the counties 
with a small school population. (See Table 158.) 

There were four counties which had decreases from 1937 to 
1938 ranging from 3 to 16 cents in cost per pupil for general 
control. In one of these counties the decrease was due to increase 
in enrollment. Increases in cost per pupil for general control were 
as low as two cents and as high as 38 cents. 

Some of the causes of increases in cost per pupil for general 
control were increased office expenses, restoration of salary cuts 
for superintendents, attendance officers and clerks, and decrease 
in enrollment. 

The cost per pupil for general control in Baltimore City was 
$2.70, a decrease of 5 cents under 1937. (See Table 158.) 



238 1938 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



Comparative Cost Per White Elementary and High School Pupil 

Excluding the cost of general control, the current cost of in- 
structing a county white high school pupil in 1938 was $90.87, 
while that for a county white elementary pupil was $54.86, the 
cost for the high school pupil being 1.65 times that for the white 
elementary pupil. These were increases over 1937 of $8.40 for 
each white high and S3. 62 for each white elementary school pupil. 
(See Table 159 and Chart 44.) 



TABLE 159 



Cost Per Day School Pupil Belonging for Current Expenses by Types of 
Schools for Year Ending July 31, 1938 



County 


Cost Per 

Pupil 
Belonging 
for 
General 
Control 


Cost, Excluding General Control, Per Day School Pupil in 


White 
High 

Schools 


White Elementary Schools 


Colored Schools 


One- 
Teacher 
Schools* 


Two- 
Teacher 
Schools* 


Graded 
Schools* 


All 

Elemen- 
tary 

Schools* 


High 
Schools 


Elemen- 
tary 
Schools* 


County Average . 


$1 


76 


$90 


87 


$63 


33 


$56.83 


$52.48 


$54.86 


°$58.54 


$31.76 


Allegany 


1 


45 


80 


71 


55 


81 


44.82 


54 


96 


55.53 


119.59 


46.27 




1.44 


86 


82 


114 


46 


69.09 


52 


89 


54.86 


55.26 


28.64 


Baltimore 


1 


55 


76 


64 


40 


39 


51.92 


51 


00 


51.90 


132. 44 


42.44 


Calvert 


3 


08 


124 


36 


96 


25 


73.73 


66 


54 


71.78 


54.95 


23.65 




2 


42 


104 


40 






63.92 


49 


25 


51.51 


56.75 


31.36 


Carroll 


1 


93 


99 


58 


62 


95 


54.67 


51 


81 


53.67 


68.58 


32.73 


Cecil 


1 


87 


90 


08 


61 


82 


54.13 


51 


77 


55.22 


73.08 


50.30 


Charles 


1 


78 


113 


92 


51 


22 


54.35 


60 


64 


61.97 


53.12 


27.38 




2 


02 


97 


35 


67 


78 


60.64 


48 


17 


55.09 


52.38 


28.29 


Frederick 


1 


31 


78 


20 


61 


90 


53.07 


50 


63 


52.47 


62.04 


33.51 


Garrett 


2 


63 


103 


31 


67 


31 


48.63 


53 


19 


58.89 








1 


70 


79 


33 


54 


82 


53.47 


49 


25 


52.36 


5t!57 


32^51 


Howard 


2 


46 


91 


78 


56 


12 


43.83 


51 


48 


53.18 


82.27 


25.31 


Kent 


3 


08 


99 


76 


72 


86 


68.81 


52 


39 


62.86 


59 . 52 


33.27 




1 


80 


125 


68 


90 


77 


84.69 


68 


21 


70.77 


55.45 


44.96 


Prince George's. . . 


1 


19 


84 


72 


50 


02 


56.91 


46 


79 


48.74 


65.22 


30.58 




3 


39 


113 


68 


67 


79 


60.71 


58 


33 


61.73 


66.39 


35.29 


St. Mary's 


3 


34 


108 


89 


67 


82 


70.56 


89 


13 


76.79 


39.20 


30.54 




2 


06 


89 


36 


60 


14 


52.15 


46 


94 


50.01 


36.08 


25.34 


Talbot 


3 


02 


103 


06 


76.75 


66.31 


55 


75 


60.45 


47.47 


31.08 


Washington 


1 


08 


86 


16 


63 


82 


47.33 


46 


11 


48.90 


88.72 


40.08 




2 


26 


89 


44 


62.81 


70.69 


48 


25 


51.65 


44.34 


27.56 


Worcester 


2 


16 


101 


72 


54 


62 


70.67 


50 


95 


55.04 


37.60 


24.78 


Baltimore City. . . . 


2 


70 


115 


51 












76.77 


°104.73 


62.82 






















69.12 




57.34 


Vocational 




















148.17 




135.98 


Junior High .... 




















94.49 




84.81 


Senior High .... 






115 


5i 














°104!73 




Total State 


2 


15 


97 


93 












t59.73 


70.96 


t44.52 



* Includes estimated expenditures by county health officers on services rendered to school 
children. 

° Average tuition payment to Baltimore City for 201 Baltimore County pupils attending 
Baltimore City junior and senior high schools, excluded from Baltimore City, shown above 
separately for Baltimore County. 

t Elementary schools only. 



Comparative Cost Per White High and Elementary School 239 

Pupil 



CHART 44 

1938 Cost Excluding General Control Per County White Pupil Belonging 

in Elementary Schools, $54.86 in High Schools, $90.87 




a Supervision. 

b Books, Materials and Other Costs of Instruction. 



The 1938 salary cost per county white elementary school pupil 
was $36.83, while that of a white county high school pupil was 
$66.38. These were increases of $2.34 and $6.42, respectively, 
over corresponding figures in 1937. The excess salary cost per 
high school pupil is due to the higher basic salary schedule for 
high school teachers, who until very recently have been required 
to spend one or two more years in professional preparation than 
were considered necessary for elementary school teachers, to the 
fact that the ratio of pupils to teachers in high school is lower 
than in elementary school, and to inclusion of high school super- 
visory costs with teachers' salaries in the four counties which 
employ supervisors, while in elementary schools supervision is 
reported as a separate item. (See Chart 44.) 

Auxiliary agencies, including transportation, libraries and 
health service, cost the public $8.73 for each white elementary 
pupil and $9.56 for each white high school pupil. These were 
increases over 1937 of 53 cents for each white elementary and 
65 cents for each white high school pupil. The amount per white 
elementary pupil includes an estimate of expenditures on health 
services for school children by the county health offices. Since 
most of the communicable diseases are prevalent in the elemen- 
tary schools, and examinations of school children are usually 
made in grades 1, 3, and 7, none of these estimated costs were 
charged against the high school pupils. Since the number of 



240 1938 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 

high schools available is smaller than the number of elementary 
schools, there is a larger proportion of high school pupils for 
whom transportation must be provided and the distance these 
high school pupils must travel is greater than for the average 
elementary school pupil. This is offset partially by the fact that 
in three counties each high school pupil transported paid a part 
of the cost of transportation and the amount paid by the pupil 
is not included in the cost shown. High school pupils need to use 
library books to a greater extent than elementary pupils. (See 
Chart 44.) 

The 1938 cost of janitors, fuel and repairs was §6.14 per county 
white elementary pupil as against $9.57 per county white high 
school pupil, increases of 50 cents and 81 cents, respectively, over 
1937 costs. The small size of many high school sections using 
rooms of ordinary size makes the cost of operating and maintain- 
ing high schools greater than that for elementary schools. The de- 
crease in elementary enrollment and the increase in high school 
enrollment probably account for the fact that the cost per ele- 
mentary pupil increased more than that per high school pupil. 
(See Chart 44.) 

Books, materials and other costs of instruction required $1.84 
per county white elementary school pupil and S5.36 per county 
white high school pupil in 1938, an increase of 11 cents for each 
elementary pupil and 52 cents for each high school pupil when 
compared with 1937. The difference between the costs in the two 
types of schools is due to the fact that the older, more mature 
pupils need more, larger, and more expensive books than the ele- 
mentary school pupils. (See Chart 44.) 

The comparative cost per pupil in white high, white one-teacher, 
two-teacher, graded, and all white elementary as well as colored 
high and colored elementary schools for each county is shown in 
Table 159. These costs are analyzed in detail for the counties 
for white elementary schools on pages 48 to 65, for white high 
schools on pages 131 to 144, and for colored schools on pages 
191 to 197. 

FEDERAL AID TO VOCATIONAL EDUCATION 

The allotment to Maryland for 1937-38 from the Federal Gov- 
ernment for vocational education under the Smith-Hughes and 
George-Deen Acts was $255,046, practically double the amount 
available for the three preceding years — $127,272. The provi- 
sions of the laws required expenditures of the funds as shown 
in Table 160. 



Cost Per White High and Elementary Pupil; Federal 241 
Vocational Aid 



TABLE 160 



Federal Vocational Funds Allotted to and Expended in Maryland, 1937-38 



Purpose 


1938 
Allotment 


1938 
Expenditures 


Unexpended 
Balance 


Agriculture 


$66,004 
101,503 
46,905 
25,572 
15,062 


$49,535 
92,390 
46,905 
22,366 
3,723 


$16,469 
9,113 


Teacher-Training and Supervision 

Education for Distributive Occupations. . . . 

Total 


3,206 
11,339 


$255,046 


$214,919 


$40,127 



Portions of the Smith-Hughes funds could be used only for 
salaries of teachers of agriculture, of part-time industrial edu- 
cation, and of the George-Deen funds for education for distribu- 
tive occupations. Since the programs for all of these types of 
work were not sufficiently developed in Maryland to take advan- 
tage of the entire amount available from Federal funds, there 
were unexpended balances which totalled $40,127. The expendi- 
tures from Federal funds totalled S214,919. 

Every dollar of Smith-Hughes Federal funds expended for vo- 
cational education is matched by a dollar of State, county or City 
funds, or both jointly. Every dollar of George-Deen Federal 
funds expended for teacher training is matched by a dollar of 
State money, but George-Deen funds expended for purposes other 
than teacher-training are matched by at least fifty cents of State, 
county, or City money, or both jointly. For some of the new 
programs Federal funds to the extent of 100 and 66 2/3 per cent 
were provided, but for the older programs only 50 per cent of 
George-Deen Federal funds were made available. 

In the program of training of teachers, supervision and admin- 
istration of vocational education, both Smith-Hughes and George- 
Deen funds are available. Smith-Hughes funds can be used only 
for salaries of teachers of agriculture, trade and industrial, and 
home economics subjects, while George-Deen funds are available 
to reimburse both salaries and travelling expenses of teachers. 

The funds were used as reimbursement for the subjects and 
types of county and City schools shown in Table 161. 

The Federal funds spent in the counties totalling S131,353 were 
matched by S80,828 of county and State funds, of which S68,643 
were used for day schools for white high school pupils, $4,229 
for day schools for colored high school pupils, $7,872 for county 
evening schools for white adults, and $84 for those for colored 
adults. 



242 



1938 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



TABLE 161 



Federal Vocational Funds Expended by Subject and Type of School in 1937-38 



Type of School 


Subject 


Agriculture 


Home 
Economics 


Industrial 
Education 


Distributive 
Education 


Total 


County Day 

White 


$42,411 
6,610 

234 
281 


$33,094 
5,950 

4,239 
601 

'3!021 


$22,547 
2,806 

11,496 
342 

45,215 
9,984 




$98,052 
15,366 

16,635 
1,300 

48,196 
13,005 


Colored 




County Evening 
White 

Baltimore City 

Day 

Evening 


$666 
76 

2,981 


Total 






$49,536 


$46,905 


$92,390 


$3,723 


$192,554 



For detailed figures by counties for white day schools see Table 
91, page 135, for colored day schools see Table 131, page 195, and 
for evening school work see Table 149, page 220. 



The Federally Aided Program in Baltimore City 

The 1938 expenditures for salaries of teachers in vocational 
schools in Baltimore City were $191,528, an increase of $1,107 
over those for 1937. The Federal reimbursement was $61,200, 
leaving the City contribution for salaries for this program 
$130,328. The Federal reimbursement was $38,664 more than 
for the preceding year due to the increased funds available 
through the George-Deen Act. (See Table 162.) 

TABLE 162 



Salary Expenditures in Baltimore City for Vocational Education, 
Year Ending June 30, 1938 



Type of School 


From 
City 
Funds 


From 
Federal 
Funds 


Total 


Enrol 
Boys 


[ment 
Girls 


Vocational 
Education 

Salary 
Cost per 

Pupil 
Enrolled 


Day Vocational 

Part-time Industrial* 

Evening Home Economics. . . 
Distributive Education 

Total 


$119,907.67 
7,607.75 
1,693.17 
1,119.17 


$45,214.52 
9,983.75 
3,021.33 
2,980.83 


$165,122.19 
17,591.50 
4,714.50 
4,100.00 


1,605 
1,824 


546 

998 
210 


$76.77 
9.64 
4.72 
19.52 


$130,327.76 


$61,200.43 


$191,528.19 


3,429 


1,754 


$36.95 



Includes all evening work in industrial education. 



Federal Vocational Aid 



243 



Over 86 per cent of the salary expenditures for vocational work 
in Baltimore City went to teachers in the six day vocational 
schools which enrolled 1,605 boys and 546 girls at a salary cost 
for vocational teachers of nearly $77 per pupil. Strict trade 
training was given in four schools and specific training along 
mechanical lines in two general vocational schools organized for 
boys not eligible to enter the Boys' Vocational School. Upon 
graduation from the general vocational schools, the boys have 
received specific training in at least two shops, and are prepared 
for employment as assistants in various kinds of mechanical 
work. (See Table 162.) 

Baltimore City during 1937-38 expanded the vocational pro- 
gram available to junior workers in department stores since 1924 
in two ways : 1, by adding extension courses in industries for the 
retraining and further training of employed persons in order that 
they may adapt to the constant changes in methods of production 
and service, and 2, by organizing apprenticeship training in the 
plumbing and electrical trades. 

State Administration and Supervision of Vocational Education 

The administration and supervision of vocational education was 
financed by State funds to a total of S8,698 and by Federal funds 
aggregating S7,885. The University of Maryland matched the 
Federal appropriation of S14,481 for teacher training in the three 
fields. The director of vocational education acts also as super- 
visor of trade and industrial education and with the State super- 
visor of home economics gives full time to the work. The State 
supervisor of agriculture devotes one-third of his time to the 
supervision of agricultural work in the counties and one-half of 
his time to teacher training in agriculture at the University of 
Maryland. (See Table 163.) 

TABLE 163 



Expenditures for Administration, Supervision, and Teacher Training in 
Vocational Education, Year Ending June 30, 1938 



Purpose 


Administration 
and Supervision 


Teacher-Training 


Total 


State 
Funds 


Federal 
Funds 


University 
of Md. 
Funds 


Federal 
Funds 


State and 
University 
Funds 


Federal 
Funds 


Trades and Industries 
Total 


*$1,216.24 
4,320.13 
3,161.54 


*$1,216.23 
3,532.98 
3,135.80 


$3,282.06 
8,694.34 
2,504.95 


$3,282.04 
8,694.35 
2,504.95 


$4,498.30 
13,014.47 
5,666.49 


$4,498.27 
12,227.33 
5,640.75 


$8,697.91 


$7,885.01 


$14,481.35 


$14,481.34 


$23,179.26 


$22,366.35 



The supervisor gave part-time service. 



244 



1938 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



WORK RELIEF PROJECTS BENEFITING SCHOOLS 

Eleven counties reported the estimated value of Federal aid 
for work relief projects affecting school grounds and buildings 
as $132,600 for 1937-38. This amount does not include $74,852 
expended for cataloguing and reconditioning library and text- 
books which project in thirteen counties was sponsored by the 
Maryland Public Library Advisory Commission, nor does it in- 
clude $2,090 spent for 41 sanitary privies installed under the 
supervision of the Maryland State Department of Health. (See 
Tables 164, 165 and 171, page 252.) 



TABLE 164 

Work Relief Projects Benefiting Schools: Number of Schools Benefited; Type 
of Project; Estimated Value of Federal Aid for School Year 1937-38 



County 


No. of 
Schools 
Benefited 






■J 


a 
~ 




01 

>> 

T3 03 




stem 


S 




Book-binding 


Athletic Field 


iilding 1 


03 

a 

r> 




ounds 


Estimated 
Value of 
Federal 
Aid 


White 


Colored 


Grading 


Repairs 


Alteratior 


New Buil 


Painting 


Walks an 
Drivew 


Additions 


Water Sy: 


Auditoriu 


Sanitatioi 


Razing Bi 


Bus Statii 


Cafeteria 


School Gr 




80 


20 


































$132,600 
t.... 
























X 














1 


2 




X 


X 








X 




















20,500 

22,377 
6,040 
5,399 
1,494 

12,697 
8,900 

16,084 
8.780 


Cecil 


1 


1 


X 






















X 












17 


14 




X 


X 


X 


X 


X 








X 
















3 


X 










X 




X 


















Garrett 


27 






X 


X 




X 




X 












X 


X 








2 




X 






























X 




5 




X 


X 






X 






X 




















1 


i 








X 




























13 






X 












X 


X 
















9 


i 


X 










X 


















X 




19,603 
10,726 




1 


l 








X 










X 



















































f No figures available. 



TABLE 165 



School Sanitation Projects, August 1, 1937 to July 31, 1938 







Number 


W. P. A. 






County 


Number 


Schools 


Labor 


Cost of 


Total 




Privies 


Sanitated 


Cost 


Materials 


Cost 


Total Counties 


41 


20 


$1,157.88 


$932.05 


$2,089.93 




2 


1* 


37.68 


47.40 


85.08 


Washington 


39 


19 


1,120.20 


884.65 


2,004.85 



School privy projects are completed in all counties, except Baltimore, Calvert, Dorchester, 
Harford, and Talbot, in which counties they will be completed as soon as relief labor is made 
available. 

* Restored to approved type. 



WPA Projects for Schools; Transportation of Pupils 245 



The work relief projects reported by superintendents of schools 
included grading, walks, and driveways, improvement of school 
grounds, athletic fields, repairs, alterations, painting, new build- 
ings, additions, auditoriums, cafeteria, water systems and sani- 
tation, razing buildings, and bus stations. (See Table 164.) 

The Works Progress Administration allotted to the Baltimore 
City Department of Education $286,273 for reconditioning, re- 
habilitating and improving school buildings, grounds, and equip- 
ment, of which S207,273 was expended, and made available; 
$73,023 for bettering school administration of which $55,970 
was expended. The City Department of Education contributed 
$61,380 in supervision and materials, by assigning regular admin- 
istrative and technical personnel, and shop workmen as foremen 
and sub-foremen. 

TRANSPORTATION OF MARYLAND COUNTY PUPILS 

In 1937-38 the counties transported nearly 56,270 pupils to 
school at an expenditure to the public of $1,121,500. This was 
an increase of 4,020 in the number transported and $101,600 in 
cost over corresponding figures for 1937. The gradual growth 
of the program of transporting pupils to school at public expense 

TABLE 166 



Maryland County Expenditures for Transporting Pupils to School 1910-1938 











tCost to 




Public 


Number of 


Number of 


Public per 


YE4R 


Expenditures for 


Counties 


Pupils 


Pupil 




Transportation 




Transported 


Transported 


1910 


$5,210 


4 






1915 


17,270 


10 






1920 


64,734 


18 






1921,. 


84,870 


18 






1922 


90,011 


18 






1923 


132,591 


20 


4^344 


$36!.59 


1924 


188,516 


21 


6,499 


29.01 


1925 


242,041 


22 


8.618 


28.09 


1926 


312,495 


22 


10,567 


29.57 


1927 


373,168 


23 


*13,385 


t27.92 


1928 


436,583 


23 


*15,907 


t27.49 


1929 


512,385 


23 


*18,928 


t27.12 


1930 


603,148 


23 


*22,814 


t26.51 


1931 


744,400 


23 


*29,006 


t25.71 


1932 


834,679 


23 


*35.019 


t23.88 


1933 


858,274 


23 


*40,308 


t21.33 


1934 


863,549 


23 


*42,241 


t20.47 


1935 


892,422 


23 


*44,576 


t20.04 


1936 


952 , 598 


23 


*49,051 


tl9.48 


1937 


1,019,872 


23 


*52.248 


tl9.55 


1938 


1,121,498 


23 


*56,268 


tl9.96 



* Includes number of pupils transported to Bowie Normal School at State expense. 
I Pupils transported at State expense to Bowie Normal School excluded in obtaining cost 
per pupil transported. 



246 



1938 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



CHART 45 

Number of Maryland County Pupils Transported to School at Public Expense 
and Expenditures Therefor, 1923 to 1938 



Public 

Expenditures 
For Transportation 



$1,100,000 



1,00 0.0 00 



900.040 - 



600.000 



700,000 



600,000 



'Hc.ooo 



■300.000 



200.000 



100.000 




MoMSER OF 

Pupils 

TrKN PORTED 



5T.0O0 



5"0,000 



4T.OO0 



4o.om 



35.000 



30.000 



25.000 



2 0,000 



1 5.0 oo 



10.000 



5",000 



M23 1525 192T MM 1931 1933 1*»5 1W J9J) 



since 1910, when four counties spent $5,210, to the program in 
1938 is shown in Table 166. The number of pupils transported 
at public expense first reported as 4,344 in 1923 grew to nearly 
thirteen times this number by 1938. The average cost to the 
public per pupil transported decreased from $30.59 in 1923 to 
$19.96 in 1938. Except for slight increases in 1926, 1937, and 
1938, there has been a decrease each year in the cost per pupil 
transported at public expense, and this has been accomplished 
in the later years partly by the use of larger busses more carefully 



Transportation of Pupils to School 



247 



routed, but at the same time the type of bus used with respect 
to safety, arrangement, weight, etc., has been much improved 
in most of the counties. In 1937 and 1938 a number of counties 
restored the percentage cuts put in effect during the depression 
in the amounts paid to the drivers of busses. (See Table 166 and 
Charts 45 and 46.) 



CHART 46 

Cost per Maryland County Pupil Transported at Public Expense, 1923-1938 
$ *0 



35 - 



30 



25 



20 



1ST 



10 



5 - 



I 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 

»23 1325 m $29 mi mm ms mi to 

Baltimore City transported 550 children, of whom 347 were 
crippled, in 12 busses, for which $26,980 was paid, a cost per 
pupil transported of $49.05. There were 465 white and 85 
colored pupils transported to elementary, vocational, junior, and 
senior high schools. 

Of the 56,268 county pupils transported at public expense in 
1938, 38,729 were carried to elementary and 17,539 to high 
schools. This was an increase of 2,846 elementary and 1,174 
high school pupils over the number transported in 1937. All 
counties, except two, transported more pupils at public expense 
in 1938 than in 1937. One county transported fewer than 1,000 
pupils at public expense and another transported nearly 7,500 
pupils. (See Table 167.) 



248 1938 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 

Every county spent more for transporting pupils to school in 
1938 than in 1937 due to increase in number of pupils carried, 
improvement in bus equipment and restoration of cuts in amounts 
paid those furnishing busses. Two counties spent less than 
$25,000 for bus service while one county spent from public funds 
over $117,000 for this purpose. Three counties required high 
school pupils to contribute at least $15 and $20 toward the ex- 
pense of their transportation. (See Table 167.) 

TABLE 167 



Maryland County Pupils Transported to School in 1938 at County Expense 





Pupils Transported 


Public Expenditures for Transportation 


County 


















To Ele- 


To 




To Ele- 


To 




Total 


mentary 


High 


Total 


mentary 


High 






School 


School 




School 


School 


Total Counties 


x56,268 


x38,729 


17,539 


£$1 ,121,498 


$773,188 


£$348,310 


Baltimore 


7,475 


5,141 


2,334 


1117,445 


87,668 


£29,777 




4.211 


3,086 


1,125 


89,026 


62 , 636 


26,390 


Anne Arundel 


f4,665 


t3,133 


1 , 532 


82,959 


54,496 


28,463 


Montgomery 


4,517 


3,502 


1,015 


£77,828 


69,807 


£8,021 


Carroll 


3,998 


2,890 


1,108 


76,577 


52,940 


23,637 




3 , 567 


2,744 


823 


67,904 


53,041 


14,863 


Garrett 


1,955 


1,262 


693 


63,336 


39,346 


23,990 


Washington 


2,438 


1,735 


703 


46,013 


31,826 


14,187 




1,788 


1,167 


621 


45,625 


29,169 


16,456 


Prince George's 


*2,935 


*1,760 


1,175 


45,282 


26,354 


18,928 




1,748 


1,168 


580 


37,175 


25,265 


11,910 


Caroline 


2,084 


1,500 


584 


37,030 


26,809 


10,221 




2,121 


1,355 


766 


36,812 


23,943 


12,869 


Charles 


1,599 


1,000 


599 


35,964 


20,856 


15,108 


Queen Anne's 


1,300 


879 


421 


33,608 


22,357 


11,251 


St. Mary's 


1,143 


594 


549 


32,934 


16,930 


16,004 


Calvert 


1,007 


669 


338 


31,981 


20,217 


11,764 




1,680 


1,011 


669 


31,772 


19,235 


12,537 


Talbot 


1,130 


726 


404 


31,364 


20,857 


10,507 




1,570 


1,047 


523 


31,237 


18,590 


12,647 


Kent 


1,065 


645 


420 


25,011 


14,856 


10,155 


Howard 


1,335 


842 


493 


24,271 


15,727 


8,544 


Harford 


937 


873 


64 


£20,344 


20,263 


£81 



x Includes 84 pupils transported to the Training School at Bowie Normal School, 
t Includes 29 pupils transported to the Training School at Bowie Normal School. 
* Includes 55 pupils transported to the Training School at Bowie Normal School. 
$ Supplemented by payments by parents of high school pupils in Baltimore, Montgomery, 
and Harford Counties. 



Cost to Public per County Pupil Transported 

The average cost to the public per county pupil transported in 
1938 was $19.96, an increase of 41 cents over 1937. The average 
cost per county white elementary pupil transported was $20.13 
with a range in cost for the 23 counties from $16 to $34. The 
variation in cost per colored elementary pupil transported in 
twenty counties was from $10 to $69. 

In the twenty counties which pay the entire cost of high school 
transportation, the range in cost per white high school pupil 
transported was from $14 to $40, and per colored high school 
pupil transported from $12 to $37. (See Table 168.) 



Transportation of Pupils to School 



249 



The average cost to the county per pupil transported was lower 
in seven counties in 1938 than in 1937. In Caroline County it was 
lower for all four types of schools. It was lower in 10 counties 
per white elementary pupil transported, in seven counties per 
white high school pupil transported, in 11 counties per colored 
elementary pupil transported, and in 10 counties per colored high 
school pupil transported. (See Table 168.) 

TABLE 168 



Cost per Maryland County Pupil Transported to School at Public Expense, 
for Year Ending July 31, 1938 



County 


Average 
Cost to 
Public per 
Pupil 
Transported 


White 


Colored 


Elemen- 
tary 


High 


Elemen- 
tary 


High 


County Average 


$19 


96 


$20 


13 


$19 


85 


$18 


31 


$19 


90 


Garrett 


32 


40 


31 


18 


34 


62 










Calvert 


31 


76 


33 


26 


40 


36 


15 


73 


25 


81 


St. Mary's 


28 


81 


34 


01 


37 


74 


9 


96 


11 


97 


Talbot 


27 


76 


31 


62 


29 


20 


19 


04 


19 


05 


Queen Anne's 


25 


85 


25 


43 


24 


84 


25 


44 


33 


01 


Dorchester 


25 


52 


25 


69 


28 


00 


21 


40 


22 


90 


Kent 


23 


48 


23 


33 


23 


91 


21 


90 


24 


78 


Charles 


22 


49 


21 


42 


28 


61 


13 


70 


18 


19 


Harford 


*21 


71 


23 


59 


*1 


27 


16 


47 






Worcester 


21 


27 


21 


86 


21 


79 


17 


29 


16 


si 


Frederick 


21 


14 


20 


36 


22 


39 


19 


38 


34 


93 


Somerset 


19 


90 


18 


76 


28 


31 


10 


44 


16 


57 


Carroll 


19 


15 


18 


41 


21 


50 


13 


76 


18 


68 


Allegany 


19 


04 


19 


34 


18 


07 


15 


72 


17 


25 


Cecil 


18 


91 


17 


84 


17 


31 


31 


04 


30 


94 


Washington 


18 


87 


17 


78 


20 


13 


69 


09 


25 


00 


Howard 


18 


18 


18 


68 


17 


33 










Caroline 


17 


77 


18 


81 


18 


81 


14 


15 


14 


15 


Anne Arundel 


17 


57 


16 


97 


16 


24 


28 


10 


36 


86 


Wicomico 


17 


36 


18 


35 


18 


99 


12 


76 


12 


40 




*17 


23 


19 


74 


*7 


47 


21 


74 


*9 


43 


Prince George's 


16 


24 


16 


22 


14 


00 






20 


19 


Baltimore 


*15 


71 


17 


06 


*12 


37 


16 


87 


t*18 


28 



* Supplemented by payments by parents of high school pupils in Harford, Montgomery 
and Baltimore Counties. 

t Cost to Baltimore County per pupil transported to Baltimore City junior and junior- 
senior high schools. 



Road conditions, the distance pupils have to be carried, the size 
and type of vehicle used, the contract price for busses, are some 
factors which would have to be considered in making comparisons 
of cost per pupil transported among the individual counties. 
(See Table 169.) 



Per Cent of County Pupils Transported 

The counties transported 35,980 white elementary pupils, 33.9 
per cent of the total county white elementary enrollment, 14,556 
white high school pupils, 42.9 per cent of the county white high 
school enrollment, 2,749 colored elementary pupils, 11.4 per cent 
of all county colored elementary school pupils, and 2,983 colored 



250 



1938 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



high school pupils, 67.2 per cent of all county colored high school 
pupils. These were increases over 1937 of 2 per cent for per cent 
of white elementary pupils transported, 1.1 for white high school, 
4.1 for colored elementary, and 8.7 for per cent of colored high 
school pupils transported. (See Table 169.) 

TABLE 169 



Number and Per Cent of Maryland County Pupils Transported to School at 
Public Expense, Year Ending July 31, 1938 





White 


Colored 


County 




















Elementary 


High 


Elementary 


High 




Number 


Per Cent 


Number 


Per Cent 


Number 


Per Cent 


Number 


Per Cent 


Total and Average: 




















32,676 


30.5 


13,191 


40.5 


1,389 


5.4 


1,795 


50.3 


1937 


34,076 


31.9 


13,970 


41.8 


1,807 


7.3 


2,395 


58.5 


1938 


35.980 


33.9 


14,556 


42.9 


*t2,749 


11.4 


J2,983 


67.2 




2,835 


60.5 


1,043 


63.9 


55 


17.5 


65 


69.9 




1,198 


60.9 


420 


60.3 


302 


46.0 


164 


84.1 


Queen Anne's 


798 


56.7 


324 


65.1 


81 


14.4 


97 


88.2 




458 


55.9 


366 


99.7 


136 


13.9 


183 


93.8 


Calvert 


553 


71.4 


209 


90.5 


116 


11.0 


129 


92.1 




927 


66.7 


404 


74.1 


73 


5.3 


195 


88.6 


Frederick 


2,876 


41.8 


1,029 


45.2 


210 


26.6 


96 


52.7 




842 


42.9 


493 


74.6 












1,109 


56.5 


442 


56.7 


' 59 


4.8 


138 


52. i 




3,074 


51.8 


1,358 


63.7 


*59 


1.1 


174 


40.1 


Kent 


510 


40.9 


292 


58.6 


135 


19.5 


128 


79.0 




1,262 


33.7 


693 


66.4 










Cecil 


920 


30.6 


599 


48.8 


' 91 


27!<3 


' 70 


76^9 




921 


45.7 


339 


46.2 


126 


9.4 


184 


65.0 


Talbot 


559 


36.0 


277 


42.9 


167 


20.9 


127 


62.0 


Dorchester 


978 


36.1 


438 


48.4 


189 


15.3 


183 


67.0 


Montgomery 


3,157 


37.1 


790 


30.6 


345 


21.1 


225 


85.2 




1,190 


35.4 


511 


41.8 


165 


12.9 


255 


68.7 




4,828 


29.6 


2,180 


46.1 


313 


17.1 


J154 


76.6 




2,737 


22.6 


814 


22.9 


7 


3.0 


9 


12.0 


Prince George's 


1,705 


18.5 


775 


26.0 


t55 




400 


86.4 




1,716 


16.0 


696 


28.0 


19 


i'.9 


7 


12.3 




827 


21.8 


64 


4.3 


46 


5.9 







* Includes 29 pupils transported to Bowie Normal Demonstration School at State expense, 
excluded in obtaining percentages. 

t Includes 55 pupils transported to Bowie Normal Demonstration School at State expense, 
excluded in obtaining percentages. 

t Includes pupils transported to Baltimore City junior and junior-senior high schools at 
county expense. 

As few as 16 per cent of the white elementary pupils were trans- 
ported at public expense in one county and as many as 71 per 
cent in another county. The extremes for high school pupils were 
4 per cent in a county which bears very little of the cost of trans- 
porting high school pupils and 100 per cent In a sparsely populated 
county in which all pupils are transported to the two consolidated 
schools. For colored elementary pupils the extremes were no 
pupils transported at public expense in two counties and 46 per 
cent in one county. For colored high school pupils two counties 



Per Cent Transported; Schools to Which Transported 



251 



paid nothing for high school transportation whereas as many as 
94 per cent of the pupils were transported in another county. Of 
the twenty counties which paid for transporting colored high 
school pupils 14 had one high, 3 had 2 high schools, 2 had 3 high 
schools and one county paid in part for the transportation of its 
residents to Baltimore City high schools. (See Table 169.) 

Number of Schools to Which Transportation Was Provided 

Due to consolidation of schools transportation was provided to 
two fewer schools for white pupils in 1938 than in 1937, which 
meant that more pupils were transported to larger graded schools 
offering improved facilities for instruction at lower per pupil costs. 
Because several additional counties which had not previously done 
so provided for transportation of colored pupils to school at 
public expense and also because of consolidation of schools, the 
number of schools to which colored pupils were transported in- 
creased by 31 over the number in 1937. Of the schools to which 
pupils were transported at public expense in 1938, 54 were white 

TABLE 170 



Number of County Schools to Which Transportation Was Provided at Public 
Expense, Year Ending July 31, 1938 







White 




White Schools 








Schools with Elementary 












Grades Only 








Total 


County 








Having 


Having 


Colored 


Number 










Both High 


High 


Schools 


of 




One- 


Two- 




and Ele- 


School 




Different 




Teacher 


Teacher 


Graded 


mentary 


Pupils 




Schools 




Schools 


Schools 


Schools 


Grades* 


Only 






Total Counties 


54 


69 


164 


112 


32 


106 


537 


Allegany 


2 


2 


15 


10 




1 


30 


Anne Arundel 




4 


19 




"6 


2 


31 


Baltimore 




3 


20 


"16 




9 


42 


Calvert 




1 


3 


1 


. . 


5 


11 


Caroline 




2 


3 


5 




7 


17 


Carroll 




3 


6 


9 




2 


20 


Cecil 


' * 4 


3 


4 


3 


' ' '4 


6 


24 


Charles 






1 


5 




1 






' io 


' ' *3 


5 


4 


' ' 2 


8 


32 


Frederick 


l 


6 


16 


6 


1 


10 


40 


Garrett 


24 


6 


4 


4 


2 




40 


Harford 






3 


7 




5 


15 


Howard 


. . „ 




1 


4 


... . 




5 


Kent 




' 6 


1 


3 




6 


18 




1 


4 


13 


8 


2 


8 


36 


Prince George's. . . . 




3 


9 


7 


2 


3 


24 




' ' *3 


3 


7 




5 


7 


25 


St. Mary's 


5 


7 


1 




2 


5 


20 






1 


5 


' ' 2 


2 


5 


15 


Talbot 


i 


1 


1 


6 


. ... 


6 


15 


Washington 


l 


4 


16 


7 




2 


31 


Wicomico 


l 


3 


7 


6 


1 


5 


23 


Worcester 




4 


4 


5 




3 


16 



* To Elementary Only 

Baltimore 1 

Harford 5 



252 



1938 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



one-teacher, 69 were two-teacher, and 164 were graded elemen- 
tary schools, 112 were schools having both white elementary and 
high school pupils, 32 were for white high school pupils only, and 
106 were schools attended by colored pupils. (See Table 170.) 

The number and types of vehicles used for transporting Mary- 
land pupils in 1937-38 and the mileage were described in the 1937 
report on pages 239 and 240. 



W. P. A. LIBRARY PROJECTS 



The county library projects for reconditioning books and cat- 
aloguing libraries sponsored by the Maryland Public Library 
Advisory Commission required expenditures of $74,852 from 
funds of the Works Progress Administration. There were 
44,202 school books reconditioned and 14,431 books catalogued 
of which all except 970 belonged to school libraries. The libraries 
of six high schools and eleven elementary schools were organized. 
Some of the work was done in the counties, in nine of which there 
were extensive projects, but most of it was carried on in the office 
of the Maryland Library Commission in the Enoch Pratt Library 
building in Baltimore. The counties which had no projects had 
no suitable workers available. (See Table 171.) 



TABLE 171 

Expenditures of W. P. A. Funds for Library Projects Sponsored by thai 
Maryland Public Library Commission, Year Ending June 30, 1938 



County 



Allegany 

Frederick 

Anne Arundel . . 

Wicomico 

Prince George's 

Worcester 

Garrett 

Talbot 



Expenditure 



$8,809 
8,673 
6,657 
6,371 
5,562 
2,567 
2,386 
1,763 



County 



Dorchester 

Montgomery 

Harford 

Baltimore 

Queen Anne's 

Baltimore Office of Commission 

Total 



CAPITAL OUTLAY FOR SCHOOLS 

School capital outlay in the counties for 1937-38 totalled over 
$1,576,000. This included $209,528 received from the Federal 
Public Works Administration by six counties shown in the note 
to Table 172. Exclusive of Talbot, Baltimore, Howard, and Har- 
ford Counties, the largest capital outlay for schools was made in 
the counties which received P. W. A. funds. (See Table 172.) 

The largest capital outlay, $818,285, was made for white county 
elementary schools, while $616,723 was used for white high schools. 
For county colored schools the capital outlay was $137,683. (See 
Table 172.) 



WPA Library Projects; School Capital Outlay 



253 



In Baltimore City $682,630 of the total capital outlay of 
$758,798 went to the new Eastern High School. The City re- 
ceived $712,721 from P. W. A. funds towards the school building 
program in 1937-38. (See Table 172.) 



TABLE 172 



fCapital Outlay, Year Ending July 31, 1938 







W lute 


Elementary 










County 










White 








One- 


Two- 




All 


riign 


Colored 


Crana 




Teacher 


Teacher 


Graded 


Elementary 


Schools 


Schools 


1 otal 




Schools 


Schools 


Schools 


Schools 








Total Counties. . . . 


$1,651 


$10,842 


$805,792 


$818,285 


$616,723 


$137,683 


t$l,576,434 


Allegany 






12,785 


12,785 


16,354 


6,514 


a39,247 


Anne Arundel 




186 


40,050 


40,236 


66,443 


22,955 


fbl29,783 


Baltimore 




534 


101 , 639 


102 , 173 


4,337 


95 


106,605 


Calvert 






'293 


'293 


72 


8,259 


8^624 


Caroline 




'541 


10,071 


10,612 


10,691 


2,390 


23,693 


Carroll 




1,539 


7,092 


8,631 


7.108 


65 


15,804 


Cecil 






10,369 


10,369 


153,396 


10,955 


tl74,720 


Charles 




' 54 


270 


324 


803 


8,704 


9,831 


Dorchester 


1^543 






1,543 




414 


1,957 


Frederick 


16 


i38 


7^204 


7,358 


11 loos 


4,198 


22 , 561 


Garrett 


12 


1,487 


19,811 


21,310 


21,432 




t42,742 


Harford 


79 


37 


43,070 


43,186 


1,716 


683 


45,585 




1 


17 


41 , 634 


41,652 


11,012 


509 


53,173 


Kent 




11 


18 


29 


77 


25 


131 


Montgomery 






74,105 


74,105 


87,171 


30 


tl61,306 


Prince George's . . . 






167,058 


167,058 


75,947 


6,175 


t249,180 






38i 


59 


440 


4,551 


558 


5,549 


St. Mary's 




1,430 


26 


1,456 


1,959 


13 


3,428 


Somerset 






243 


243 


155 


11,241 


11.639 


Talbot 






7,611 


7,611 


99,136 


3,180 


109,927 


Washington 




538 


15,045 


15,583 


10,940 




26,523 


Wicomico 




3,949 


245,020 


248,969 


30,099 


40^6i9 


1319,087 


Worcester 






2,319 


2,319 


2,319 


10,701 


15,339 


Baltimore City. . . . 








61,646 


682,630 


12,036 


tc758,798 


Elementary 








58,878 




10,524 


69,402 


Vocational 
















Junior High .... 








2^768 






2^768 


Senior High .... 










682,630 




684,142 


Total State 








$879,931 


$1,299,353 


$149,719 


$2,335,232 



a Includes $3,594 spent for the administration building. 

b Includes $149 spent for the West Annapolis teacherage. 

c Includes $2,486 expended for the administration building. 

t Includes $209,528.01 from PWA distributed as follows : 

Anne Arundel $43,573.67 Prince George's SI 1.555.40 

Cecil 36,000.00 Wicomico 66.834.81 

Garrett 36,567.00 

Montgomery 14,997.13 Baltimore City 712,720.78 



SCHOOL BONDS OUTSTANDING 

In August, 1938, nineteen counties had school bonds outstand- 
ing totaling $15,718,400, an increase of $203,000 over the amount 
outstanding the preceding year. In all counties except six, there 
was a decrease in the amount of school bonds outstanding. (See 
Table 173.) 



254 1938 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



In Baltimore City the total amount of school bonds outstanding, 
$23,113,864, was $1,041,000 less than the amount outstanding the 
year before. (See Table 173.) 

TABLE 173 



School Bonds Outstanding in Maryland as of August 1, 1938 







1938 Assessable 




Per Cent that 






Basis Taxable 


Assessable Basis 


Indebtedness 


County 


School Bonds 


at Full Rate 


Back of Each 


for School Bonds 




Outstanding 


for County 


Dollar of School 


Is of Total 




July 31, 1938 


Purposes 


Indebtedness 


County Basis 


— . 


$15,718,400 


$1,019,978,178 


$65 


1 . 5 




a2, 245, 000 


83,144,701 


37 


2.7 


Anne Arundel 


1,237,000 


55,750,036 


45 


2.2 




3,335,000 


192,527,899 


58 


1.7 


Calvert 


84,500 


6,181,516 


73 


1.4 




59,000 


14,813,388 


251 


.4 


Carroll 




37,463,779 






Cecil 


18t 000 


40 401 fi17 


218 


' 5 


Charles 


107,000 


10,145,177 


95 


l!l 




b355,000 


26,403,326 


74 


1.3 




c929,000 


66,548,400 


72 


1.4 


Garrett 




19,661,359 






Harford 


dl48,400 


53,191,556 


358 


.3 


Howard 


236,000 


18,385,600 


78 


1.3 


Kent 




17,061,824 








2,439,666 


109,635,238 


45 


2^2 


Prince George's 


el, 757, 000 


79,369,487 


45 


2.2 


20,000 


17,637,769 


882 


.1 


St. Mary's 




9,084,131 








21,000 


11,919,533 


568 


.2 


Talbot 


237,000 


21,681,595 


91 


1.1 




1,287,500 


76,348,374 


59 


1.7 




806,000 


31,537,696 


39 


2.6 


Worcester 


230,000 


21,084,177 


92 


1.1 


Baltimore City 


23,113,864 


1,230,776,141 


53 


1.9 


Entire State 


38,832,264 


2,250,754,319 


58 


1.7 



a Excludes $600,000 authorized but unissued. 

b Excludes $150,000 authorized but unissued. Figures given as of May 1 instead of Aug. 1. 
c Excludes $300,000 authorized but unissued until November. 1938. 
d Excludes $95,000 authorized but unissued until November. 1938. 
e Excludes $192,000 authorized but unissued until November, 1938. 



School bonds to the extent of $1,337,000 in five counties were 
unissued although they had been authorized by the regular and 
special sessions of the legislature in 1937. 

The assessable basis taxable at the full rate back of each dollar 
of school indebtedness outstanding was $65 in the counties and $53 
in Baltimore City, an increase of $2 over the year preceding. The 
assessable basis back of each dollar of school indebtedness ranged 
between $37 and $45 in five counties. 

The per cent that indebtedness for school bonds was of total 
county basis assessable at the full rate for county purposes was 1.5 
per cent for the counties as a group and 1.9 per cent for Baltimore 
City. These percentages ranged between 2.2 and 2.7 per cent in 
the five counties with the highest rates of indebtedness to assess- 
able basis. (See Table 173.) 



School Bonds Outstanding; Value of School Property 



255 



VALUE OF SCHOOL PROPERTY 

In the Maryland counties the value of school property, includ- 
ing equipment reported separately for the first time in 1937, to- 
talled in 1938 $31,703,000, and in Baltimore City aggregated 
$49,633,000. The county valuation was an increase of $2,097,000 
and the City valuation was larger by $716,000 than corresponding 
figures shown for 1937. (See Table 174.) 



TABLE 174 
Value of School Property, 1922-1938 



Year 


Value of School Property 


Value Per Pupil Enrolled 




















Baltimore 






Baltimore 




Maryland 


Counties 


Cityt 


Maryland 


Counties 


Cityt 


1922 


$20,453,646 


$10,014,638 


$10,439,008 


$82 


$68 


$103 


1923 


22,236,638 


11,796,630 


10,440,008 


87 


77 


100 


1924 


28,264,507 


12,813,396 


15,451,111 


110 


85 


147 


1925 


33,622,503 


14,946,810 


18,675,693 


129 


97 


164 


1926 


38,865,024 


16,704,564 


22,160,460 


148 


108 


205 


1927 


48.654,045 


17,889,796 


30,764,249 


182 


114 


277 


1928 


51,765.517 


18,994,670 


32,770,847 


191 


120 


291 


1929 


52,801,013 


19,920,102 


32,880,911 


193 


124 


290 


1930 


55,741,316 


21,483,720 


34,257,596 


201 


132 


297 


1931 


61,141,759 


23,830,725 


37,311,034 


217 


144 


321 


1932 


64,116,448 


24,608,923 


39,507,525 


222 


146 


331 


1933 


66,030,676 


25,350,740 


40,679,936 


225 


147 


335 


1934 


72,241,647 


25,501,303 


46,740,344 


246 


149 


384 


1935 


74,116,872 


26,847,518 


47,269,354 


251 


156 


384 


1936 


74,429,453 


26,778,790 


47,650,663 


250 


155 


380 


1937 


*78 , 573 , 662 


*29, 656, 237 


48,917,425 


*264 


*171 


395 


1938 


*81,336,202 


*3 1,702, 972 


49,633,230 


*277 


*184 


410 



* Includes value of equipment in Maryland counties. 

t Excludes value of equipment, and also of administration buildings, warehouses, and storage 
buildings. 



The value of school property per county pupil enrolled was $184, 
an increase of $13 oyer the preceding year. In Baltimore City 
the value per pupil enrolled, $410, was $15 more than for 1937. 
Federal aid played a part in bringing about these increases. (See 
Table 174.) 

In the counties the school property used by white pupils was 
valued in 1938 at $29,836,000, an increase of $1,815,000 over 1937. 
All except six counties snowed an increase for 1938 over 1937 in 
value of school property used by white pupils. The largest in- 
creases appeared in Wicomico, Prince George's, Talbot, Cecil, and 
Garrett. (See Table 175.) 

All counties, except two which increased in enrollment, showed 
an increased value of school property per white pupil belonging, 
accounted for in some counties by the increase in value of proper- 
ty, but in a number of counties by the decrease in number belong- 
ing. 



256 1938 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 

The valuation of $42,371,000 for property used by Baltimore 
City white pupils in 1938 was an increase of $714,000 over 1937. 
The increase of $19 in value of school property per white pupil 
belonging resulted in part from the increases in value of property 
and in part from decrease in number belonging. The tendency 
in cities is for the population to decrease in the older part of the 
City where adequate school facilities are available, and to increase 
on the outskirts where there are no or inadequate school facilities 
to take care of the growth in population. (See Table 175 and 
Chart 47.) 

TABLE 175 



Value of School Property, Including Equipment, Per Pupil Belonging, 1938 



County 


Schools for White Pupils 


Schools for Colored Pupils 


Value 


Average 
Number 
Belonging 


Value 
Per 
Pupil 


Value 


Average 
Number 
Belonging 


Value 
Per 
Pupil 


Total Counties/ 1937 


$28,020,289 


137,019 


$204 


$1,635,948 


26,822 


$61 


\1938 


$29,835,584 


137,062 


$218 


$1,867,388 


26,776 


$70 


Allegany 


4,311,695 


15,325 


281 


67,100 


297 


226 


Anne Arundel 


1,463,550 


7,914 


185 


128,240 


3,094 


41 




4,381,850 


20,488 


214 


163,850 


1,817 


90 


Calvert 


144,650 


983 


147 


29,855 


1,133 


26 


Caroline 


458,025 


2,585 


177 


59,125 


802 


74 


Carroll 


1,138,189 


6,208 


183 


23,700 


404 


59 


Cecil 


847,857 


4,137 


205 


42,219 


415 


102 


Charles 


286,175 


1,889 


151 


121,825 


1,526 


80 




707,650 


3,525 


201 


73 , 600 


1,465 


50 


Frederick 


1,491,245 


9,009 


166 


62,425 


952 


66 


Garrett 


405,416 


4.718 


86 








Harford 


965,000 


5,262 


183 


75^050 


889 


' '84 




435,450 


2,568 


170 


24,500 


583 


42 


Kent 


183,643 


1,724 


107 


24,549 


834 


29 


Montgomery 


4,485,050 


10,892 


412 


130,250 


1,830 


71 


Prince George's 

Queen Anne's 


2,404,200 


11,894 


202 


262,800 


3,055 


86 


288,925 


1,886 


153 


46,900 


690 


68 


St. Mary's 


137,420 


1,162 


118 


33,350 


1,134 


29 


Somerset 


386,250 


2,666 


145 


54,450 


1,586 


34 


Talbot 


531,049 


2,164 


245 


55,748 


947 


59 


Washington 


2,423,500 


13,017 


186 


54,800 


294 


186 




1,481,695 


4,352 


340 


231,202 


1,594 


145 


Worcester 


477,100 


2,694 


177 


101,850 


1,435 


71 




t42,370,897 


85,678 


495 


t7, 262, 333 


29,055 


250 


State 


t72,206,481 


222,740 


324 


t9, 129,721 


55,831 


164 



t Excludes $1,194,286 for Baltimore City administration buildings, warehouses, and storage 
buildings, and also excludes value of equipment. 



The value of school property used by county colored pupils be- 
longing in 1938 was $1,867,000, an increase of $231,000 over 1937. 
All except three counties, showed an increase in the value of school 
property used by colored pupils. The value of school property per 
colored pupil belonging increased from $61 to $70, in part because 
of the increased value of school property, but in part because of the 



Value of School Property 



257 



CHART 47 



VALUE OF SCHOOL PROPERTY IN USE PER WHITE PUBLIC SCHOOL PUPIL BELONGING 



County 
Co. At. 



1936 *1937 U938 
$184 $204 




Balto. City 451 476 
State 290 310 



* In 1937, includes value of equipment in most of the counties, but not in Baltimore City, 
t In 1938, includes value of equipment in all of the counties, but not in Baltimore City. 

decrease in number of pupils belonging. In all except five coun- 
ties the value per colored pupil of school property in use was 
higher in 1938 than in 1937. In three of the five counties showing 
a decrease, the value of school property was lower, but in the other 
two counties, there was an increase in enrollment. (See Table 175 
and Chart 38, page 199.) 

The value of school property per white pupil belonging averaged 
$218 in the counties, an increase of $14 over 1937. In individual 
counties the value of school property per white pupil belonging 



258 1938 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 

varied between $86 and $412. The valuation per white pupil 
belonging was under $150 in five counties and over $200 in eight 
counties, so that in ten counties the valuation per white pupil be- 
longing fell within the limits of $150 and $200. (See Chart 47 
and Table 175.) 

The lowest property valuation per white pupil was found in the 
county with the largest proportion of white pupils in small build- 
ings of frame construction, which, of course, are less expensive 
than fireproof or semi-fireproof construction of brick, stone or 
+ concrete, necessary because of fire hazard in the large school 
buildings. The small one-room buildings have no auditoriums, 
special rooms, corridors, or central heating plants, many of which 
facilities are necessary in larger school buildings. 

The highest property valuation per pupil was found in the 
wealthiest county with the smallest classes in graded schools, in 
which the population has been increasing rapidly, necessitating 
much new construction of large fireproof buildings. 

COUNTY PUPILS ATTENDING SCHOOL OUTSIDE COUNTY OF 

RESIDENCE 

The number of Maryland county pupils attending school outside 
the county of their residence increased by 144 to 1,356 in 1938. 
Baltimore County had 266 pupils in schools outside its limits, of 
whom 201 colored children attended junior and senior high 
schools in Baltimore City. (See Table 176.) 

According to by-law 11, a county sharing in the Equalization 
Fund makes no tuition charge for a pupil who attends school in 
its county whose residence is in another Maryland county. How- 
ever, a capital outlay charge of $20 per white high, $15 per white 
elementary, $10 per colored high, and $7.50 per colored elemen- 
tary pupil is made. In addition to the amount for capital outlay, 
counties not receiving the Equalization Fund make a charge for 
tuition which is 60 per cent of the average current expense cost, 
excluding general control and fixed charges, for the preceding 
year in the various types of school. These amounts for 1937-38 
are $54.52 for each white high, $32.92 for each white elementary, 
$35.12 for each colored high, and $19.06 for each colored ele- 
mentary pupil. For amounts received and paid for pupils^ at- 
tending school in adjoining counties, see Table XII, page 306, and 
Table XIII, page 307. 



School Property Value; School Attendance Outside County 259 
of Residence; County Levies 1938-39 

TABLE 176 

Number of Pupils Attending Schools Outside Their Own County During 
School Year 1937-38 



County 
or State 
in Which 

Pupils 
from 
Adjoining 
Counties 
Attended 

School 



Total 


1,356 


Allegany .... 


125 


Anne Arundel 


18 


Baltimore. . . 


17 


Calvert 


11 


Caroline 


88 


Carroll 


165 


Cecil 


2 


Charles 


33 


Dorchester . . 


2 


Frederick .... 


39 


Garrett 


19 


Harford 


3 


Howard 


87 


Kent 


57 


Montgomery 


34 


Pr. George's. 


151 


Queen Anne's 


72 


St. Mary's. . . 


17 


Somerset .... 


6 


Talbot 


12 


Washington . 


31 


Wicomico. . . 


4 


Worcester. . . 


76 


Balto. City. . 


201 


Delaware .... 


10 


Pennsylvania 


21 


West Va 


55 



County or State from Which Pupils Came Who Attended 
Schools in Adjoining Counties 



cn I Allegany 


© j Anne Arundel 


0) 

o 

a 

266 


> 

n 

5 


^ | Caroline 


p 

w 

21 


'53 
a 

13 


m 

S3 

V 
27 


c2 I Dorchester 


co | Frederick 


4J 

OJ 
Ih 

c3 
O 

169 
98 


u 
C 

~ 

13 


T3 

o 
133 


M | Kent 


co | Montgomery 


" | Prince George's 


o 1 Queen Anne's 


JO 

>» 

ct 
~~ 

i25 

+> 
CO 

19 


o> 
c 

I 

o 

CO 

76 


§ | Talbot 


o So I Washington 


! | Wicomico 


B 

3> 

17 


5 | Delaware 


co Sf | Pennsylvania 


a 
'2 
'So 

> 

8 
4 








4 
















14 






























9 












8 






























11 


























































53 
















21 






6 








8 










8 












106 






42 




9 








































2 


































14 




19 






















































2 


4 


4 












6 


















1 












28 






15 










































25 


3 
54 


















































6 


















2 
























10 


















47 




































11 






6 
71 


i 


i 


17 






















68 




1 








10 














































44 


























17 












































































6 








































12 




































16 




























15 














































4 








































76 


















201 




















































3 
































7 


























16 

55 


5 































































































































COUNTY LEVIES FOR 1938-39 
The Total Levy for All County Purposes Including Schools 

County levies for all services rendered by the counties in 
1938-39 in eighteen counties and for the calendar year 1939 in 
five counties totalled $15,456,000, an increase of more than 
$306,000 over the corresponding figure for the preceding year. 
All counties, except seven, levied more in 1939 than in 1938. 
(See Table 177.) 

The County Levy for Schools 

The county levy for school current expenses which totalled 
$5,871,000 was an increase of $249,000 over 1938. There were 
increases in the levy for school current expenses in all except 



260 



1938 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



five counties. A number of the counties provided for salary 
increments for teachers of experience over and above those 
available according to the 1922 State minimum salary schedule 
and also increased salaries of colored teachers. (See Table 177.) 

TABLE 177 



County Tax Levy, 1938-39 



County 


Total 
County 


Lj 


VY FOR PUBL 


ic School 


3 


T t 

.Levy lor 
Purposes 
Other than 




Levy 


Current 


Debt 


Capital 




Schools 






Expenses 


Service 


wuiidy 


Total 




lotcii v^ountiesz 














1937-38 


$15,149,609 


$5,622,211 


$1,398,209 


$257,851 


$7,278,271 


$7,871,338 


1938-39 


15,455,935 


5,870,923 


1,409,707 


172,529 


7,453,159 


8,002,776 


Allegany 


1,473,719 


595,547 


*184,063 


5,000 


784,610 


°689.109 




1,231,067 


384,879 


105,490 


14,750 


505,119 


d725,948 


Baltimore! 


3,298,664 


973,098 


287,251 


82,500 


1,342,849 


el, 955, 815 




94,002 


34,265 


*7,515 


1,000 


42,780 


°51,222 


Caroline 


195,177 


°74,000 


*6,575 


10,000 


90,575 


°104,602 


Carroll 


453,548 


200,672 


80,400 


3,000 


284,072 


°169,476 


Cecil 


420,662 


221,739 


*19,375 


15,000 


256,114 


°164,548 


Charles 


139,084 


59,100 


*10,790 


900 


70,790 


°68,294 


Dorchester 


356, 555 


128,301 


*33,340 


1,699 


163,340 


°193,215 


Frederickf 


a876,900 


358,828 


*83,129 


3,240 


445,197 


a°431,703 


Garrettf 


252,169 


93,144 






93,144 


°159,025 


Harfordt 


568,759 


226,500 


*27,900 


1,500 


255,900 


°312,859 




281,496 


91,445 


*15,808 


3,000 


110,253 


171,243 


Kent 


298,967 


82,959 






82,959 


°216,008 


Montgomery 


b2, 406, 971 


826,563 


*170,242 




996,805 


b°l,410,166 


Prince George's 


842,590 


467,800 


*121,498 




589,298 


°253,292 


Queen Anne's 


205,745 


87,060 


*7,150 


940 


95,150 


°110,595 


St. Mary's 


c82,870 


c42,695 






c42 , 695 


°40,175 




182,816 


56,610 


*6,450 


10,000 


73,060 


°109,756 


Talbot 


247,380 


111,904 


*46,250 




158,154 


°89,226 




847,099 


477,456 


*101,663 




579,119 


°267,980 


Wicomico 


432,573 


170,588 


*68,318 


15,000 


253,906 


°178,667 




267,122 


105,770 


*26,500 


5,000 


137,270 


°129,852 



f Levy for calendar year 1939. 

* Levied and paid directly by county commissioners. 

° Incorporated towns and districts levy additional amounts. 

a Includes $40,265 balance due Board of Education. 

b Includes $317,000 from issue of securities, $92,000 from liquor licenses and liquor control 
board. $49,050 from dog licenses, building permits, fines, etc., but excludes $17,000 from State 
aid to the needy. 

c Includes $14,800 from liquor licenses. 

d Annapolis levies an additional amount. 

e The metropolitan district levies an additional amount. 



School debt service in the counties which totalled $1,410,000 
in 1939 was $11,500 above 1938. About one-half the counties 
showed a slight reduction in charges for debt service. Washington, 
Carroll, and Wicomico showed the largest decreases in school 
debt service charges, while Talbot, Cecil, and Harford showed the 
largest increases in these charges. In Carroll all and in Talbot 
part of the debt service represented payment of notes which 
in a short time will cover the entire cost of their recent building 
programs. 



1938-39 Levies in Counties and Incorporated Places 261 

The levy for school capital outlay in 1939 which totalled 
S172,500 in sixteen counties was S85,000 less than in 1938. The 
largest amount levied was $82,500 in Baltimore County and in 
five additional counties the amounts ranged from $10,000 to 
$15,000. 

The county levies for all school purposes totalled $7,453,000, 
an increase of $175,000 over 1938. Eight counties levied less 
for all school purposes in 1939 than in 1938. Eight counties 
levied less than $100,000 for all school purposes, while seven 
counties levied between $445,000 and $1,343,000. (See Table 177.) 

County Levies for Purposes Other Than Schools 

The total 1939 countv levy for purposes other than schools 
aggregated S8,003,000, an increase of 8131,000 over 1938. In 
all except five counties the levy for purposes other than schools 
was higher in 1939 than in 1938. 

In eleven counties in which there were incorporated towns 
and districts which levied additional taxes to take care of services 
which were provided for in other counties through the county 
levy, the county levy for purposes other than schools was less 
than the county levy for all school purposes. (See Table 177.) 



Levy in Incorporated Places Within Counties 

Certain localities in every county, except Baltimore County, 
which has no incorporated towns, and Howard County, which 
includes the levy for incorporated districts with the county levy, 
levied in addition to the county levy to provide for police, fire, 
water, highway, street cleaning, or other administrative and 
operating services needed over and above those available from 
the county. The amount reported in addition to the 1939 county 
levy was 82,764,400, which brought the total levied for county and 
local governmental services within the counties to $18,220,000, 
an increase of $726,000 over corresponding figures included in 
the report for the preceding year. An amount of $141,202 for 
the ad valorem tax on the metropolitan district in Baltimore 
County was included for the first time, and because the figures 
were more complete in 1939, there was an increase of $200,000 
shown for units within Montgomery County levying in addition 
to the county levy. (See Table 11$.) 

Since the counties vary in their administrative set-up for local 
units, no comparison of the proportion of funds devoted to 
schools is fair without including these local funds. The per cent 
of all county and local levies provided for school current expenses 
was 32.2 per cent in the 23 counties, .1 above the preceding year. 



262 



1938 



Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



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Amounts Levied Within County Limits; Assessable Basis 263 



The highest per cent of county and local levies allocated to 
school current expenses was 49.4 and in three additional counties 
it was over 40 per cent. There were eight counties in which the 
percentage devoted to school current expense was under 30 per 
cent, the lowest being 25 per cent. (See Table 178.) 

The per cent of all levies within the county used for all school 
purposes including debt service and capital outlay averaged 40.9 
per cent. In four counties the levy for school purposes was over 
50 per cent and in four more under 36 per cent. (See Table 178.) 

CHANGES IN ASSESSABLE BASIS 

The total assessment taxable at the full rate for county pur- 
poses in 1938 was over $1,017,009,000 in the 23 counties, an 
increase of $40,867,000 over 1937 and the highest assessment 
ever reported for the counties. Except for the drop in assessable 
basis in 1933, there has been an increase in the basis for the 23 
counties each succeeding year. Every county except two had a 
higher assessment in 1938 than in 1937, but there were seven 
counties in which the 1938 assessment was lower than that 
reported in one or more preceding years. Seven counties made 
a complete reassessment and one county (Frederick) reassesses 
a part of the county each year. (See Table 179.) 

TABLE 179 



Assessable Basis Taxable at the Full Rate for County Purposes 

in Thousands of Dollars 

Figures furnished by State Tax Commission 



County 


*1923 


1927 


*1928 


1931 


U935 


1-1936 


1937 


tl938 


Total Counties . . . 


$661,724 


$781,971 


$883,508 


$923, 


203 


$930,221 


$955,246 


$976,142 


$1,017,009 


Allegany 


69,886 


78,837 


80,715 


80, 


971 


76,790 


77,445 


79,250 


83,145 


Anne Arundel. . . . 


30,692 


44,565 


47,544 


48, 


553 


50,413 


50,861 


52,725 


55,750 


Baltimore 


104,232 


139,232 


157,654 


167, 


242 


175,657 


178,687 


180,718 


192,528 


Calvert 


4,427 


4,935 


5,305 


5, 


560 


5,795 


5,898 


6,054 


6,181 




14,027 


14,761 


15,283 


15, 


156 


14,604 


14,692 


14.645 


14,813 


Carroll 


33,382 


35,636 


39,875 


36, 


265 


36,258 


36,518 


37,934 


37,464 


Cecil 


23,189 


25,628 


30,408 


36, 


392 


37,913 


38,958 


39,429 


40,402 




8,394 


9,315 


9,938 


10, 


103 


9,805 


9,932 


9,816 


10,145 


Dorchester 


18,987 


20,439 


21,918 


22, 


188 


21,664 


23,989 


25,387 


26,403 


Frederick 


51,248 


57 , 655 


65,234 


64, 


670 


64,183 


64,860 


65,862 


66,548 


Garrett 


16,303 


18,903 


21,653 


20, 


838 


17,630 


17,666 


17,556 


19,661 


Harford 


28,580 


29 , 561 


39,763 


51 , 


149 


52,132 


52.961 


52,969 


53,192 




15,670 


16,539 


18,063 


18, 


666 


17,846 


17,946 


18,204 


18,386 


Kent 


14,519 


14,956 


16,162 


16, 


138 


16.171 


16,209 


16,347 


17,062 


Prince George's. . 


45,503 


60,239 


77,889 


84, 


580 


88.529 


95,911 


101,286 


109,635 


33,651 


42,878 


59,312 


63, 


301 


68,197 


73,543 


74,953 


77,260 


Queen Anne's. . . . 


14,793 


14,803 


16,692 


16, 


247 


16,337 


16.513 


16,574 


16.778 


St. Mary's 


7,162 


7,809 


8,289 


8, 


590 


8,583 


8,639 


8.696 


9,084 


Somerset 


10,609 


11,972 


12,392 


12, 


055 


11,529 


11,864 


12,239 


11,920 


Talbot 


16,927 


18,048 


20,478 


21, 


534 


20,707 


20,840 


21,316 


21,682 


Washington 


62,570 


72,867 


72,908 


75, 


322 


72 , 036 


72,865 


75,226 


76,348 


Wicomico 


20,394 


24,109 


25,092 


26, 


487 


27.557 


28,207 


28 . 693 


31,538 


Worcester 


16,579 


18,284 


20,941 


21, 


196 


19,885 


20,242 


20,263 


21,084 


Baltimore City. . . 


902,208 


1,230,198 


1,255,978 


1,351, 


403 


1 .273,610 


1,228,058 


1,217,820 


1.230,776 


State 


$1,563,932 


$2,012,169 


$2,139,486 


$2,274,606 


$2,203,831 


$2,183,304 


$2,193,962 


$2,247,775 



* Includes reassessment figures, t Omits assessment of distilled spirits. 



264 



1938 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



The assessable basis of Baltimore City taxable at the full rate 
for city purposes which had increased steadily to 1931 to a peak 
of $1,351,403,000 has fluctuated up and down since that time, 
reaching its lowest point since 1927 in 1937 with $1,217,820,000. 
There was an increase of $12,956,000 over 1937, making the 1938 
total $1,230,776,000. 

Baltimore, Montgomery, Allegany, Anne Arundel, Wicomico, 
Prince George's, Garrett, and Dorchester Counties showed in- 
creases from $12,000,000 to $1,000,000 in assessable basis from 
1937 to 1938. (See Table 179.) 

TABLE 180 



1938 Assessable Basis Taxable at Full Rate for County Purposes 

Data Furnished by State Tax Commission 







Real and 








Personal 




Total Basis 


Tangible Per- 








Property 


County 


Assessable at 


sonal Property 




Ordinary 


Domestic 


of 




Full Rate for 


Taxable for 


Railroad 


Business 


Share 


Non-Stock 




County 


County 


Rolling 


Corpora- 


Corpora- 


Corpora- 




Purposes 


Purposes 


Stock 


tions 


tions 


tions 


Total Equali- 














zation Fund 














Counties: 














1937 


a$601,737,372 


$562,105,751 


$6,331,817 


$17,916,105 


$14,383,177 


$52,625 


1938 


*621 ,252,790 


580,954,667 


6,730,506 


19,671,195 


13,843,422 


53,000 


Allegany 


*b83,144,701 


b77, 547,452 


1,251,729 


3,905,125 


434,630 


5,765 


Anne Arundel. . . 


t55,750.036 


53,972,401 


743,210 


741,030 


270,585 


22,810 


Calvert 


6,181,516. 


6,105,701 




72,950 


2,865 




Caroline 


14,813,388 


14,237,063 


97^890 


473,370 


4,045 


1^020 


Carroll 


*37,463,779 


35,459,944 


685, 195 


1,036,125 


280,545 


1,970 


Charles 


10,145,177 


10,032,577 


83,025 


26,505 


2,870 


200 


Dorchester 


c26,403,326 


c21,469,455 


88,760 


4,433,040 


411,476 


595 


Frederick 


td66, 548,400 


d 56, 567,090 


364,979 


2,069,570 


7,544,911 


1.850 


Garrett 


19,661,359 


19,105,598 


187,972 


42,410 


317,729 


7,650 


Howard 


18,385,600 


18,104.460 




198.630 


82,135 


375 


Kent 


17,061,824 


16,488,510 


114^840 


134,295 


323,434 


745 


Prince George's. 
Queen Anne's. . . 


77,259.929 


75,203,266 


971,795 


488,425 


590,718 


5,725 


16,778,249 


16,493,184 


93,565 


177,160 


13,955 


385 


St. Mary's 


9,084.131 


9,062,516 




16,635 


4,980 




Somerset 


11,919,533 


11,520.188 


226^615 


159,325 


13,405 




Talbot 


21,681.595 


20,817,260 


91,480 


630,260 


141,335 


1^260 


Washington 


76,348,374 


70,517,929 


1,472,220 


3,626,900 


729,160 


2,165 


Wicomico 


31,537.696 


27,653,002 


84,690 


1,18 5.200 


2,616,319 


485 


Worcester 


21,084,177 


20,597,071 


172,541 


256,240 


58,325 




Non-Equali- 














zation Fund 












25,430 




*395,756,310 


373,837,297 


4,724,406 


8,404,565 


8,764,612 


Baltimore 


*U92,527,899 


181,677,885 


2,561,525 


6,726,740 


1,550,029 


11,720 


Cecil 


40,401 .617 


37,847,107 


1,109,905 


678,405 


764,535 


1 , 665 


Harford 


53,191.556 


46,225,556 


1,052,976 


328,635 


5,580,754 


3,635 


Montgomery. . . . 


109,635,238 


108,086,749 




670,785 


869,294 


8,410 


Baltimore City. . 


*e) 

1,230,776,141 


el, 131,614, 474 


1,025,272 


31,476,250 


66,505,005 


155,140 


Entire State. . . . 


*2, 247, 785, 241 


2,086,406,438 


12,480,184 


59,552,010 


89,113,039 


233,570 



a Includes $947,897 for distilled spirits not included in the detail at the right, 
b Excludes $5,828,913 for Celanese Corporation and $29,161 for General Textile Mills. Inc. 
c Excludes $326,220 for Delmarva Power Co. and §2,700 for South Dorchester Electric 
Light Co. 

d Excludes $184,000 for Francis Scott Key Hotel and 818,725 for Loates Orphan Asylum, 
e Excludes §33,429,120 for merchandise and raw materials. 

t Taxable basis for 1939 estimated as $58,527,936 in Anne Arundel, $67,197,220 in Frederick 
and §203,477,885 in Baltimore County. 
* Omits assessment of distilled spirits. 



Assessable Basis ; County Tax Rates 



265 



The 1938 taxable basis assessable at the full rate for county 
purposes has been shown separately for the nineteen Equalization 
Fund counties and the four non-Equalization Fund counties. In 
the nineteen Equalization Fund counties the total assessable basis 
increased from $601,737,000 in 1937 to $621,253,000 in 1938, a 
gain of $19,516,000 or 3.25 per cent. All factors making up the 
basis except domestic share corporations contributed to the 
increase. Real and tangible personal property taxable for county 
purposes and assessed by the county commissioners represented 
93.5 per cent of the total in the Equalization Fund counties, 94.5 
per cent in the non-Equalization Fund counties, and 92 per cent 
in the City, items assessed by the State Tax Commission making 
up the remainder. (See Table 180.) 

In every county except Somerset the basis for real and personal 
property assessed by the county commissioners increased from 
1937 to 1938. The assessment of railroad rolling stock decreased 
in seven Equalization and two non-Equalization Fund counties ; of 
ordinary business corporations decreased in four Equalization 
Fund counties ; of domestic share corporations decreased in eight 
Equalization Fund, two non-Equalization Fund counties, and in 
Baltimore City ; while personal property of non-stock corporations 
decreased in four Equalization and two non-Equalization Fund 
counties. (See Table 180.) 

COUNTY TAX RATES FOR 1938-39 

The county tax rates for school current expenses obtained by 
dividing the county levy for 1938-39 by the 1938 assessable basis 
taxable at the full rate for county purposes averaged 58 cents 
in the nineteen Equalization Fund counties and ranged from 47 
cents to 72 cents. Counties paying salaries above the minimum 
State schedule, having an eighth grade, employing teachers in 
excess of the number specified in the State laws and by-laws, and 
spending for purposes other than teachers' salaries and trans- 
portation more than is provided for in the minimum program take 
care of their enriched program by taxing themselves over and 
above the 47 cent minimum required for receiving the State 
Equalization Fund. (See Table 181.) 

Tax rates for school current expenses were 43 cents in Harford, 
48 cents in Baltimore County, 55 cents in Cecil, and 75 cents in 
Montgomery. Three of these four non-Equalization Fund coun- 
ties with tax rates over 47 cents have salary schedules in excess 
of the State minimum and in Montgomery County there are a 
number of non-teaching principals, a clerk in each large school, 
a varied program of electives, a low ratio of pupils to teachers, 
an abundant supply of books and materials of instruction. 



266 



1938 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



In eight Equalization Fund counties and one non-Equalization 
Fund county the tax rate for school current expenses was lower 
in 1938-39 than in 1937-38. (See Table 181.) 



TABLE 181 



Calculated County School Tax Rates and Published County Tax Rates, 

1938-39 f 



County 


1938-39 Calculated County Tax Rate for School 


Total 
Published 

County 
Tax Rate 

1938-39 


Current 
Expenses 


Debt 
Service 


Capital 
Outlay 


Total 


Total Equalization Fund 














$.583 


$.146 


$.012 


$.741 






.716 


.223 


.006 


.945 


$1.50* 


Anne Arundelt 


. 658 


. 180 


.025 


. 863 


2.30*a 


Washington 


.625 


.133 




.758 


1.10* 


Prince George's 


.606 


.157 




.763 


1.18*b 




.583 


.106 


!669 


.698 


1.10* 


Calvert 


.554 


.122 


.016 


.692 


1.35* 




.541 


.217 


.047 


.805 


1.07* 


Carroll 


.535 


.215 


.008 


.758 


1.00* 


Frederick! 


.534 


.124 


.005 


.663 


1.05* 




.519 


.043 


.006 


.568 


.70* 


Talbot 


.516 


.213 




.729 


1.07* 




.502 


.125 


!624 


.651 


.75*c 


Caroline 


.499 


.044 


.068 


.611 


1.22* 




.497 


.086 


.016 


.599 


1.15d 


Dorchester 


.486 


.126 


.007 


.619 


1.00* 


Kent 


.486 






.486 


1.35* 


Somerset 


.475 


!654 


!684 


.613 


1.45* 


Garrettt 


.474 






.474 


1.15* 


St. Mary's 


.470e 






.470e 


.75*c 


Non-Equalization Fund 












Counties 


.553 


.124 


.024 


.701 






.754 


.155 




.909 


1.50*f 


Cecil 


.549 


.048 


.037 


.634 


.92* 




.479 


.141 


.040 


.660 


1.39g 


Harford 


.426 


.052 


.003 


.481 


1.08*h 



t Calendar year 1939 for Anne Arundel, Frederick, Garrett and Baltimore Counties. 
* Incorporated towns pay taxes in addition to county taxes. 

a Election districts, except Annapolis, pay rates varying from $2.09 to $2.40. Annapolis 
pays $2.56. 

b Rate in districts under jurisdiction of National Capital Park and Planning Commission $.10 
and Washington Suburban Sanitary Districts $.07. 
c County budget financed by liquor taxes. 

d First and second districts levy 5 and 6 cents additional respectively, and Elkridge from 5 
to 20 cents additional for water. 

e Part of 47 cent levy made up from sale of liquor licenses. 

f General county rate $1.50. Some election districts have rates as high as $2.17. Incor- 
porated towns pay in addition to district rates. 

g Metropolitan district pays an ad valorem tax of 8 cents in addition to county tax. 

h Bel Air, Havre de Grace and Aberdeen pay 86 cents county tax plus tax levied in each town. 



The 1938-39 tax rate for school debt service of 14.6 cents in 
nineteen Equalization and of 12.4 cents in four non-Equalization 
Fund counties was for the 23 counties .2 cents less than in 1937-38. 
Three counties had no tax for school debt service, while at the 
other extreme four counties taxed themselves over 20 cents to 
take care of these charges. In two of the latter counties this 
tax was for payment of interest and principal on bonds out- 



Tax Rates for Schools and County Purposes; P.-T. A.'s 267 



standing and in two others it was for the payment of balances 
on notes due against amounts borrowed for the building program. 
(See Table 181.) 

The 1938-39 average tax rate for school capital outlay of 1.2 
cents in the Equalization Fund counties and 2.4 cents in the non- 
Equalization Fund counties was .9 of lc less than the tax for the 
year preceding of the 23 counties as a group. Two counties levied 
taxes of 7 and 8 cents for school capital outlay, while at the 
opposite extreme seven counties did not levy for this purpose 
because proceeds of bond issues were available or because there 
was no capital outlay. (See Table 181.) 

The 1938-39 average county tax rate for all school purposes, 
73.2 cents in the 23 counties, was 1.1 cents lower than in 1937-38. 
For the nineteen Equalization Fund counties the average rate 
for all school purposes was 74.1 cents and for the four non- 
Equalization Fund counties 70.1 cents. Among the nineteen 
Equalization Fund counties the range in tax rates for all school 
purposes was from 47 cents to 94.5 cents, while for the four 
non-Equalization Fund counties the extremes were 48 and 91 
cents. (See Table 181.) 

According to the 1938-39 county tax rates as published, persons 
not living in incorporated towns paid between 70 and 75 cents 
for all services performed by the county government in three 
counties. Receipts from liquor licenses supplemented the levy 
in two of these counties. At the other extreme in three counties 
the rate was $1.50 or more for persons not living in incorporated 
towns or districts and in one of these three counties the rates 
by districts varied from $2.09 to $2.40. This latter county pro- 
vides a considerable amount of county funds for roads. Taxpayers 
in incorporated places which received services in addition to those 
rendered by the county paid tax rates in addition to those shown 
in the last column of Table 181 wherever an asterisk appears. 



PARENT-TEACHER ASSOCIATIONS 

Active parent-teacher associations were found in 1938 in 476 
white schools, 60.7 per cent of the total number and the highest 
percentage ever reported. There was an increase of 11 in number 
and 4.5 in per cent over corresponding figures for the preceding 
year. (See Table 182.) 

In 1938 there were P. T. A.'s in 100 per cent of the white 
schools of Anne Arundel, Calvert, Baltimore, and Caroline Coun- 
ties. Thirteen counties showed increases, while five showed 
decreases in the number and per cent of white schools having 
P. T. A.'s. (See Table 183.) 



268 



1938 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



TABLE 182 

Number and Per Cent of Parent-Teacher Associations in White Schools, 

1924 to 1938 



Year 



1924 
1925 
1926 
1927 
1928 
1929 
1930 
1931 
1932 
1933 
1934 
1935 
1936 
1937 
1938 



Parent-Teacher Associations 
in White Schools 



Number 


Per Cent 


490 


30.8 


623 


40.6 


638 


42.8 


649 


45.1 


617 


45.4 


588 


45.8 


576 


47.7 


613 


54.7 


571 


56.2 


556 


59.1 


530 


58.5 


506 


57.1 


487 


57.8 


465 


56.2 


476 


60.7 



TABLE 183 

Parent-Teacher Associations in County White Schools 



County 



Number 



1937 



1938 



Per Cent 



1937 



1938 



County 



Number 



1937 1938 



Per Cent 



1937 



Total and 

Average 

Anne Arundel. . 

Baltimore 

•Calvert 

Caroline 

Wicomico 

Montgomery. . . 

Talbot 

Kent 

Frederick 

Prince George's 
Charles 



t465 

30 
t54 
8 
17 
t20 
31 
15 
16 
35 
41 
7 



t476 

30 
f55 
8 
10 
t22 
35 
15 
17 
36 
45 
8 



56.2 

100.0 
100.0 
100.0 
100.0 
57.1 
70.5 
87.5 
80.0 
77.8 
74.5 
70.0 



60.7 

100.0 
100.0 
100.0 
100.0 
91.7 
88.8 
88.2 
85.0 
81.8 
81.8 
80.0 



Howard 

Somerset .... 
Allegany. . . . 
Worcester . . . 

Carroll 

Queen Anne's 

Harford 

Dorchester. . 

Cecil 

Garrett 

St. Mary's. . . 
Washington . 



19 
14 
t42 
10 
15, 
11 
25 
16 
13 
15 
3 
8 



20 
16 
t41 

9 
18 

9 
21 
15 
15 
16 

4 
11 



76. 
56. 
67. 
62. 
45. 
52. 
53. 
45. 
29.6 
19.0 
13.0 
9.6 



t Excludes the parent-teacher association 
Teachers College (s). 



in the campus elementary school of the State 



In the white elementary schools only 28.9 per cent of the one- 
teacher schools had parent-teacher associations in contrast with 
63.7 per cent of the two-teacher, and 85.8 per cent of the graded 
schools. The percentage of these organizations in one-teacher 
schools increased by 1.1 over 1937, in two-teacher schools by 
4.2, and in graded schools by 3 per cent. (See Table 184.) 

For data regarding parent-teacher associations in colored 
schools see Chart 40, page 209. 



P.-T.A.'s; Other than County Funds Raised or Spent 269 
for Schools 

TABLE 184 



Parent-Teacher Associations in Maryland Countv White Elementary Schools, 

School Year, 1937-38 



White Schools Having: 


Parent-Teacher Associations 


Number 


Per Cent 




83 
86 


28.9 




63.7 


Three or More Teachers 


285 


85.8 




Total 


454 


60.2 





During 1937-38, according to reports from teachers summarized 
by county superintendents, the parents of 49,546 pupils or nearly 
a third of all white pupils, visited the county schools to consult 
with teachers regarding the progress of their children or to ac- 
quire at first hand a knowledge of school problems and classroom 
instruction. The value of these contacts between the school and 
the home may be inestimable in giving both the teacher and the 
parent a better understanding of the problems which each must 
face. 

RECEIPTS AND EXPENDITURES BY WHITE SCHOOLS FROM OTHER 
THAN PUBLIC COUNTY FUNDS 

The amount of money reported as contributed over and above 
public funds for the white schools in 20 counties amounted to 
$362,062 in 1938. With so large a sum of money, the advisability 
of a system of financial accounting if only for the protection of 
those responsible for these funds does not seem open to question. 

Gross receipts from school cafeterias accounted for over 40 
per cent of the funds and were the major source of receipts in 7 
counties. P.-T. A.'s accounted for 9.5 per cent of the receipts 
and this source of receipts was given by thirteen counties. The 
payment of transportation costs by parents of children in three 
counties was responsible for 6.4 of the gross receipts in the 
twenty counties. (See Table XXIV, pages 318-319.) 

Sales represented an important source of receipts in ten coun- 
ties, while nine counties showed considerable income from parties 
and dances, and twelve counties added to receipts by giving 
plays, movies, musical, and radio programs. Dues brought in 
$17,700 in ten counties. Other sources of receipts were donations, 
school publications, athletics, and debates and declamations. 

The expenses connected with taking in the receipts reduced the 
net receipts to §187,907, which included 52 per cent of the total 
gross receipts. (See Table XXIV, pages 318-319.) 



270 1938 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 

The largest proportion of the net receipts from other than 
county funds was used for transportation of high school pupils 
in Baltimore and Montgomery Counties. School libraries ranked 
second in purpose of expenditures of net receipts in sixteen 
counties. Physical education and improvement of buildings and 
grounds were next in importance according to funds spent in 
fourteen counties over and above public funds which came 
through the Board of Education. Twelve of the twenty counties 
reported spending money on their cafeterias to pay for managers 
or to improve equipment. 

These reports give indication that the county levy and State 
aid do not supply funds sufficient to give the schools many things 
they need. In consequence the parents and patrons of the schools 
contribute in various ways to supply additional funds so that 
attendance for many pupils may be possible, and there may be 
many school activities and experiences which enrich the lives of 
children while they are attending school. 

For similar data for colored schools, see Table XXIII, page 317. 

TABLE 185 



Federal Aid to High School Students Through National Youth 
Administration, 1937-38 





Number of High School Pupils 


Aided 


Amount 


of Aid 












RECEIVED BY 


County 


White 






















Public 




Non-Public 








Colored 


Total 


School 




School 




Public 


Non-Public 






Pupils 




Pupils 


Total Counties 


802 


169 


211 


1,182 


$30,986. 


14 


$6,469.17 




133 


62 


15 


210 


5,152. 


14 


2,277.30 


Anne Arundel 


24 






24 


679. 


51 






47 


' '4i 




88 


1,639. 


22 


i,83o!66 




25 




"l2 


37 


1,166. 


43 




Carroll 


27 




8 


35 


1,264. 


95 




Cecil 


51 


' 22 


14 


87 


1,809 


14 


1,096^85 




23 


8 


3 


34 


872. 


80 


270.00 


Dorchester 


35 




19 


54 


1,760. 


15 






17 




6 


23 


695 


55 






63 






63 


1,831. 


98 






22 




' 23 


45 


1,419 


19 




Howard 






3 


3 


119 


85 




Kent 


"io 




7 


17 


733 


55 






71 






83 


2,057 


04 


362! 88 


Prince George's 

Queen Anne's 


39 




* 30 


69 


1,825 


87 




3 




18 


21 


210 


40 






11 






35 


384 


95 


632 !i4 


Somerset 


52 




' 29 


81 


1,864 


64 




Talbot 


24 




10 


34 


1,274 


65 




Washington 


75 






75 


2,354 


18 




Wicomico 


38 






38 


1,215 


80 






12 




"ii 


26 


654 


15 




Baltimore City 


273 


128 


365 


766 


17,197 


54 


4,455.70 


Entire State 


1,075 


297 


576 


1,948 


$48,183 


68 


$10,924.87 



Other than County Funds Raised or Spent for Schools; 271 
N. Y. A. Aid 

FEDERAL AID TO STUDENTS THROUGH NATIONAL YOUTH 
ADMINISTRATION 

The Federal government through the National Youth Admin- 
istration made available S59,109 to 1,948 pupils in public and non- 
public high schools in 1937-38. This was an average of S30 per 
pupil aided. It was possible to give a maximum of §6 per month 
to the pupils for which services were to be rendered the school 
or community. The number of white and colored high school 
pupils in public and non-public high schools who received aid and 
the amount paid to public and non-public high school pupils in 
each county are shown in Table 185. 

Aid given to 1,382 undergraduate students in 26 Maryland col- 
leges totalled $101,140, or an average of S73 per~~student aided. 
The maximum available per month was $20 and the average per 
undergraduate college student S15. State Teachers College stu- 
dents to the number of J6 at Towson received S4,860, 56 at Salis- 
bury were aided by 82,936, and 47 at Frostburg had assistance 
amounting to $1,850. At Bowie Normal School 33 students re- 
ceived $1,265 and 28 at Coppin Teachers Training School received 
$1,755. 



THE ISSUE OF CERTIFICATES TO COUNTY TEACHERS 
TABLE 186 



Number of Certificates Issued in 1920-21, 1937-38, and 1938-39 





Number of Certificates Issued 


Grade of Certificate 










1920-21 


1937-38 


1938-39* 


Administration and Supervision: 










1 


.... 


1 


Elementary Supervision 


3 




1 






1 








1 


.... 










High School: 








Principal 


8 


6 


16 


Academic 


141 


158 


114 


Special 

Vocational 


35 


68 


52 


39 


33 


31 


Non-Public 




72 


60 


Elementary: 










19 


18 


15 






89 


141 






182 


149 


First Grade 


265 


11 


6 


Second Grade 


289 






Third Grade 


161 






Non-Public Advanced First Grade 




' 21 


.... 


Non-Public First Grade 




11 





* Up to February 1, 1939. 



272 1938 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 

There was a decrease in the number of certificates issued to 
high school assistant teachers in the Maryland counties in 1938-39 
under the number in 1937-38 partly because not as many addi- 
tional appointments were made in the later year to take care of 
increased enrollment and to enrich the offerings in vocational 
work, art, and libraries. (See Table 186.) 

The increase in the number of graduates from the teachers 
colleges in 1938 made a larger number of persons eligible for the 
Bachelor of Science Certificate in Elementary Education. Since 
all county graduates of the State teachers colleges completed the 
four-year course and were issued degree certificates, advanced 
first grade certificates were limited to colored graduates of the 
three-year normal school course at Bowie, to teachers holding 
first grade certificates who by completing additional work became 
eligible for the advanced first grade certificate, and to out-of- 
State teachers who entered the service upon the basis of three 
years of normal school work. (See Table 186.) 

At a meeting in October the superintendents passed a resolution 
recommending to the State Board of Education that no colored 
teacher might enter or re-enter the elementary school teaching 
service in the Maryland counties after June, 1938, unless the 
applicant qualifies for an advanced first grade certificate. This 
regulation was passed by the State Board of Education as By- 
law 58 on December 10, 1937. 



TABLE 187 

Number of Provisional or Emergency Certificates Issued 





Provisional or Emergency 
Certificates Issued for 


Year 


Elementary- 
School Teachingf 


High School 
Teachingf 




276 


225 




316 


184 




175 


132 




214 


104 




268 


108 




72 


110 




35 


112 




25 


92 




15 


82 




7 


56 




4 


46 




10 


35 


1935-36 


20 


23 




24 


26 




27 


28 


1938-39* 


14 


21 









t Includes both white and colored teachers. 
* Up to February 1, 1939. 



State Certification of Teachers 



273 



There has been a decrease in the number of provisional certifi- 
cates issued. For elementary school teaching they are exclu- 
sively for elementary school principals. The requirements for 
the principal's certificate have been gradually increased and it 
is difficult to find enough teachers who have the preparation re- 
quired for the regular certificate and who at the same time 
possess the necessary personal qualities for the work of a princi- 
pal. The provisional high school teachers' certificates are en- 
tirely in the special fields such as music and industrial arts. (See 
Table 187.) 

Physical Examination of Teachers 

In order to make more effective Section 126 of the State school 
law requiring physical examination of teachers and to prevent 
the Teachers' Retirement System from admitting to membership 
physically handicapped teachers, arrangements were made be- 
ginning in the fall of 1929 to have the physicians at the Teachers 
Colleges and Bowie Normal School give a thorough physical ex- 
amination to all graduates who are planning to take positions in 
the Maryland counties. All entrants into the service who have 
not had such examinations are required to visit the physician in 
each county appointed to examine such teachers. The State 
Department of Education bears the expense of such examina- 
tions. Reports of these examinations are forwarded to the Medi- 
cal Board of the Teachers' Retirement System. Certificates are 
issued only to those teachers, reports of whose physical examina- 
tions are approved by the Medical Board. The number examined, 
accepted, and rejected, are shown in Table 188. 



TABLE 188 

Number of Teachers Accepted and Rejected on the Basis of Medical 

Examinations 





Number 


Number 


Number 


Year 


Examined 


Accepted 


Rejected 


1929-30 


917 


910 


7 


1930-31 


885 


872 


13 


1931-32 


772 


754 


18 


1932-33 


503 


495 


8 


1933-34 


392 


383 


9 


1934-35 


509 


500 


9 


1935-36 


527 


517 


10 


1936-37 


491 


487 


4 


1937-38 


500 


496 


4 


1938-39* 


464 


463 


1 



* Up to February 1, 1939. 



274 1938 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 

COUNTY SCHOOL ADMINISTRATION 

The salary of a Maryland county superintendent as fixed in the 
State minimum schedule depends on size of teaching staff and 
years of experience. Counties, however, may pay salaries above 
those in the minimum salary schedule, the range in salaries in 
1937-38 being from $2,940 in four counties to $6,000 in Allegany 
and $8,000 in Baltimore County. The average salary was $4,235 
and the median $4,200 in 1938. (See Table XIV, page 308.) 

There were ten counties with fewer than 150 teachers, four 
having from 150 to 199 teachers, and nine with more than 200 
teachers. The average number of teachers per county was 223 
while the median county had 160 teachers. The smallest county 
had 62 teachers and the largest 567. Several counties which 
would have had more than 200 teachers had they not carried 
forward a policy of school consolidation and transportation have 
replaced the additional problems of a large teaching staff with 
those of the transportation service. (See Table IX, page 303.) 

Conference of County Superintendents with State Department Staff 

At the conference of county superintendents, teachers college 
presidents, and the staff of the State Department of Education 
held at the Towson State Teachers College on October 28, 1937, 
the following subjects were presented and discussed: 

Possibilities of consolidating small high schools 

Improving the offerings and efficiency of small high schools — Mr. Fon- 
taine and county superintendents 

Educational and vocational guidance for Maryland counties — Mr. Crom- 
well 

The physical education program — Mr. Ferguson 

The art program in Montgomery County high schools — Mr. Broome 
The meeting of the American Vocational Association — Mr. Seidel 

Conference of County Attendance Officers 

A two-day meeting of the county attendance officers was held 
in Baltimore in September, 1937. In addition to discussion of 
new projects included in objectives for the year, the attendance 
officers heard Miss Wootton discuss opportunities for greater co- 
operation with the State Department of Labor; Mr. Milton Pat- 
terson, the social welfare program of the county welfare boards 
and the Board of State Aid and Charities; Mrs. Coppage, co- 
operation with parent-teacher associations; Mr. Howard C. Bell, 
the Maryland Youth Survey ; Mr. Ferguson, development in plans 
for physical education and recreation; and Mr. Hihn, the pro- 
gram of the National Association. A surprise testimonial dinner 
was given to pay tribute to Mr. John T. Hershner, who retired on 
August 31, 1937, after serving many years as assistant superin- 
tendent and chief attendance officer of the Baltimore County 
schools. 



County School Administration; State Teachers College 275 
Graduates 



THE MARYLAND STATE TEACHERS COLLEGES 

Graduates of 1938 

There were 87 county and 48 City graduates from the three 
Maryland State Teachers Colleges in 1938. All of the county 
graduates completed the four-year course, while all but 5 of the 
City graduates had pursued the three-year course. The number 
of county graduates was 48 more than for 1937, but except for 
1933 and 1937 there were fewer county graduates in 1938 than 
for any year since 1922. (See Table 189.) 

TABLE 189 



White Graduates of Maryland State Teachers Colleges, 1920 to 1938 



Year 


Total 


TOWSON 

Baltimore 
City 


Counties 


Frostburg 


Salisbury 


Total 
Counties 


1920 


37 




37 


13 




50 


1921 


50 




50 


29 




79 


1922 


114 




114 


28 




142 


1923 


240 




240 


58 




298 


1924 


239 




239 


71 




310 


1925 


527 


234 


293 


59 




352 


1926 


428 


214 


214 


84 


' '27 


325 


1927 


353 


139 


214 


91 


72 


377 


1928 


286 


97 


189 


82 


75 


346 


1929 


268 


115 


153 


81 


82 


316 


1930 


262 


133 


129 


72 


70 


271 


1931 


248 


111 


137 


84 


78 


299 


1932 


215 


106 


109 


44 


74 


227 


1933 


ab49 


a25 


b24 


U5 


tl9 


J58 


1934 


tl99 


till 


t88 


f45 


t52 


tl85 


1935 


cdl58 


c70 


d88 


e55 


t31 


del74 


1936 


ef91 


e42 


f49 


g50 


h30 


fghl29 


1937 


m71 


c58 


kl3 


ml8 


h8 


hkm39 


1938 


no85 


n48 


o37 


o29 


o21 


o87 


1920-1938 


*3,851 


*1,465 


*2,386 


*951 


*593 


*3,929 



* Excludes duplicates — who completed two-, three-, and four-year courses. 

f Graduates of the three-year course f Includes 10 who completed the four-yr. course 

t Includes 43 graduates of the three-year course g Includes 22 who completed the four-yr. course 
a Includes 22 who completed the three-yr. course h Includes 8 who completed the four-yr. course 
b Includes 9 who completed the three-yr. course k Includes 12 who completed the four-yr. course 
c Includes 3 who completed the four-year course m Includes 15 who completed the four-yr. course 
d Includes 7 who completed the four-year course n Includes 5 who completed the four-yr. course 
e Includes 13 who completed the four-yr. course o All county graduates completed 4-yr. course 

In 1938 from Towson there were 37 county and 48 City gradu- 
ates, including all from the counties and 5 from Baltimore City 
who received Bachelor of Science certificates after completing 
the four-year course. Frostburg graduated 29 and Salisbury 21, 
all of whom received the four-year certificate. The county grad- 
uates of 1938 were the first group who knew when they entered 
as freshmen in September, 1934, that a four-year course was 
required for graduation. (See Table 189.) 



276 1938 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



Enrollment at Teachers Colleges 

The county enrollment at Towson of 222 in the fall of 1938 was 
exceeded in every year from the fall of 1921 to 1933. The 1938 
county enrollment, however, was 36 more than the 1937 enroll- 
ment. It was only in the fall of 1924, 1925, 1929, and 1931 that 
Towson had a higher enrollment from Baltimore City than the 
number enrolled in the fall of 1938 — 340. There were 212 and 
239 students enrolled at Frostburg and Salisbury, respectively, 
in 1938, increases of 42 and 29 over 1937, and the highest enroll- 
ments on record at both schools. (See Table 190.) 



TABLE 190 



Enrollment at Maryland State Teachers Colleges 



Fall of 


Towson 


Frostburg 


Salisbury 


Total 


City 


County 


County 


State 


1920 




184 


57 




241 


241 


1921 




397 


101 




498 


498 


1922 




506 


134 




640 


640 


1923 




569 


125 




694 


694 


1924 


*5i8 


602 


149 




751 


1,269 


1925 


411 


513 


197 


'l07 


817 


1,228 


1926 


275 


475 


201 


158 


834 


1,109 


1927 


268 


402 


192 


170 


764 


1,032 


1928 


315 


359 


178 


186 


723 


1,038 


1929 


346 


368 


173 


174 


715 


1,061 


1930 


298 


348 


161 


165 


674 


972 


1931 


348 


306 


111 


127 


544 


892 


1932 


289 


257 


136 


101 


494 


783 


1933 


230 


230 


116 


114 


460 


690 


1934 


178 


193 


124 


108 


425 


603 


1935 


193 


147 


137 


185 


469 


662 


1936 


284 


175 


131 


201 


507 


791 


1937 


290 


186 


170 


210 


566 


856 


1938 


340 


222 


212 


239 


673 


1,013 



The county enrollment of 673 at the three State Teachers Col- 
leges in the fall of 1938 was distributed among the classes in the 
following numbers: seniors 100, juniors 112, sophomores 160, 
and freshmen 288. The sophomore class had 16 and the fresh- 
man class had 75 more county students enrolled than for the 
preceding September. (See Table 191.) 

The City enrollment of 340 at Towson in September, 1938, in- 
cluded 10 taking fourth-year work, 97 in the third year, 101 
sophomores, and 132 freshmen. There was an increase over the 
preceding year of 40 taking third-year work and 22 freshmen. 
These freshmen are all enrolled for the four-year course. (See 
Tables 191 and 192.) 

As a result of action taken by the Board of School Commis- 
sioners of Baltimore City on May 12, 1938, requesting the State 
Board of Education to increase the curriculum for training ele- 



Enrollment at State Teachers Colleges 



277 



TABLE 191 

Distribution of Enrollment in Maryland State Teachers Colleges by Class, 

Fall of 1938 





Towson 


Frost- 


Salis- 


Total 








burg 


bury 








City 


County- 






County 


State 




132 


go 


90 


108 


288 


420 




101 


48 


49 


63 


160 


261 




97 


50 


34 


28 


112 


209 


Seniors 


10 


34 


30 


36 


100 


110 


Special 






9 


4 


13 


13 


Total 


340 


222 


212 


239 


673 


1,013 




14 


125 


84 


115 


324 


338 




326 


97 


128 


124 


349 


675 




16 


236 


190 


120 


546 


562 



mentary teachers for Baltimore City from three years to four 
years to become effective for all individuals who enroll on or after 
September 1, 1938, the State Board of Education adopted the 
following resolution on May 25, 1938: 

Beginning with the class entering as freshmen in September, 1938, 
the State Teachers College at Towson shall award only the four-year 
teachers college diploma. 

The county enrollment at Towson with 48 and 50 in the sopho- 
more and junior years, respectively, shows 90 in the freshman 
class. At Frostburg the sophomore and junior classes of 49 and 
34, respectively, are exceeded by a freshman class of 90. At Salis- 
bury, the freshman class of 108 is followed by a sophomore class 
of 63 and 28 in the junior class. Both Frostburg and Salisbury are 
permitted to offer two years of junior college work, which may 
or may not become preparatory to the professional teacher- 
training course. (See Tables 191 and 192.) 

At Towson 14 City and 125 county students were residents 
in the fall of 1938. The county resident students included over 
56 per cent of the Towson county group. There were 84 resident 
students, or nearly 40 per cent of the enrollment at Frostburg, 
and 115 residents, or 48 per cent of the total enrollment at Salis- 
bury. Especially at Frostburg and Salisbury where the junior 
college has been established, the day school enrollments have 
been augmented by many young men living in the vicinity of the 
colleges. (See Tables 191 and 192.) 

The campus elementary school enrollment in the fall of 1938 
was 252 at Towson, 190 at Frostburg, and 120 at Salisbury. (See 
Table 191.) 



278 



1938 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 









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Enrollment and Status of Freshmen at State Teachers 279 
Colleges 

The enrollment at the three State Teachers Colleges distributed 
by class, sex, and county indicates that the college is attended in 
largest numbers by high school graduates who live in the same 
county in which the school is located or in an adjoining county. 
In the fall of 1938, for example, 74 per cent of the county enroll- 
ment at Towson came from Baltimore, Harford, Anne Arundel, 
Howard, and Carroll Counties ; at Frostburg, 95 per cent, all but 
10 students, came from Allegany, Garrett, and Washington; and 
at Salisbury 69 per cent were residents of Wicomico, Dorchester, 
Somerset, and Worcester. Counties having liberal arts colleges 
or universities within their borders or nearby send a large pro- 
portion of their high school graduates to these institutions. (See 
Table 192 and Chart 19 and Table 49, pages 80-81, and Table 53, 
page 87.) 

County superintendents and high school principals will pro- 
bably find it advantageous to check up the enrollment by classes 
from their county at the State Teachers Colleges with the tables 
in the annual report showing teacher turnover in white elemen- 
tary schools for a number of years to ascertain whether it will 
not be advantageous to adopt measures to bring before high 
school graduates opportunities in the field of elementary educa- 
tion. (See Table 192, Chart 19 and Table 49, pages 80-81, and 
Table 25, page 41.) 

Status of Freshmen Admitted to Teachers Colleges in the Fall of 1938 

Over 90 per cent of the 1938 freshmen at Towson from Bal- 
timore City were graduates of the college preparatory course, 
6 per cent had taken the commercial course, 3 per cent had pur- 
sued the general course, and less than 1 per cent were graduates 
of the technical course. Of the county entrants at Towson, 80 
per cent had taken the academic course, 17 per cent had pursued 
the general course, and 3 per cent the commercial course. (See 
Table 193.) 



TABLE 193 
1938 Entrants at State Teachers Colleges 



High School 
Course 


Per Cent Having Had Various 
High School Courses 


Third of 

Class 


Per Cent from High, Middle, 
and Lower Third of Class 


Towson 


Frost- 
burg 


Salis- 
bury 


Towson 


Frost- 
burg 


Salis- 
bury 


City 


County 


City 


County 


Academic 


90.1 
3.0 
6.1 

.8 


80.0 
16.7 
3.3 


62.2 
20.0 
14.5 

1.1 
2.2 


60.1 
29.6 
7.5 

1.9 
.9 


High 


75.0 
22.0 
3.0 


54.4 
28.9 
16.7 


38.9 
38.9 
20.0 
2.2 


52.8 
38.9 
8.3 


General 


Middle 


Commercial .... 
Technical or 

Vocational . . . 
Unclassified .... 

Total No. . 


Unclassified . . . 
Total No. . 


132 


90 


90 


108 


132 


90 


90 


108 



280 1938 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 

At Frostburg over 62 per cent of the 1938 freshmen were gradu- 
ates of the academic course, 20 per cent had pursued the general 
course, approximately 15 per cent had taken the commercial 
course, 1 per cent the vocational course, and 2 per cent were un- 
classified. At Salisbury 60 per cent had pursued the academic, 
30 per cent the general, over 7 per cent had taken the commercial 
course, 2 per cent were graduates of the vocational course, and 
less than 1 per cent were unclassified. (See Table 193.) 

At Towson 75 per cent of the City and 54 per cent of the county 
entrants in 1938 were ranked in the high third of their high 
school graduating class, while 3 and 17 per cent of the City and 
county entrants, respectively, were from the low third of their 
classes. Frostburg had 39 per cent of the 1938 freshmen from 
the high third and 20 per cent from the low third, while corres- 
ponding figures at Salisbury included 53 per cent from the high 
and 8 per cent from the low third of their high school classes. 
(See Table 193.) 

Persistence to Graduation of 1934 and and 1935 Towson County Entrants 

Dr. Wiedefeld, President of the Towson College, studied the 
persistence to graduation of the 1934 and 1935 county freshmen 
entrants when they were distributed according to third of the 
high school graduating class reported by their high school prin- 

TABLE 194 

Persistence to College Graduation of County High School Graduates Who En- 
tered Towson State Teachers College in the Fall of 1934 and 1935, Distributed 
According to Third of High School Graduating Class in Which They Ranked 



Follow-up of County Freshmen Who Entered Towson Teachers 
College in 1934 and 1935 





1934 


1935 


1934 and 1935 






♦Highest 
Third 


* 


*Lowest 
Third 


♦Highest 
Third 


* 


♦Lowest 
Third 


♦Highest 
Third 


♦Middle 
Third 


♦Lowest 
Third 


Total 




31 
6 


18 


5 


24 


16 


4 


55 


34 


9 


98 


Withdrawals, Total 


5 


3 


9 


8 


4 


15 


13 


7 


35 
























tPoor Work 


1 


3 


3 


1 


5 


3 


2 


8 


6 


16 


Health 


1 






2 


1 




3 


1 




4 


Other Reasons 


4 


2 




6 


2 


i 


10 


4 


i 


15 


Graduated 
xNumber 


25 


13 


2 


15 


°8 





40 


°21 


2 


°63 


xPer Cent 


80 


72 


40 


62 


50 





73 


62 


22 


64 



















* From high school graduating class. 

f Includes entrants who withdrew because of poor results in entrance tests. 
° Includes one student who may not finish, 
x Includes some expected to graduate in 1939. 



Persistence to Graduation, Withdrawals, State Teachers 281 
Colleges 

cipals. Of the 98 entrants in 1934 and 1935, high school prin- 
cipals reported 55 from the highest third, 34 from the middle 
third, and 9 from the lowest third of their high school gradu- 
ating classes. Because of the fact that very few of those from 
the lowest third of the class remain to graduate, Dr. Wiedefeld 
concludes that students from the lowest third should not be ad- 
mitted to the college except in unusual cases where a principal 
feels that there have been special circumstances militating against 
the high school record and where the student has a dynamic per- 
sonality and driving power to help him overcome difficulties. 
(See Table 194.) 

Withdrawals in 1937-38 of Freshmen Who Entered State Teachers Colleges 

in 1937 

The requested or voluntary withdrawal before the fall of 1938 
of freshmen who had entered Towson in the fall of 1937 included 
10 City and 11 county entrants, 9.4 and 18 per cent, respectively, 
of the City and county groups. At Frostburg 14 or 24.6 per cent 
withdrew, while 6 or 8.7 per cent of the freshmen who entered 
Salisbury in 1937 left before September, 1938. The number and 
percentage of withdrawals of both City and county entrants from 
Towson, and from Salisbury were lower, and from Frostburg 
were higher than corresponding figures for the preceding vear. 
(See Table 195.) 

TABLE 195 



Freshmen Who Entered Maryland Teachers Colleges in September, 1937, who 
Withdrew at the Request of the School or Voluntarily before September, 1938 





Towson 












Frostburg 


Salisbury 




City 


County 






Freshmen Enrollment, September, 1937 


110 


62 


60 


91 


Withdrawals for Removal, Transfer or Death 


3 


1 


3 


22 


Withdrawals at Request of School 


2 


3 


5 


2 


Voluntary Withdrawals 


8 


8 


9 


4 


Per Cent* Withdrawn at Request of School 


1.9 


4.9 


8.8 


2.9 


Per Cent* Voluntary Withrawals 


7.5 


13.1 


15.8 


5.8 


Per Cent* of Total Withdrawals 


9.4 


18.0 


24.6 


8.7 



* Excluding withdrawals for removal, transfer, or death. 



Faculty at the State Teachers Colleges 

At Towson in the fall of 1938 the instructional staff number- 
ing 32, excluding 9 for the campus elementary school, remained 
the same as the year before. Training centers included 6 teachers 
in 4 schools in Baltimore County and between 18 and 24 teachers 
in from 9 to 12 schools in Baltimore City, the number used varying 
according to semester. The Towson office staff included 9 mem- 



282 



1938 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



bers, 1 more than for 1937, and there were 3 individuals on the 
dormitory staff, the same number employed the preceding year. 
At Frostburg the staff remained the same in 1938 as in 1937. At 
Salisbury the training centers included 7 teachers in 3 schools 
in 1938 as against 6 teachers in 5 schools in 1937. (See Table 
196.) 



TABLE 196 

Faculty and Staff at Maryland State Teachers Colleges, 1937-38 



Position 


Towson 


Frostburg 


Salisbury 




1 
27 
4 


1 

9 
2 


1 

cll 

3 


Instructors 


Library 


Campus Elementary School 


9 


6 


4 


Training Centers 








County 


a6 




d7 


City. ..- 


b24 
9 

3 


'2 
1 


'2 
1 


Office Staff 







a In four schools of Baltimore County. 

b Varies from 18 to 24 teachers in from 9 to 12 schools in Baltimore City, 
c Includes director of training who also acts as principal of elementary school, but excludes 
social director who acts as teacher of home economics, 
d In three schools of Wicomico County. 



At the meeting of the State Board of Education held May 25, 
1938, the application of Dr. Lida Lee Tall, President of the State 
Teachers College at Towson, for retirement as of September 1, 
1938, was accepted with regret. 

On the recommendation of the State Superintendent, the 
State Board of Education appointed Dr. M. Theresa Wiedefeld, 
State Supervisor of Elementary Schools, to succeed Dr. Tall. 
Dr. Wiedefeld had given distinguished service as a member of 
the staff of the State Department of Education since September, 
1924. 

On October 14, 1938, the State Board of Education approved 
the following resolution of appreciation of the services of Dr. 
Tall prepared by a committee composed of Mr. Allen, Dr. Finney, 
and State Superintendent Cook : 

"Dr. Lida Lee Tall leaves the presidency of the State Teachers 
College at Towson after eighteen years of faithful and efficient service. 
Previous to her incumbency as head of the teacher-training institution, 
she had served the public schools of Maryland as critic and instructor 
in a teacher-training institution in Baltimore City and as assistant 
superintendent of schools in Baltimore County. 

"In her service in the public school system and as head of the State 
Teachers College at Towson, Dr. Tall was always zealous for improve- 
ment in the standards of teacher-training, and by her example, her 
leadership, and her selection and professional guidance of the highly 



Faculty; Costs at State Teachers Colleges 



283 



capable staff of the State Teachers College at Towson, she contributed 
greatly to the achievement of the present high standing of teacher- 
training in the elementary schools of the State of Maryland. 

"Not only has Dr. Tall the respect and confidence of the teachers 
and the public of Maryland as a progressive leader in the training of 
elementary school teachers, as an able administrator, and as a socially- 
minded citizen, but she is general accorded a high position among the 
educators of the entire country. Unquestionably the prestige which 
the State Teachers College at Towson enjoys is in large measure due to 
the prestige of Dr. Tall as a leader in education. 

"In appreciation of Miss Tail's service as principal of the State 
Normal School and as president of the State Teachers College, her 
character as an individual, her worth as a citizen, and her leadership 
in education in Maryland. 

"Be it therefore resolved that this resolution be spread upon the 
minutes of this meeting and that a copy be sent to Miss Tall." 

Total and Per Student Costs at State Teachers Colleges 

Although partly because of restoration of cuts in salaries, 1938 
total current expenses and cost to the State at Towson State 
Teachers College were higher than during the period from 1934 
to 1937, they were much lower than corresponding amounts from 
1928 to 1933. The same was true of cost to the State at Frost- 
burg and Salisbury. (See Table 197.) 

Despite the fact that the college enrollments were smaller 
from 1934 to 1938 than from 1928 to 1933, receipts from students' 
fees at the three colleges were generally higher in the later period 
because of the increase in fees which took effect in the fall of 1933. 

The college enrollment at Towson decreased steadily from 1928 
to 1936, with the exception of a slight increase in 1932. Enroll- 
ment for 1938 at Towson showed a considerable increase over 
1936 and 1937. At Frostburg the years 1932 and 1934 and at 
Salisbury the years 1933 and 1935 showed the lowest enrollments, 
since which years there have been more or less consistent in- 
creases in enrollment. The effects of the depression in making it 
more difficult for high school graduates to finance further educa- 
tion, especially with the increased costs and the lengthening of 
the course to three and then to four years, and the fear that there 
would not be a position after graduation from college resulting 
from the failure to appoint the usual number of teachers during 
the depression, deterred many high school graduates from attend- 
ing the teachers colleges. The shortage of elementary school 
teachers in the past few years, however, has brought about an 
increase in enrollment. All of the colleges showed an increase 
in enrollment in 1938 over 1937, and a still further gain in the 
fall of 1938. (See Table 197.) 



284 1938 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 

In general the per cent of college students resident at Towson 
and Salisbury is lower after than before 1933, which in part ex- 
plains the decrease in total cost per student. After fees were in- 
creased in 1933 some students within commuting distance found 
it more economical to commute than to pay the charges for living 
in the dormitory. (See Table 197.) 

TABLE 197 



Total and Per Student Costs at State Teachers Colleges, 1928 to 1938 



Year 


Total 


Fees 
Paid 


Cost 


College 
Enrollment 


Per Cent 
Elementary 
is of College 
Enrollment 

6 


Average Annual Cost 
per College Student 


Current 
Expenses 

1 


by 
Students 

2 


to 
State 

3 


Total 
4 


Per Cent 
Resident 
5 


Total 
7 


in 

Fees 
8 


to 
State 
9 



Towson 



1928 


$300,675 


$76,406 


$224,269 


734 


51 


34 


$410 


a$104 


$306 


1929 


301,590 


64,551 


237,039 


650 


51 


39 


464 


a99 


365 


1930. . . . 


314,699 


64,660 


250,039 


604 


49 


43 


521 


al07 


414 


1931 


311,674 


61,663 


250,011 


561 


51 


42 


556 


allO 


446 


1932. . . . 


277,642 


57,201 


220,441 


582 


43 


46 


477 


a98 


379 


1933 


261,686 


42,182 


219,504 


503 


36 


53 


520 


a84 


436 


1934. . . . 


210,135 


79,108 


131,027 


450 


36 


54 


487 


bl96 


291 


1935. . . . 


192,873 


58,317 


134,556 


354 


31 


71 


545 


bl65 


380 


1936 


179,751 


50,286 


129,465 


330 


25 


75 


545 


bl53 


392 


1937. . . . 


184,263 


65,395 


118,868 


438 


23 


54 


420 


bl48 


272 


1938.... 


217,359 


70,312 


147,047 


455 


26 


54 


478 


bl55 


323 



Frostburg 



1928 


$71,247 


$16,770 


$54,477 


194 


38 


* 


*$368 


a$87 


*$281 


1929. . . . 


73,584 


14,566 


59,018 


178 


44 


65 


413 


a82 


331 


1930 


76,581 


13,221 


63,360 


161 


43 


65 


476 


a82 


394 


1931. . . . 


77 , 554 


14,290 


63,264 


154 


51 


80 


504 


a93 


411 


1932. . . . 


75,575 


9,809 


65,766 


113 


50 


166 


669 


a87 


582 


1933 


71,254 


9,175 


62,079 


121 


41 


175 


589 


a76 


513 


1934. . . . 


61,359 


21,545 


39,814 


115 


49 


171 


533 


bl87 


346 


1935. . . . 


56,780 


23,230 


33,550 


117 


49 


171 


485 


bl99 


286 


1936 


59,558 


22,415 


37,143 


130 


42 


161 


459 


bl73 


286 


1937. . . . 


64,087 


23,444 


40,643 


131 


45 


153 


489 


bl79 


310 


1938. . . . 


77,755 


29,625 


48,130 


167 


44 


123 


466 


bl78 


288 



Salisbury 



1928 


$85,688 


$21,216 


$64,472 


167 


81 


38 


$513 


a$127 


$386 


1929 


86,575 


28,437 


58,138 


180 


80 


35 


481 


al58 


323 


1930 


98,930 


27,456 


71,474 


168 


88 


53 


589 


al63 


426 


1931 


98,359 


28,005 


70,354 


160 


90 


59 


615 


al75 


440 


1932. . . . 


88,197 


20,475 


67,722 


124 


85 


79 


711 


al65 


546 


1933 


71,346 


12,575 


58,771 


98 


72 


108 


728 


al28 


600 


1934. . . . 


66,144 


24,267 


41,877 


114 


71 


102 


580 


b213 


367 


1935 


59,435 


20,706 


38 , 729 


109 


40 


121 


545 


b252 


293 


1936 


67,672 


32,289 


35,383 


184 


41 


69 


384 


bl92 


192 


1937 


70,185 


34,801 


35,384 


200 


40 


61 


351 


bl74 


177 


1938 


87,595 


36,608 


50,987 


210 


39 


58 


417 


bl74 


243 



a Day students paid $20, women residents $200, and men boarders $72. 
b Day students paid $100, women residents $316, and men boarders $128. 
* Elementary school paid for through Allegany County budget. 



Total and Per Student Costs at State Teachers Colleges 285 

There is considerable difference at the three colleges in the re- 
lation between the enrollment in the campus elementary school 
and the college enrollment. Since the cost of the campus elemen- 
tary school is a charge against the total current expenses and the 
cost to the State and is included in calculating the total cost and 
the cost to the State per college student, some of the differences 
in per student costs at the three schools are accounted for in this 
way. At Frostburg since 1932 the campus elementary school 
enrollment has been much larger than the college enrollment. At 
Salisbury the elementary school enrollment was larger than the 
college enrollment in 1933, 1934, and 1935. At Towson the cam- 
pus elementary school enrollment was 34 per cent of the total 
college enrollment in 1928, as against 75 per cent in 1936 and 54 
per cent in 1938. (See Table 197.) 

Over the eleven-year period, total cost per college student 
averaged between $410 and $556 at Towson, the amount in 1938 
being $478. At Frostburg over the period from 1929 to 1938, 
cost per college student averaged between $413 and $669, the 
1938 amount being $466. At Salisbury the range in cost per 
student was between $351 and $728, the 1938 amount being $417. 
The differences in costs for the three colleges are explained in 
part by per cent of students in residence, relation between ele- 
mentary and college enrollment, relation between resident en- 
rollment and capacity, and many other facts. (See Table 197.) 

The average annual fee paid by each college student was higher 
after 1933 than before, because it became necessary after the 
budgetary cuts to increase the fee for instruction from $20 to 
$100 and the board from $5 to $6 per week. The proportion of 
resident students was higher at Frostburg than at Towson and 
Salisbury in the later years, which explains the higher average 
fee paid at Frostburg. (See Table 197.) 

During the eleven-year period the cost per student to the State 
ranged between $272 and $446 at Towson, with $323 in 1938; 
between $286 and $582 at Frostburg, the average in 1938 being 
S288; and between $177 and $600 at Salisbury, the 1938 average 
being $243. The proportion of students in residence and the re- 
lation between elementary and college enrollment affect cost to 
the State per student at the three collges. (See Table 197.) 

The distribution of 1938 expenditures for instruction and 
domitory expenses at the three State Teachers Colleges and re- 
ceipts from the State and the students for these expenditures 
are given in Table 198. 

The total cost per college student for instruction at Towson 
was $376 of which $276 was paid by the State and $100 by each 
student. At Frostburg the total cost per college student for in- 



286 1938 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 

TABLE 198 



Distribution of Expenditures at State Teachers Colleges from Sept. 1, 1937 

to Aug. 31, 1938 







Expenditures for Instruction 


Expenditures for Dormitory 






c 






c 
- o 


c 


a 




College 


Total 




tO 


i.J. 


n, 

nance 
ortati 


tratio: 


oT.2 

gSs 








to 

'c 


jjg 


of ] 

cti< 
er t 
,ries 


;it i( i 
nte 
nsp 


.2 
'c 


.2.2 a^s 

+J to +J 








Adm 


Salar 
Inst 


Cost 
stru 
Oth 
Sala 


Oper: 
Mai 
Tra 


Adm: 


Open 
Mai 
Trai 
Hea 


Food 




$217,359 


$21,493 


$104,262 


$5,165 


$40,281 


$4,962 


$25,368 


$15,828 


Frostburg 


77,755 


8,895 


36,470 


4,515 


10,426 


1,640 


9,453 


6,356 


Salisbury 


87,595 


7,499 


35,903 


5,582 


8,748 


4,682 


18,752 


6,429 


Total 


$382,709 


$37,887 


$176,635 


$15,262 


$59,455 


$11,284 


$53,573 


$28,613 



Receipts from Teachers College Students and from State from Sept. 1, 1937 

to Aug. 31, 1938 



College 


Total 
College 

En- 
rollment 


Ele- 
mentary 

En- 
rollment 


Receipts for 
Instruction from 


Total 
Resident 

En- 
rollment 


Receipts for 
Dormitory from 


Students 


State 


Students 


State 


Towson 

Frostburg 

Salisbury 

Total . . 


455 
167 
210 


245 
206 
121 


$45,663 
16,139 
21,000 


$125,538 
44,167 
36,732 


117 
74 
81 


$24,649 
13,487 
15,608 


$21,509 
3,962 
14,255 


832 


572 


$82,802 


$206,437 


272 


$53,744 


$39,726 



struction was $361, and at Salisbury it was $275 per student, 
making the cost to the State after deduction of tuition fees, $264 
and $175, respectively. (See Chart 48.) 

The total cost of instruction and dormitory per resident stu- 
dent was highest at Towson, $771, of which $460 was paid by the 
State, and lowest at Salisbury, $597 per student, $318 of which 
was paid by the State. At Frostburg the total cost per resident 
student was $644, with $351 paid by the State. (See Chart 48.) 



Inventories of Teachers Colleges 

The inventories for land and improvements and buildings at 
the three State Teachers Colleges remained the same in Septem- 
ber, 1938, as in the preceding year, while the equipment showed 
increases over 1937 in all three schools. (See Table 199.) 



1937-38 Receipts, Expenditures and Per Student Costs at 287 
State Teachers Colleges 



CHART 48 



COST PER STUDENT FOR INSTRUCTION — TOTAL COST PER DAY STUDENT 
State 1937-38 
Teachers Number of 

College College Elem. Total HT~1 Total Paid by I I Paid by 

■LI Cost instate I lr 



at Students Pupils* Cost ™ — ■ Cost 
Towson 455 245 $ 376 



State 



Student 



Frost burg 
Salisbury 



167 
210 



206 
121 




State 

Teachers Resident 

College Students Total 

at Number Per Cent Cost 



Towson 117 
Salisbury 81 
Frost burg 74 



TOTAL COST PER RESIDENT STUDENT 




I 1 Paid by 

I 1 Student 



* Per cent of entire college enrollment. 



TABLE 199 

Inventories at State Teachers Colleges, September, 1938 





Towson 


Frostburg 


Salisbury 


Land and Improvements 


$127,970 
1,156,500 
214,559 


$80,591 
354,718 
34,095 


$17,516 
699.850 
83,111 


Buildings 


Equipment 


Total 


$1,499,029 


$469,404 


$800,477 





CONTRIBUTIONS FROM COUNTY TEACHERS AND MEMBERSHIP IN 
MARYLAND TEACHERS' RETIREMENT SYSTEM 

The Maryland Teachers' Retirement System in its eleventh 
year of operation, 1937-38, received contributions from county 
teachers to the amount of $297,711, an increase of $24,914 over 
the amount contributed during 1936-37. In October, 1938, 5,072 
county teachers, 95 per cent of the entire teaching staff, were 
active members of the system. (See Table 200.) 

The proportion of the teaching staff in active membership in 
the Retirement System varied in the individual counties from 
88.7 per cent to 100 per cent. Only 1 county had fewer than 90 
per cent of its teachers enrolled in the Retirement System, while 



288 1938 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 

TABLE 200 

Contributions by Teachers to the Annuity Savings Fund of the Teachers' Re- 
tirement System of the State of Maryland for the Year Ended July 31, 1938, 
Number and Per Cent of October, 1938, County Teaching Staff Who are 
Members in Active Service 









Members 






Amount 


in Active Service 


County or Institution 


Contributed 


October, 191 


18 




Year Ending 










July 31, ] 


938 












Number 


Per Cent 


County: 












Allegany 


$30,883 


48 


471 


96 


9 


Anne Arundel 


17 , 261 


76 


312 


91 


5 


Baltimore 


40,912 


99 


564 


95 


4 


Calvert 


2 , 935 


18 


68 


97 


1 




5,816 


22 


1 HQ 

iuy 


95 


6 


Carroll 


12,323 


58 


220 


96 


5 




9,426 


84 


159 


97 


5 


Charles 


4,916 


62 


109 


90 


1 




8 , 142 


97 


162 


Q€) 

yo 


D 


Frederick 


18,016 


1 Q 


on A 


96 


7 


Garrett 


8,846 


27 


100 


93 


4 


Harford 


11,573 


44 


211 


94 


2 




5 , 193 


73 


101 


94 


4 


Kent 


5, 101 


13 


94 


100 







31 , 048 


27 


472 


98 


3 


Prince George's 

Queen Anne's 


24 , 518 


16 


474 


94 


2 


5,602 


19 


96 


QO 




St. Mary's 


3,647 


97 


80 


95 


2 




6,594 


67 


135 


99 


3 


Talbot 


5,586 


16 


108 


91 


5 




23,297 


60 


372 


90 


3 


Wicomico 


9,167 


59 


173 


88 


7 




6^897 


95 


133 


93 


7 


Total Counties 


$297,710 


96 


5,072 


94 


8 


Teachers Colleges: 














$5,815 


55 


47 






Frostbury 


1,894 


00 


18 








2,324 


27 


21 






Bowie 


1,059 


23 


16 






Department: 














3,823 


05 


24 






Maryland Library Advisory Commission 

Teachers' Retirement System 


411 


49 


4 






278 


96 


3 






Other Schools: 














2,492 


49 


29 








637 


84 


7 








1,315 


11 


13 








1,970 


00 


25 








$22,021 


99 


207 






Grand Total 


$319,732 


95 


5,279 







over 95 per cent were members in 12 counties. Contributions 
from 207 members in the State Department of Education, the 
four State Teachers Colleges, and the four State schools for 
handicapped and delinquent children brought the total contribu- 
tions to $319,733. (See Table 200.) 

For State contributions to the Teachers' Retirement System of 
the State and to the Baltimore City Employees' Retirement Sys- 
tem on account of teachers, see Table 1, page 6, and the financial 
statement on page 290. 



Teachers' Retirement System; List of Statistical and 289 
Financial Tables 

INVENTORY OF VALUE OF EQUIPMENT IN STATE SCHOOL 
ADMINISTRATIVE AND SUPERVISORY OFFICES 

The inventory of equipment for the office of the Retirement Sys- 
tem totalled $3,676. For the State Department of Education the 
equipment was valued at $16,287 and for the office of the State 
Supervisor of Vocational Rehabilitation at $871. 

LIST OF STATISTICAL AND FINANCIAL TABLES, 1937-38 



No. Subject of Tables Page 

Financial Statements 290-292 

I Number of Schools 293 

II Total Public School Enrollment 294 

III Non-Public School Enrollment and Teaching Staff 295 

IV Catholic Private Schools, Enrollment and Teaching Staff.... 296-297 
V Non-Catholic Private Schools, Enrollment and Teaching 

Staff 298-299 

VI Average Number of Public School Pupils Belonging 300 

VII Average Daily Attendance; Per Cent of Attendance 301 

VIII Average Days in Session; Aggregate Days of Attendance.. 302 

IX Number of Teaching Positions, Public Schools 303 

X Pupils Belonging Per Teacher and Salary Per Teacher 304 

XI Receipts from State and Federal Government 305 

XII Receipts from All Sources 306 

XIII Total Disbursements 307 

XIV Disbursements for General Control.... 308 

XV Disbursements for Instruction and Operation 309 

XVI Disbursements for Maintenance, Auxiliary Agencies, and 

Fixed Charges 310 

XVII Disbursements for Debt Service and Capital Outlay 311 

XVIII Disbursements for White Elementary Schools 312 

XIX Disbursements for White High Schools 313 

XX Pupils Attending, Belonging; Teachers; Expenditures in 

Junior, Junior-Senior High Schools 314 

XXI Disbursements for Colored Elementary Schools 315 

XXII Disbursements for Colored High Schools 316 

XXIII Receipts and Expenditures from Other than County Funds 

of County Colored Schools 317 

XXIV Receipts and Expenditures from Other than County Funds 

of County White Schools 318-319 

XXV Cost, Enrollment, Attendance, Graduates, Courses in In- 
dividual County High Schools 320-325 

XXVI Enrollment by Subject in Individual County High Schools.. 326-331 



290 



1938 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



FINANCIAL STATEMENT 
For Fiscal Year Ended September 30, 1938 



Account 



State Teachers College, Towson . . . 

State Teachers College, Frostburg . 

State Teachers College, Salisbury . 

State Teachers College, Bowie .... 

State Department of Education . . . 

Bureau of Educational Measure- 
ments 

Bureau of Publications and Print- 
ing 

Physical Education and Recreation 

Vocational Education 

Vocational Rehabilitation 

State Board of Education 

Consultant Architect 

Medical Examination of Teachers . 

State Aid for Handicapped Children 

State Aid to Approved High Schools 

Part Payment of Salaries of School 
Officials 

State Aid to Colored Industrial 
Schools 

Free Textbooks and Materials of 
Instruction 

Equalization Fund 

Fund Distributed on Basis of Cen- 
sus and Attendance 

Fund Distributed to Reduce Taxes . 

Totals 

Teachers Retirement System: 

County Teachers 

Baltimore City Teachers 

Expense Fund 

Totals 



State 
Appropriation 



$136,962.50 
48,130.00 
47,487.00 
37,210.00 
63,683.00 

10,491.50 

4,500.00 
15,000.00 
9,440.25 
15,293.50 
800.00 
750.00 
1,700.00 
15,000.00 
560,829.00 

183,479.00 

27,000.00 

250,000.00 
1,105,511.75 

1,800,000.00 
1,250,000.00 



$5,583,267.50 



e2,533.00 
e422,355.00 
11,450.00 



$6,019,605.50 



Receipts from 
Fees, Federal 

Aid, Other 
Sources, and 

by Budget 
Amendment 



i$87,813.91 
28,555.28 
a45,487.67 
a27,765.20 
a924.80 

dl,200.73 

a914.77 
d2,390.13 
al0,300.01 
18,867.98 
a200.00 



a2.00 
dl,566.98 



$225,989.46 



$225,989.46 



Refunds, 
Withdrawals 
by Budget 
Amendment 
or Returned 
to State 
Treasury 



b$942.26 
b40.36 
b2,807.81 



c2,971.54 

cl,100.00 
c2,312.40 
C731.01 
.03 
32.31 



10,967.23 
3,519.00 



18,500.75 



$43,924.70 



$43,924.70 



$5,765,332.26 



$6,201,670.26 



a Includes transfers from other items in the Public School budget as follows: Towson, 
$10,000 ; Salisbury, $3,500 ; Bowie, $9,500 ; State Dept., $913.20 ; Vocational Education, $2,400 ; 
Publications and Printing, $914.77 ; Medical Examinations, $2.00 ; State Board, $200.00. 

b Includes refunds of fees amounting to $942.05 at Towson, $2,807.75 at Salisbury, $40.00 
at Frostburg. 

c Includes reservations amounting to $2,900.00 in Educational Measurements, $1,100 in 
Publications and Printing, $2,312.40 in Physical Education, $600 in Vocational Education. 

d Includes reservations from the 1937 budget amounting to $1,200.73 in Educational Meas- 
urements ; $2,303.58 in Physical Education ; $1,566.98 in Aid to Handicapped Children. 

e In February, 1938, $600,000 additional in State bonds were received— $500,000 for County 
Teachers and $100,000 for Baltimore City Teachers. 



Financial Statements — State Dep't of Education and State 291 
Teachers Colleges 



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292 



1938 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



RECEIPTS AND DISBURSEMENTS FOR MISCELLANEOUS ITEMS 
For the Fiscal Year Ended September 30, 1938 



Receipts 



Purpose 



Bureau of Publications and Printing 
Physical Education and Recreation . 

Vocational Education 

Vocational Rehabilitation 

State Board of Education 

Consultant Architect 

Medical Examination of Teachers . . 
State Aid for Handicapped Children 
Supervision of Colored Schools 



State 
Appropria- 
tion 



Bureau of Educational Measurements $10 , 491 . 50 

4,500.00 
15,000.00 
9.440.25 
15,293.50 
800.00 
750.00 
1,700.00 
15,000.00 
250.00 



Transfers 
by Budget 
Amendment 



a$1.200.73 
914.77 
a2,303.58 
2,400.00 



200. 


00 


2. 


00 


566. 


98 



Other 
Receipts 



$86.55 
b7,900.01 
bl8,867.98 



d4, 635.83 



Disbursements 



Purpose 



Bureau of Educational Measure- 
ments 

Bureau of Publications and 

Printing 

Physical Education and Recrea- 
tion 

Vocational Education 

Vocational Rehabilitation 

State Board of Education 

Consultant Architect 

Medical Examination of Teachers 

State Aid for Handicapped 

Children 

Supervision of Colored Schools. . 



Salaries 


Traveling 
Expenses 


Miscel- 
laneous 


Budget 
Amendment 
or Returned 
to Treasury 


$7,215.83 


$48.17 


$1,456.69 

4,314.77 

8,797.19 
861.33 
21,428.53 


c$2,971.54 

cl,100.00 

c2,312.40 
C731.01 
.03 
32.31 


4,200.00 
14,999.98 
10,649.98 


2,080.54 
3,147.94 
2,082.94 
967.69 


750.00 






1,702.66 
16,566.98 










4,000.00 


885.83 









Total 
Disburse- 
ments 



$11,692.23 

5,414.77 

17,390.13 
19,740.26 
34,161.48 

1,000.00 
750.00 

1,702.00 

16,566.98 
4,885.83 



a Includes amounts reserved from 1937 budget as follows : Educational Measurements, 
$1,200.73; Physical Education and Recreation, $2,303.58; Handicapped Children. $1,566.98. 

b Includes amounts transferred from Federal Funds as follows : Vocational Education, 
$7,885.01 ; Vocational Rehabilitation, $18,867.98. 

c Includes amounts forwarded to 1939 budget as follows : Educational Measurements, 
$2,900 ; Publications and Printing, $1,100 ; Physical Education and Recreation, $2,312.40 ; 
Vocational Education. $600. 

d From General Education Board. 

Construction Accounts 



Purpose 



Bowie 



$294,545.00 



Balance, October 1, 1937 (Loan of 1931) $428.53 

Disbursements : 

Engineer's Fees $150.00 

Balance, Sept. 30, 1938 $278 . 53 

Legislative Appropriation (1937) $162 , 000 . 00 

PWA Federal Grant 132 , 545 . 00 

Total Receipts 

Disbursements : 

Construction $220,087.80 

Architects Fees 9 . 079 . 20 

Surveyors' Fees 150.00 

Resident Engineer's Salary 1 , 7 1 1 . 64 

Insurance 1,507.56 

Advertising 208.40 

Miscellaneous 18.00 

Total Disbursements 

Balance, Sept. 30, 1938 



$232,762.60 
$61,782.40 



Miscellaneous Financial Statements; Number of Schools 293 



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Enrollment in Public and Non-Public Schools 



295 



TABLE III 



Number of Pupils Reported Enrolled in Maryland Non-Public Elementary 
and Secondary Schools, for the Year Ending June 30, 1938 





White 


Colored 


County 




Enrollment 






Enrollment 




Number 
of 

Schools 


Elemen- 
tary 


Com- 
mercial 
and 
Secondary 


Number 
of 

Teachers 


Number 

of 
Schools 


Elemen- 
tary 


Com- 
mercial 
and 
Secondary 


Number 
of 

Teachers 



fCATHOLic Parish and Private Schools and Private Institutions, Fall of 1937 



Allegany 


9 


2,067 


464 


72 


. .... 








Anne Arundel . . . 


1 


309 




8 




' 76 




"2 


Baltimore 


17 


3,078 


465 


105 










Calvert 


1 


45 


11 


4 










Caroline 


1 


19 


12 


8 










Carroll 


2 


179 


41 


8 










Cecil 


1 


110 




3 


.... 










2 


310 


' *7i 


16 




i24 




"'2 


Frederick 


7 


516 


210 


50 


1 


8 




1 


Garrett 




68 




3 












1 


105 




3 


. 






. ... 




4 


327 


"56 


23 




' si 






Montgomery 


4 


413 


141 


32 


. ... 








Prince George's . 


5 


827 


65 


29 




' 88 




' ' 2 


St. Mary's 


9 


1,213 


186 


50 


2 


210 


■ ' '4 


7 


Washington .. , , 


1 


347 


65 


11 










Total Counties. . 


66 


9,933 


1,787 


425 


7 


537 


4 


15 


Baltimore City. . 


66 


29,705 


4,562 


860 


8 


1,482 


84 


64 


Total State 


132 


39,638 


6,349 


1,285 


15 


2,019 


88 


79 


*Non-Catholic Private Schools 




2 


47 




2 


.... 






.... 


Anne Arundel . . . 


8 


148 


218 


34 




" 23 






Baltimore 


13 - 


535 


690 


176 










Cecil 


5 


235 


339 


49 










Frederick 


1 


44 


1 


2 










Montgomery. . . . 


10 


492 


330 


102 










Prince George's . 


6 


170 


11 


17 










Queen Anne's. . . 


2 


32 


9 


7 










St. Mary's 


2 


14 


152 


15 










Talbot 


1 


28 




5 












3 


54 


"55 


17 










Wicomico 


2 


54 




5 










Total Counties. . 


55 


1,853 


1,805 


431 


1 


23 




1 


Baltimore City. . 


32 


2,318 


837 


302 


1 


85 


"l8 


6 


Total State 


87 


4,171 


2,642 


733 


2 


108 


18 





*Schools for Atypical Children 



Md. Tr. School for Boys . 


257 


117 


28 










Md. School for the Deaf . 


138 


35 


18 










Md. School for the Blind. 


72 


15 


16 




' '78 




"7 


Montrose School for Girls 


47 


39 


4 










Md. Tr. School for 


























82 




2 


Md. Tuberculosis 


















44 


4 


1 










Children's Rehabilitation 
















Institute 


35 


3 


11 










Reinhardt School for 


















12 




3 











t Figures furnished by Rev. John I. Barrett, Superintendent of Catholic Schools. 
* Figures furnished by principals of schools. 



296 1938 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



TABLE IV 

Number of Pupils and Teachers in Catholic Parish and Private Schools and Private 

Institutions, Fall of 1937 



County and School 



Allegany 
*S. S. Peter's and Paul's, 

Cumberland 

*St. Patrick's, Catholic Girls 
Central High, Cumberland 

*St. Mary's, Cumberland 

*St. Peter's, Westernport 

St. Michael's, Frostburg 

St. Patrick's, Mt. Savage . . . . 
*La Salle Inst., Cumberland. . 

St. Joseph's, Midland 

St. Michael's, Eckhardt 

Total 

Anne Arundel 

St. Mary's, Annapolis 

St. Mary's (Colored), 

Annapolis 

Baltimore 
*School of the Immaculate 

and Catholic High, Towson 
Our Lady of Mt. Carmel, 

Middle River 

St. Mark's, Catonsville 

St. Michael's, Overlea 

*St. Stephen's, Bradshaw 

St. Joseph's, Fullerton 

St. Rita's, Dundalk 

St. Clement's, Rosedale 

Ascension, Halethrope 

St. Charles, Pikesville 

St. Clement's, Lansdowne . . . 
*St. Charles' College H. S., 

Catonsville 

St. Agnes', Woodlawn 

Mt. de Sales Academy, 

Catonsville 

St. Vincent's Orphanage, 

Towson 

St. Joseph's, Texas 

Sacred Heart, Glyndon 

Total 



Enrollment 



Ele- 
men- 
tary 



561 

394 
329 
186 
226 
174 
7 

118 
72 



2,067 

309 
76 



281 

403 
326 
324 
201 
247 
221 
200 
177 
176 
161 



139 
24 



3,07! 



High 
and 
Com- 
mer- 
cial 



115 

67 

63 
57 

16 
146 



464 



165 



145 
65 



465 



Teach- 
ers 



16 



105 



County and School 



Calvert 

Our Lady Star of the Sea, 
Solomon's 



Caroline 

St. Gertrude's Academy, 
Ridgely 



Carroll 

*St. John's, Westminster. . . 
St. Joseph's, Taneytown . . . 

Total 

Cecil 

Parish School 

Charles 

*Sacred Heart, La Plata 

*St. Mary's, Bryantown .... 

Total 

St. Mary's (Colored), 
Bryantown 

Frederick 

*St. John's, Frederick 

St. Euphemia's, 

Emmitsburg 

St. Anthony's, Emmitsburg 
*St. Joseph's College H. S., 

Emmitsburg 

Visitation, Frederick 

St. Francis', Brunswick. . . 
Notre Dame Academy, 
Libertytown 

Total 

St. Euphemia's (Colored), 
Emmitsburg 

Garrett 

St. Peter's, Oakland 

Harford 

St. Margaret's, Bel Air. . . . 



Enrollment 



Ele- 
men- 
tary 



151 

28 



179 



110 



207 
103 



310 
124 

151 

175 
114 



is 



516 



68 
105 



* Secondary school accredited by Maryland State Board of Education. 



Enrollment in Catholic Non-Public Schools 



297 



TABLE IV— (Continued) 

Number of Pupils and Teachers in Catholic Parish and Private Schools and Private 

Institutions, Fall of 1937 



County and School 



Howard 

St. Paul's, Ellicott City. . . . 

*St. Louis', Clarksville 

St. Augustine's, Elkridge . . . 
Trinity Preparatory, 

Ilchester 

Total 

St. Augustine's (Colored), 
Ellicott City 

Montgomery 

St. Michael's, Silver Spring. 
St. Martin's, Gaithersburg . . 
Georgetown Preparatory, 

Garrett Park 

Academy of the Holy Name 

Silver Spring 

Total 

Prince George's 

St. James', Mt. Rainier. . . . 
*St. Mildred's, Laurel 

Holy Redeemer, Berwyn . . . 

St. Mary's, Marlboro 

*La Salle Hall, Ammendale. . 

Total 

St. Mary's (Colored), 

Upper Marlboro 

St. Mary's 
*St. Mary's Academy, 

Leonardtown 

*St. Michael's, Ridge 

St. Joseph's, Morganza 

Little Flower, Great Mills . . 

St. John's, Hollywood 

Holy Angels, Abell 

Our Lady, Medley's Neck . . 
Sacred Heart, Bushwood. . . 
Leonard Hall, Leonardtown 

Total 



Enrollment 



Ele- 
men- 
tary 



145 
84 
93 



327 
31 



302 
111 



413 



377 
153 
182 
115 



827 



105 
166 
201 
177 
164 
140 
120 
82 
58 



1,213 



High 
and 
Com- 
mer- 
cial 



56 



92 



141 



42 



23 



65 



127 
59 



186 



Teach 
ers 



29 



50 



County and School 



St. Mary's (Continued) 
St. Peter Claver's 

(Colored), Ridge 

St. Joseph's (Colored), 

Morganza 

Washington 
*St. Mary's, Hagerstown. . . 

Total County White 

Catholic Schools 

Total County Colored 

Catholic Schools 

Baltimore City 

*Seton 

institute of Notre Dame . . 

*Mt. St. Joseph's 

*Calvert Hall 

*Notre Dame of Maryland . 

*Loyola 

*Mt. St. Agnes' 

Mt. Washington Country 

School 

Calvert Hall Country 

School 

Visitation 

Total 

*St. Martin's 

Other White Parish Schools 
Institutions for White 
Children 

Total White 

*St. Francis' Academy 

(Colored) 

Colored Parish Schools .... 

Institutions for Colored 
Children 

Total Colored 

Total State 

White 

Colored 



Enrollment 



Ele- 
men- 
tary 



137 
73 

347 

,933 
537 



265 
42 



155 
78 



115 



717 



1,117 
27,269 



602 



29,705 



46 
1,205 



231 



1,482 



39,638 
2,019 



* Secondary school accredited by Maryland State Board of Education. 



298 



1938 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



TABLE V 

Number of Pupils and Teachers in Non-Catholic Private Elementary and Second- 
ary Schools in Maryland Counties, Year Ending June 30, 1938 



County and School 



White Schools 

Allegany 

Seventh Day Adventist . 
The Waddell School 

Total 

Anne Arundel 

fSevern 

Cochran-Bryan 

Holladay 

Annapolis Kindergarten . . 
U. S. Naval Academy 

Prep 

Primary School, U. S. 

Naval Academy 

Twenty-Four Hour Day 

School 

The Thomas School 

Total 

Baltimore 

fMcDonogh 

Garrison Forest 

Hannah More Academy . . 

St. Timothy's 

Greenwood 

Oldfield's 

Roberts-Beach 

Bluebird School 

Miss Barnhart's Kinder- 
garten 

Practice Kindergarten, 
Md. College for Women 

Sylvanside 

The Playground 

Crestmont School 

Total 

Cecil 

1 Tome Town 

-j-Tome Boarding School. . 
tWest Nottingham 

Reynold's 

Seventh Day Adventist . 

Total 

Frederick 

Buckingham School for 
Boys 



Enroll- 
ment 



Ele- 
men- 
tary 



24 

*23 



47 



|35 



27 



14.S 



313 
63 
10 

i9 

"a 

*39 

x24 

x22 
tl7 
U5 



535 



196 
10 

7 

*18 
4 



Sec- 
ond- 
ary 



102 
84 



31 



218 



281 
65 
79 
84 
62 
71 
47 



690 



95 
177 
62 



No. OF 
Teachers 



Full- 
time 



33 



235 



44 



339 



131 



43 



Part- 
time 



45 



County and School 



Montgomery 

Washington Missionary 

College 

Landon School for Boys 

Bullis School 

Countryside 

Chevy Chase Country . , 

National Park 

The Slade School 

Green Acres 

Chevy Chase 

Lady Isabel's Children's 

Studio 

Total 

Prince George's 

Briarley Military 

Academy 

Longfellow School for 
Boys 

Avondale Country 

Seventh Day Adventist, 
Laurel 

Mrs. Ballinger's Kinder- 
garten 

Seventh Day Adventist, 
Capitol Heights 

Total 

Queen Anne's 

Gunston School 

Seventh Day Adventist 

Total 

St. Mary's 

tCharlotte Hall 

fSt. Mary's Seminary. . . 

Total 

Talbot 

The Country School . . . 

Washington 

St. James' 

Misses Hoffmeier and 

Campbell 

Seventh Day Adventist 

Total 

Wicomico 

Mrs. Herold's 

Sunshine School 

Total 

Total County White 

Colored 

Anne Arundel 

Bates Kindergarten 



Enroll- 
ment 



Ele- 
men- 
tary 



Sec- 
ond- 
ary 



152 
117 



a74 

*52 



45 
a33 



:19 



492 

39 

47 
28 

23 

xl8 

15 



170 



14 



14 



28 



20 



*28 
6 



54 



*32 
*22 



54 
1,853 



x23 



146 
43 
75 



47 



1!) 



330 



11 



No. OF 
Teachers 



Full- 
time 



102 
50 



152 



55 



1,805 



t Secondary school accredited by 
land State Board of Education. 
* Includes kindergarten. 
Includes nursery school. 



Mary- 



x Kindergarten only. 

§ Nursery school only. 

% Nursery school and kindergarten. 

a Includes nursery school and kindergarten. 



Enrollment in Non-Catholic Non-Public Schools 



299 



TABLE V— (Continued) 



Number of Pupils and Teachers in Non-Catholic Private Elementary and 
Secondary Schools in Baltimore City, Year Ending June 30, 1938 









Number of 


School 


Enrollment 


Teachers 












Elemen- 




Full- 


Part- 




tary 


Secondary 


time 


time 


White Schools 












a269 


135 


27 


2 




180 


127 


30 


4 




°193 


107 


26 


9 




*260 




19 


4 




o 1 7 A 
8.1 1 4 


1 O 


ID 




Park School 


al46 


66 


13 


1 




loo 


1U 


10 


2 


Salvation Army Day Nursery 


§122 




8 


2 




66 


"54 


7 


11 


Boys' Latin School 


48 


69 


10 


2 


fFranklin Day School 


17 


88 


6 


1 




a81 




9 


4 




80 






3 


Girls' Latin School 


7 


"64 


' ' 8 


5 


fSamuel Ready 


34 


36 


4 


4 


Seventh Day Adventist 


49 


6 


3 




Nursery and Child Study Home of Maryland, Inc. . 


a54 




2 


"2 




a45 




3 


1 


Kornerstone Kindergarten 


J44 




3 






a34 




2 






*30 




2 






x30 










§26 




' "2 


" "2 


Cathedral Kindergarten 


x24 




3 






*24 




3 




Little School in Guilford 


a22 




3 


' ' 2 




°22 




2 


1 


Mrs. Eagle's Nursery School 


§17 




2 






°15 




2 






14 




1 




Northlake Kindergarten 


{13 




1 




Miss Bernstein's Kindergarten 


xlO 




1 




Total White 


2,318 


837 


228 


74 


Colored School 










Seventh Day Adventist 


85 


18 


5 


1 



t Secondary school work accredited by Maryland State Board of Education. 

* Includes kindergarten. 

Includes nursery school. 

x Kindergarten only. 

§ Nursery school only. 

+ Nursery school and kindergarten only. 

a Includes nursery school and kindergarten. 



300 1938 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



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304 



1938 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



co 



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Av. No. of Pupils and Average Salary Per Teacher; Receipts 305 
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306 1938 Report 



of Maryland State Department of Education 



s^diaaag ib 4 oj, 



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8,511.01 
3,290.86 
5,175.91 
12,741.40 
7,399.22 
7,169.57 
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2,539.93 
19,387.38 
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111,227.50 
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382,976.74 
199,821.42 
265,558.50 
118,548.31 

99,583.28 
679,275.99 
550,924.53 
103,493.85 

79,488.87 
139,835.09 
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53.10 
61.70 

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108.56 
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507.83 
80.56 
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13,074.74 

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47.55 
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318 



1938 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



TABLE 

Source of Gross Receipts and Purpose of Expenditures of 



Purpose 



Source op 



1 Balance on Hand 


$40,870 


11.3 


$151 




$10,975 


$24 


$916 


$3,820 






146,956 


40.6 


852 




63,167 




11,112 


19,104 




3 P. T. A.'s 


34,624 


9.5 


233 


$11468 


15,059 


"93 


242 


1,329 




4 Sales 


27,533 


7.6 


46 




6,772 


157 


1,089 


4,423 




5 Parents 


23,213 


6.4 






13,220 






6 Dues 


17,708 


4.9 






4,106 




*526 


1,240 




7 Parties, Dances, etc 


15,099 


4.2 






2,358 




95 


1,917 






12,009 


3.3 


'i77 




1,874 


' '68 


516 


2,072 




9 Refunds 


8,271 


2.3 


65 


1^825 


433 




82 


282 


$429 


10 Transfer from Other Organiza- 


















6,436 


1.8 


65 




4,164 






1,182 




11 Donations 


6,425 


1.8 






2,644 


" '37 


*893 


966 




12 School Publications 


6,170 


1.7 


' 20 




2,564 




329 


934 




13 Musical and Radio Programs . . . 


4,378 


1.2 






2,124 




248 


1,108 




14 Athletics 


2,484 


.7 


' 91 




920 


' *io 


2 


87 




15 Debates and Declamations 


441 


.1 






267 




69 


24 




16 Other 


9,445 


2.6 


' '46 




3,795 






2,806 




17 Total Gross Receipts 


$362,062 


100.0 


$1,746 


$12,993 


$134,442 


$389 


$16,119 


$41,294 


$429 


18 Expense or Cost 


174,155 




158 


74,461 


75 


12,054 


25,635 




19 Net Receipts 


$187,907 




$1,588 


$12,993 


$59,981 


$314 


$4,065 


$15,659 


$429 



Purpose of Expenditures 



1 Transportation of H. S. Pupils . . 


$23,213 


16 


4 






$13,220 










2 Library 


19,727 


13 


9 


$153 


$3,016 


5,592 


$81 


$1,109 


$1,612 




3 Physical Education 


13,502 


9 


5 


123 


1,552 


3,979 


53 


651 


1,440 




4 Buildings and Grounds 


11,434 


8 


1 


115 


2,321 


2,003 


66 


118 


296 




5 Cafeteria and Lunches 


8,371 


5 


9 


843 


1,200 


1,995 


21 


384 


1,007 




6 General Use 


8,019 


5 


7 


68 


150 


2,348 




149 


494 




7 Regular Classroom Instruction . . 


6,570 


4 


6 


2 


28 


545 


' ' 8 


259 


639 




8 Transfer to Other Organizations 


6,118 


4 


3 


3 




4,164 




15 


426 




9 Social Affairs, Trips, etc 


5,776 


4 


1 


47 




1,736 




93 


761 




10 Office of Principal 


4,841 


3 


4 






1,295 


"11 


149 


926 




11 Music and Art 


3,438 


2 


4 






1,495 


26 


46 


774 




12 Medical Inspection 


3,273 


2 


3 




1^322 


1,307 


13 


335 


37 




13 Graduation Exercises 


2,803 


2 





"3 




395 




117 


272 




14 Agriculture, Industrial Arts, 






















Home Economics 


2,394 


1 


7 


50 




209 






154 


$429 


15 Auditorium 


2,311 


1 


6 






791 




' *5 


306 






1,521 


1 


1 






1,230 




2 


112 




17 Commercial 


353 




3 






12 






54 




18 Cleaning and Heating 


337 




2 




'i78 


131 




'.'2 






19 Other School Purposes 


5,543 


3 


9 


' "47 


1,250 


1,539 






ljiii 




20 Other 


12,188 


8 


6 




1,976 


3,309 






503 




21 Total Expenditures 


$141,732 


100 





$1,454 


$12,993 


$47,295 


$279 


$3,434 


$10,924 


$429 


22 Balance 


46,175 






134 




12,686 


35 


631 


4,735 





Receipts and Expenditures of Other than County Funds by 319 
White Schools 



XXIV 

Other Than County Funds, 1937-38 



for White Schools 

















>> 














Item No. 


Charles 


Dorchester 


Frederick 


Garrett 


Harford 


Kent 


Montgomei 


Prince 
George's 


St. Mary's 


Somerset 


Talbot 


Washingtoi 


Wicomico 



Gross Receipts 



1 
2 
3 
4 
5 
6 
7 
8 
9 

10 
11 
12 
13 
14 
15 
16 

17 
18 

19 



$875 
362 
852 
1,997 

' 25 
693 
743 



57 
285 



96 



$5,985 
2,062 



$3,923 



$1,796 
8,877 
512 
2,435 

141 
318 
1,365 
311 

46 
237 
814 

38 
239 

8U 



$17,943 
11,745 



$6,198 



$2,450 



$2,450 



$2,450 



$2,057 



$2,057 



$2,057 



$2,029 
633 
2,922 



3,360 
2,161 
2,366 
334 



249 
235 



16 

952 



$15,257 
2,228 



$13,029 



$520 



$520 
$520 



$9 



931 



$9,931 



$9,931 



$414 

588 
137 
3,686 

710 
1,775 
1,207 
19 

250 
40 
688 
182 
986 

*776 



$11,458 
1,169 



$10,289 



$409 
94 
643 
764 

'l26 
222 

353 



2 

116 



21 



$2,750 
513 



$2,237 



$1,121 

703 
789 
1,628 

l',379 
468 
475 



178 
274 

29 
213 
8 

81 
160 



$7,506 
1,584 



$5,922 



$304 



$304 



$304 



$18,340 
39,014 
645 
4,536 
62 
6,095 
5,092 
793 



492 
684 
557 
465 
104 



$1,610 



$76,879 $1,610 
42,471 



$34,408 $1,610 



of Net Receipts 

















$9,931 










$62 






$231 


$1,100 






$818 


$520 


$979 


$270 


$316 


$142 


3,090 


$698 




800 


781 






265 






1,781 


354 


298 




702 


723 




66 


115 






2,598 






1,033 


15 


55 


' 55 


2,578 






713 


311 


$1^556 




166 






8 


167 










274 


181 




1,365 






1^564 


70 


438 




' 918 






261 


121 




$2^057 


59 






236 


66 


257 


' '28 


1,914 


' 90 






46 


600 










12 


1 


120 




731 






'l75 


290 






1^32 






155 


27 


934 




426 






78 


153 






214 








49 


4 




1,962 






57 


109 






215 






iis 


41 


414 




143 






35 


86 












20 


4 


16 


' '73 


25 






119 


173 






'i93 






1,030 


133 


103 




265 






160 


6 






485 






59 


10 


200 




533 


99 






134 












120 


770 


117 




68 






' '45 


94 














21 


13 




4 






16 








'212 










56 


. ... 


3 






11 


* 5 














' " '4 


5 










326 


175 












*335 


39 


238 


5 


'478 








521 






3^ 294 






2,046 




539 










$3,367 


$4,401 


$2,156 


$2,057 


$11,016 


$520 


$9,931 


$9,488 


$1,882 


$4,290 


$304 


$13,902 


$1,610 




. 556 


1,797 


294 




2,013 


801 


355 


1,632 




20,506 





320 



1938 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



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INDEX 



A 

Academic course, each high school, 320-325 
Administration 
General control 

Cost per pupil, 236-238 
Expenditures, 308 
Per cent for, 233-235 
Superintendents, 274 
W.P.A. program, 245 
Adult education 

Emergency program, 221-223 
Evening schools, 218-223 
Parent education, 218 
Agriculture 
Cost, 241-243 
Enrollment 

Colored, 176, 195 
Each high school, 326-331 
Evening schools, 220 
White, 89, 91-92, 95, 99, 134-135 
Failures and withdrawals, white pupils, 
106-108 

Reimbursement from Federal government 

towards, 134-135, 195, 220, 240-242 
Schools having, 89, 112-113, 326-331 
White teachers of, 112-113 
Aid from State and Federal funds to 

Bowie Normal School, 6-7, 212-214, 290-291 
Counties and Baltimore City- 
Distributed by type of fund, 1937-38, 305 
1920-1938. 226-229 

Total and per cent, 1937-38, 229-233 
State teachers colleges, 6-7, 283-286, 
290-291 

Vocational education, 134-136, 195, 220, 
240-243 
Appropriations 

County, 1938-1939, 259-263, 306 
County and State 
1920-1938, 226-229 
1937-38, 229-233, 305-306 
State 

1937- 38, 229-233, 290-292, 305 

1938- 1939, 6-7 

Approved high schools, see table of con- 
tents, 4 
Individual, 320-331 
Number 

Colored, 201-203 
White, 119-121 
Architect, consultant, 6, 290 
Art, white high schools 

Enrollment, 89, 93, 95, 102, 326-331 
Teachers of, 112-113 
Assessable basis, 263-265 
Athletics 

Colored schools, 204-206 
White schools, 214-217 



A — (Continued) 

Attendance 

Aggregate days of, 302 
Average daily, 301 
Index of 

Colored elementary, 154-155 

White elementary, 16-17 
Officers, 274, 308 
Per cent of, 301 

Colored elementary, 149-152 

Colored high, 171-172 

White elementary, 11-14 

White high, 73 
Summer school pupils, 178, 217-218 
Audiometer tests, 36 
Auxiliary agencies 

Cost per white pupil for, 239-240 

Elementary, 50-53, 57-58 

High, 133, 137-139, 144 
Expenditures for 

Colored, 195-197, 315, 316 

Total by purpose, 310 

White elementary, 312 

White high, 313 
Per cent of current expense budget, 233-235 

B 

Badge tests 

Colored, 204-205 
White, 214-216 
Bands, orchestras, glee clubs, 101-102 
Belonging, average number, 300 
By months 

Colored, 150-151 

White elementary, 12 

White high, 73 
Each high school, 320-325 
Per teacher, 304 

Colored, 185-187 

White elementary, 42-45 

White high, 125-127 
Proportion in high school 

Colored, 172 

White, 74-75 
Birth rates 

Colored, 147-148 
White, 9 

Board of Education, State, 2, 290, 292 
Bonds 

Bowie Normal School, 214 
Outstanding, 253-254 
State, for Retirement System, 6, 290 
Books and instructional materials 
Cost per white pupil, 239-240 

Elementary, 51 

High, 133-137 
Expenditures 

All schools, 309 



332 



Index 



333 



B— (Continued) 

Books and instructional materials — (Cont.) 
Expenditures — (Continued) 

Colored, 315-316 

White elementary, 312 

White high, 313 
Per cent of current expense budget, 233-235 
State aid for 

1937- 38, 305 

1938- 1939, 6 

Bowie Normal School, 6, 211-214, 290-291, 292 
Boys and girls 
Enrollment, 294 
Grade enrollment 
Colored, 155-157 
White, 17-21 
Graduates 

Elementary school 
Colored, 157-158 
White, 21-23 
High school 

Colored, 172-173 
White, 75-77 
Non-promotions 
Elementary 

Colored, 159-160, 163-164 
White, 23, 25-26, 28-29 
First grade, 28-29 
White, high school subjects 
Each subject, 103, 106-108 
One or more subjects, 102-105 
Over-ageness 
Colored, 162-163 
White, 23-25, 27 
Budget(s) 

Bowie Normal School 

1937- 38, 213, 291 

1938- 1939, 6-7 

Local, county and Baltimore City 
1920-1938, 226-229 

1937- 38, 229-233 

1938- 39, 259-263 
State public school 

1937- 38, 290-292 

1938- 1939, 6-7 
Teachers colleges 

1937- 38, 283-286, 291 

1938- 1939, 6-7 

Buildings, grounds and equipment 
Cost, 1920-1938, 227, 229 
Cost, 1937-38 
•Analyzed, 311 
By type of school, 252-253 
Number of, 293 
Sanitary inspection of, 244 
Value of school, 255-258 
Per pupil belonging 
Colored, 198-199 
White, 256-258 
Per pupil enrolled, 255 



c 

Capital outlay, school 
Cost, 1920-1938, 227, 229 
Cost, 1937-38 

By sites, buildings, equipment, 311 
By types of schools, 252-253 
Colored schools, 198 
White schools, elementary, 312 
White schools, high, 313 
Cost per white pupil belonging 
Elementary, 51, 65 
High, 133, 144 
Census and attendance fund, 6, 305 
Certificates 

Medical examinations for, 273 
Number issued, 271-273 
Child guidance clinics, 38, 63 
Classes 

Evening school, 218-223 
Federal emergency, 221-223 
Size of, 304 

Colored, 185-187 
White elementary, 42-45 
White high, 125-127 
Special for handicapped, 34-39, 178 
Summer school, Baltimore City, 217-218 
Clerks, county high schools, 113 
Clinics, mental hygiene, 38, 63 
Colleges 

Colored high school graduates 
of 1937 entering, 174-175 
of 1938 entering Bowie Normal, 172- 
173, 320-325 
Per cent of 1937 high school graduates 
entering 
Colored, 174-175 
White, 82-87 
State teachers, 275-287 

Training teachers appointed in Maryland 
counties, 1937-38 
Colored, 184 
White high, 117-119 
White high school graduates 

of 1937 entering Maryland, 86-87 
of 1938 entering State teachers, 80-81 
320-325 

Colored schools, for details see table of 

contents, 4 
Commercial subjects, white high schools 
Enrollment 

Each high school, 326-331 
Total and by county, 89, 92, 95. 99-100, 
102 

Failures and withdrawals. 106-108 
Schools having, 89, 111-112, 326-331 
Teachers, number, 111-112 
Conferences, programs of 
Attendance Officers. 274 
Superintendents, 274 



334 



Index 



C— (Continued) 

Conferences, programs of — (Continued) 
Supervisors 
Colored, 210 
White high, 144-145 
Consolidation 

Decrease in one-teacher schools 
Colored, 201-202 
White, 66-67 
Schools closed by, 293 
Transportation of pupils, 245-252 
Colored, 195-197 
White elementary, 52-53 
White high, 137-139 
Cost per pupil, 235-240 
Bowie Normal, 212-213 
Capital outlay 

White elementary, 51, 65 
White high, 133, 144 
Current expenses, 235-240 

Auxiliary agencies, white schools, 
239-240 
Elementary, 5i-53, 57-58 
High, 133, 137-139, 144 
Books and materials of instruction, 
white schools, 239-240 
Elementary, 50-51 
High, 133, 137 
Colored schools, 191-197 
Elementary schools, white, 48-53, 57-58 

By type, 49-50, 238 
General control, 236-238 
Health activities 

White elementary, 52, 57-58 
White high, 138, 144 
High schools, white, 130, 132-134, 

137-139, 144 
Individual high schools, 320-325 
Instruction, white schools, 239-240 
Elementary, 50-51 
High, 133-134, 137 
Maintenance, white schools, 239-240 
Elementary, 50-51 
High, 133-134, 137 
One-teacher schools, white, 49-50, 238 
Operation, white schools, 239-240 
Elementary, 50-51 
High, 133-134, T37 
Salaries, white schools, 239-240 
Elementary, 50-51 
High, 133-134 
Supervision, white elementary, 50-51 
Transportation, 245-249 
Colored, 196-197 
White elementary, 52-53 
White high, 137-139 
State teachers colleges, 283-286 
Costs (see expenditures) 

Courses in individual high schools, 320-325 
Crippled children, services for, 35-36, 64, 
224-225 



C— (Continued) 

Current expenses 

Cost per pupil for, 235-240 
Colored, 191-197 

Individual high schools, 320-325 
White elementary, 48-53, 57-58 
White high, 130, 132-134, 137-139, 144 
Expenditures, total, 307 
Colored, 315, 316 
White elementary, 312 
White high, 313 

D 

Dates, opening and closing of schools 

Colored elementary, 148-149 

Colored high, 170-171 

White elementary, 9-10 

White high, 72 
Days in session, 302 

Colored elementary, 148-149 

Colored high, 170-171 

White elementary, 9-10 

White high, 72 
Debt service 

1937- 38, 311 

1938- 39, 259-263 

Tax rate for, 265-267 
Dental clinics, 63 
Disbursements (see expenditures) 

E 

Elementary schools, for details see table of 

contents, 4 
Emergency adult program, 221-223 
English, high school 
Enrollment 

Colored, 175-176 

Each high school, 326-331 

White 

Per cent in each year, 88-89, 94 
Total and county, 88-89, 94 
Failures and withdrawals, white, 106-108 
Schools offering, 89, 111-112 
Teachers, number white, 111-112 
Enrollment 

Attending school in adjoining counties, 

258-259 
Bowie Normal School, 211 
Elementary 

Colored, 146-147 
White, 7-9 
Grade or Year 
Colored, 155-157 
White, 17-21 
High school 

Course, each school, 320-331 
Growth in 

Colored, 169-170 
White, 70-71 
Subject 

Colored, 175-176 



Index 



335 



E — (Continued) 

Enrollment — ( Continued) 

High school subject — (Continued) 
Each school, 326-331 
White, 88-102 

Per cent in schools offering each 
subject, 89 

Year 

Each school, 320-325 
White, per cent in English, 88-89, 94 
1925-1938, 88 
Non-public, private and parochial schools, 
295-299 
Colored, 147 
White elementary, 7-8 
White high, 71-72 
Public schools, total, 294 
State teachers colleges, 276-280 
Subject 

Colored high, 175-176 
Each high school, 326-331 
White high, 88-102 
Summer schools, pupils, 217 
Total, public schools, 294 
Equalization Fund 

1937- 38, 231, 305 

1938- 1939, 6-7 

Per cent of total current expenses, 230-232 
Evaluative Criteria of Cooperative Study of 

Secondary School Standards, 145 
Evening schools and courses, 218-223 

Emergency adult program, 221-223 

Enrollment, 179, 220 

Expenditures, 219-221, 310 

Expenditures, 307 

(see also general control, instruction, op- 
eration, maintenance, auxiliary agencies, 
fixed charges, tuition to adjoining coun- 
ties, current expenses, debt service, capi- 
tal outlay) 

Bowie Normal School, 213, 291 
Colored schools, 315, 316 
Elementary schools 

Colored. 315 

White, 312 
Evening schools, 219-221, 310 
Extra-curricular activities 

Colored. 210, 317 

White. 269-270, 318-319 
Health 

All schools, 310 

By State and county health offices, 52, 
57-59 

White elementary, 52, 57-58 
. White high, 138, 143-144 
High schools 

Colored. 316 

White, 313 
Junior and junior-senior high schools, 314 
Libraries 

All schools, 310 

White elementary, 52-53 

White high, 138-139 



E — (Continued) 

Expenditures- - ( Continued) 
Salaries 

All schools, 309 

Colored, 192-194, 315, 316 

Vocational teachers, 134-136, 195, 218- 
223, 241-243 

White elementary, 312 

White high, 130-131, 313 
Summer schools, 218, 310 
Total, by major classifications, 307 
Transportation 

All schools, 310 

Colored, 195-197 

Elementary and high, 245-249 

Elementary schools, white, 52-53 

High schools, white, 137-139 
Vocational work 

Entire program, 240-243 

Teachers' salaries, 134-136, 195, 220-221 
Extra-curricular activities 
Colored, 209-210, 317 
White, 269-270, 318-319 

F 

Failures (see non-promotions) 
Federal aid 

Adult emergency program, W. P. A., 

221-223 
N. Y. A., 214, 270-271 
P. W. A., 214, 252-253 
Vocational education, 240-243 
Salaries of teachers 
Baltimore City, 242-243 
County day 
Colored, 195 
White, 134-136 
County evening, 218-223 
W. P. A., 57, 143, 221-223, 244-245, 252 
Financial statements, 1937-38 
Bowie Normal School, 290-292 
County schools, 305-316 
State public schools, 290-292 
State teachers colleges, 290-292 
First grade non-promotions, white, 28-29 
Fixed charges 

Expenditures, 310 

Per cent of current expenses, 233-235 
French 

Enrollment 

Colored, 175-176 

Each high school, 326-331 

White, 89-91, 95, 98 
Failures and withdrawals, white. 106-108 
Schools offering, 89, 111-112, 326-331 
Teachers, white, 111-112 

G 

General control 

Cost per pupil, 236-238 

Expenditures, 308 

Per cent for, 233-235 
Glee clubs, bands, orchestras, 101-102 



336 



Index 



G — (Continued) 

Graduates 
Colored 

Elementary school, 157-158 
High school, 172-173 

Entering Bowie Normal, 172-173 
From each school, 320-325 
Occupations of, 174-175 
Normal school, 211-212 
White 

Elementary school, 21-23 
High school, 75-77 

Entering State teachers colleges, 80-81 
From each school, 320-325 
Occupations of, 82-87 
State teachers colleges, 275 
Growth in high school enrollment, teachers, 
and salaries 
Colored, 192-194 
White, 130-131 
Guidance, vocational, 7, 136, 274 

H 

Handicapped children 

Appropriation, 1938-1939, 6 
Expenditures, 35-36, 292 
Home instruction, Baltimore City, 294 
Opportunities for education of, 34-39, 178 
Receipts from the State, 305 
Transportation in Baltimore City, 247 

Health 

Activities of State Department of, 58-65 

Colored, 206-208 
Cost per pupil 

White elementary, 52, 57-58 

White high, 138, 144 
Expenditures 

All schools, 310 

By county health offices, 52, 57-59, 305, 
306 

White elementary, 52, 57-58 
White high, 138, 143-144 
High schools, for details see table of con- 
tents, 4 
Home economics 

Cost of vocational work in, 241-243 
Enrollment 

Colored, 175-176, 220 
Each high school, 326-331 
White. 89, 91-92, 95, 99, 134-135, 220 
Reimbursement from Federal government 

towards, 134-135, 195, 220 
Schools having, 89, 111-112 
Teachers of, white, 111-112 
Home instruction of pupils, 34-36, 178, 294 

I 

Incorporated towns, levy for, 261-263 
Index of school attendance 

Colored, 154-155 

White, 16-17 



I — (Continued) 

Industrial arts and education 

Cost of vocational work in industries, 

241-243 
Enrollment 

Colored, 175-176, 195, 220 
Each high school, 326-331 
White, 89, 91-92, 95, 99, 135, 220 
Reimbursement from Federal government 

towards, 134-136, 195, 220 
Schools having, 89, 111-112, 326-331 
Teachers of, white, 111-112 
Instruction 

Cost per white pupil, 239-240 
Elementary, 50-51 
High, 133-134, 137 
Expenditures 

Bowie Normal School, 213-215, 291 
Colored, 315, 316 

For salaries, supervision, books, etc., 309 
State teachers colleges, 283-286 
White elementary, 312 
White high, 313 
Per cent of current expense budget, 
233-235 

J 

Junior and junior-senior high schools 
Baltimore City, 293-294, 312-316 
Enrollment, 314 
Expenditures, 314 
Teachers 

Growth in number of white county, 

113-114 
Total number, 293, 314 

K 

Kindergarten, enrollment 
Colored, 156 
White, 19-20 

L 

Languages (see English, French, Latin) 
Late entrants 

Colored, 152, 154-155 

White, 14-15 
Latin 

Enrollment 

Colored, 175-176 

Each high school, 326-331 

White, 89-91 95, 98 

Failures and withdrawals, white, 106-108 

Schools offering, 89, 111-112 

Teachers of, white, 111-112 
Length of session, 302 

Colored elementary, 148-149 

Colored high, 170-171 

White elementary, 9-10 

White high, 72 
Levies, county, 259-263 



Index 



337 



L — (Continued) 

Libraries 

Colored schools, 197-198 
Expenditures 
All schools, 310 
White elementary, 52-53 
White high, 138-139 
Service from outside (see Library Ad- 
visory Commission) 
Library Advisory Commission, service from 
Colored. 198 

White elementary, 54-57 
White high, 140-143 
W. P. A. projects, 252 

White elementary, 57 

White high, 143 
Lip reading classes, 36 

M 

Maintenance 

Cost per white pupil for, 239-240 

Elementary, 50-51 

High, 133-134, 137 
Expenditures 

By type of repair, 310 

Colored, 315, 316 

White elementary, 312 

White high, 313 
Per cent of current expense budget, 

233-235 
W. P. A. program, 244-245 
Materials of instruction and books 
Cost per white pupil, 239-240 

Elementary, 50-51 

High, 133, 137 
Expenditures 

Colored, 315, 316 

Total, 309 

White elementary, 312 
White high, 313 
State aid for, 6, 305 
Mathematics, high school 
Enrollment 

Colored, 175-176 
Each high school, 326-331 
White. 89, 95. 97-98 
Failures and withdrawals, white, 106-10? 
Schools having. 89, 111-112, 326-331 
Teachers of, white. 111-112 
Medical examinations 
Pupils 

Colored. 206 
White. 58-63 
Teachers 

Appropriation for, 6 
Expenditures, 292 
Numbsr, 273 
Mental hygiene clinics, 38, 63 
Mentally handicapped children, 17-20, 37-39, 
178 



M— (Continued) 

Men teachers 
Colored, 184 
Total, 303 

White elementary, 42 
White high, 119 
Music, high school 
Enrollment 

Colored, 175-176 

Each high school, 326-331 

White, 89, 93, 101-102 
Orchestras, bands, etc., 101-102 
Schools having, 89, 112, 326-331 
Teachers, number of, white, 112 

N 

National Youth Administration, aid to stu- 
dents, 214, 270-271 
Night schools (see evening schools) 
Non-promotions 

Colored elementary schools, 159-164 
Subject, white high schools 
Each subject, 103, 106-108 
One or more subjects, 102-105 
White elementary schools, 23, 25-26, 28-32 
First grade, 28-29 
Number belonging. 300 
By months 

Colored, 150-151 
White elementary, 12 
White high, 73 
Each high school, 320-325 
Per teacher, 304 
Colored, 185-187 
White elementary, 42-45 
White high, 125-127 
Proportion in high school 
Colored. 172 
White. 74-75 
Nursery schools, 221-223 

o 

Occupations of high school graduates 
Colored. 174-175 
White, 82-87 
One-teacher schools 

Colored, decrease in, 200-201 

Number of, 293 

White 

Capital outlay for, 253 
Cost per pupil, 49-50, 238 
Decrease in, 66-67 
Number belonging in, 67, 300 

Per teacher, 304 
Per cent of attendance, 11-12 
Salary per teacher in, 304 
Operation 

Cost per white pupil. 239-240 
Elementary. 50-51 
High, 133-134, 137 



338 



Index 



O— (Continued) 

Operation — (Continued) 
Expenditures 

By fuel, janitors' wages, supplies, 309 
Colored, 315, 316 
White elementary, 312 
White high, 313 
Per cent of current expense budget, 
233-235 

Orchestras, bands, etc., 101-102 
Over-ageness 

Colored, 159-161, 162-163 

White, 23-25, 27 

P 

Parent-teacher associations 

Colored, 208-209 

White, 267-269 
Parochial and private schools, 295-299 

Colored, 147 

White elementary, 7-8 

White high, 71-72 
Part-payment of salaries 

1937-38, 290, 305 

1038-1939, 6 
Persistence to graduation, white 

High school, 77-80 

Towson Teachers College, 280-281 
Physical education 

Appropriation for 

1937- 38, 290, 292 

1938- 1939, 6 

Hign school enrollment 
Colored, 175-176 
Each high school, 326-331 
White, 89, 93, 95, 102 
Program 

Colored, 204-206 
White, 214-217 
Schools offering, 89, 112, 326-331 
Teachers of, white, 112 
Physical examinations (see medical 

examinations) 
Physically handicapped children, 34-37, 
38-39, 178 
Services for crippled children, 64-65 
Presidents of teachers colleges, 2, 282-283 
Private and parochial schools, 295-299 
Colored, 147 
White elementary, 7-8 
White high, 71-72 
Programs of conferences (see conferences) 
Property, valuation of 
County and City, 263-265 
School, 255-258 
Colored, 198-199 
White, 255-258 
Pupils 

Attending schools in adjoining counties, 
258-259 



P — (Continued) 

Pupils — ( Continued) 

Non-public school, 295-299 
One-teacher schools 

Colored, 200-201 

White, 66-67 
Per teacher, 304 

Colored, 185-187 

White elementary, 42-45 

White high, 125-127 
Public school 

Enrollment, 294 

Number attending, 301 

Number belonging, 300 

Per cent of attendance, 301 
Transported 

All schools, 245-252 

Colored, 195-197 

White elementary, 52-53 

White high, 137-139 
P. W. A. projects, 215, 235, 252-253 

R 

Ratio of high school to total attending and 
belonging 
Colored, 172 
White, 74-75 
Receipts from 
All sources, 306 
Federal government 

Emergency adult program, 221-223 

Evening schools, counties, 220-221 

N. Y. A., 214, 270-271 

P. W. A., 214, 252-253 

W. P. A., 57, 143, 221-223, 244-245, 252 

Teachers' salaries, counties, 134-136, 

195, 220 
Vocational education, 240-243 
Baltimore City, 242-243 
Rosenwald fund, 197-198, 292 
Sources other than public funds 
Colored schools, 209-210, 317 
White schools, 269-270, 318-319 
State 

Distributed by type of fund, 1937-38, 305 
1920-1938, 226-229 
Teachers colleges, 283-286, 291 
Total and per cent, 229-233 
Rehabilitation, vocational 
Appropriation, 1938-1939, 6 
Financial statement, 290, 292 
Services rendered, 223-225 
Resignations of teachers 
Colored, 179-180 
White elementary, 39-40 
White high, 114-115 
Retirement System, Teachers', 287-288 
Appropriation, 6 
Financial statement, 290 
Members, 287-288 
Rosenwald fund, 197-198, 292 



Index 



339 



S 

Salaries 

Attendance officers, 308 
Superintendents, 308 
Supervisors, 309 
Teachers 

Average per teacher, 304 
Colored, 187-191 
White elementary, 45-47 
White high, 127-129 
Cost per white pupil, 239-240 
Elementary, 50-51 
High, 133-134 
Per cent of school budget, 233-235 
Total, 309 

Colored elementary, 315 
Colored high, 192-194, 316 
White elementary, 312 
White high, 130-131, 313 
Sanitation projects, 244 
Science, high school 
Enrollment 

Colored, 175-176 
Each high school, 326-331 
White, 89, 95, 97-98 
Failures and withdrawals, 106-108 
Schools offering, 89, 111-112, 326-331 
White teachers of, 111-112 
Session, length of, 302 
Sex of teachers, 303 
Size of classes, 304 
Colored, 185-187 
White elementary. 42-45 
White high. 125-127 
Size of school (s) 

Colored elementary, 199-201 
Colored high, 203-204 
Each high, 320-325 
White elementary, 65-67 
White high, 121-125 
Social studies, high schools 
Enrollment 

Colored, 175-176 
Each high school, 326-331 
White, 89, 94-96 
Failures and withdrawals, 106-108 
Schools offering, 89, 111-112, 326-331 
White teachers of, 111-112 
Special classes for handicapped, 34-39, 178 
Special high school teachers, 111-112, 320-325 
Standardized tests 

Colored elementary, 165-169 
Colored high, 177 
White elementary, 32-34 
White high, 108-111 
State 

Aid to health. 58-59, 305 
Aid to schools 

Showing various school funds, 305 



S— (Continued) 

State aid to schools (Continued) 
1920-1938, 226-229 
1938-1939, 6-7 

Total and per cent, 1937-38, 229-233 
Board of Education 
Appropriations, 6-7 
Expenditures, 292 
Members, 2 
Department of Education 
Appropriations, 6-7 
Expenditures, 290-292 
Members, 2 
Department of Health 
Expenditures, 52, 57-59 
School activities, 58-65 
Colored, 206-208 
Public school budget, 6-7 
Teachers colleges, 283-286 
Teachers' Retirement System, 287-288 
Statistical tables, 293-331 
Stenography, typewriting, bookkeeping, 
99-100 

Subjects studied in high school 
Colored, 175-176 
Each high school, 326-331 
White, 89-102 

Per cent enrolled in schools offering. 89 
Summer school attendance, Baltimore City 

pupils, 178, 217-218 
Superintendents 
Conferences, 274 
Names, 2 
Salaries, 308 
Supervision, Supervisors 
Activities 
Colored, 210 

White elementary, 67-69 

White high, 144-145 
Cost per white elementary pupil for, 50-51 
Cost, salaries and expenses 

All schools, 309 

Colored elementary, 315 

White elementary, 312 

White high. 313 
Names of, white, 3 
Number of, 303 

Per cent of current expense budget. 233-235 
Survival of pupils through the grades 
Colored, 164-165 
White, 29-30 

T 

Taxable basis, 263-265 

Tax dollar, distribution of school, 233-235 
Tax rates, county. 265-267 
Teacher-pupil ratio, 304 
Teacher (s) 

Academic, high school. 111-113, 320-325 

Colleges, 275-28J. 

Number of, 3"0*3 



340 



Index 



T — (Continued) 

Teacher (s) — (Continued) 

For each high school subject, 111-113 
In schools of each type 

Colored, 315, 316 

Non-public schools, 295-299 

Public schools, 303 

White elementary, 312 

White high, 313 

White junior and junior-senior high, 
314 
Total, 303 
Sex of. 303 

Special high school, 111-113, 320-325 

Teachers' Retirement System 
Appropriations, 6 
Financial statement, 290-291 
Staff, 2 

Teachers' contributions to, 287-288 

Tests 

Athletic badge 

Colored, 204-205 

White, 214-216 
Elementary schools 

Colored, 165-169 

White, 32-34 
High schools 

Colored, 177 

White, 108-111 
Trades and industry, courses in 
Enrollment 

Colored. 175-176 

Each high school, 326-331 

White, 89, 91-92, 95, 99, 135 
Schools having, 89, 111-112, 326-331 
White teachers of, 111-112 
Training centers 

Colored normal school, 212 
State teachers colleges, 282 
Training of teachers 
At particular colleges 

Colored, 184 

White high, 117-119 
Bowie Normal School, 211-214 
State teachers colleges, 275-287 
Transportation of pupils, 245-252 
Baltimore City. 247 
Cost, 245-249. 310 

Colored, 195-197 

White elementary, 52-53 

White high, 137-139 
Cost per pupil transported. 245-249 

Colored, 196-197 

White elementary. 52-53 

White high. 137-139 
Per cent of pupils transported, 249-251 
Tuberculosis, tests for, 62 
Tuition 

Charge teachers colleges. 283-286 
To adjoining counties, 258, 311 



T— (Continued) 

Turnover in teaching staff 
Colored, 179-184 
White elementary, 39-42 
White high, 115-117 

V 

Value of 

Assessable property, 263-265 
School property used by 
Colored, 198-199 
White, 255-258 
Vocational education 
Agriculture 

Cost of Federal aid, 134-136, 195 
Enrollment, 89, 91-92, 95, 99. 134-135, 
326-331 
Appropriation, 6-7 
Baltimore City, 178, 242-243 
Cost of, 240-243 

Evening schools, 218-223, 241-243 
Financial statement, 292 
Home economics 

Cost of Federal aid, 134-135, 195 
Enrollment 

Colored schools, 195 
Evening schools, 218-223, 241-243 
White day schools, 89, 91-92, 95, 99, 
134-135, 326-331 
Industrial courses 

Cost of Federal aid, 134-136, 195, 

220, 242 
Enrollment 

Day, 89, 91-92, 95, 99, 135, 326-331 
Evening, 218-223, 241-243 
Vocational guidance, 7, 136, 274 
Vocational rehabilitation 
Appropriation, 6 
Financial statement, 290, 292 
Service rendered, 223-225 

w 

White schools (see table of contents for 
white elementary and high schools), 4 
Withdrawals of pupils 

Colored elementary, 153-155 

Teachers colleges, 280-281 

White elementary, 15-16 

White high, 103, 106-108 
W. P. A. projects, 244-245 

Emergency education program. 221-223 

Library, 57, 143, 252 

Sanitation, 244 
Work relief projects, 244-245 

Y 

Year, length of school, 302 
Colored elementary, 148-149 
Colored high, 170-171 
White elementary, 9-10 
White high, 72 



STH' 



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